# NASSCOM Reasoning Ability

Posted on :15-02-2016
NASSCOM Reasoning Ability:-

Q1. Assuming the statement given in each question to be true, point out the inference as one of the following:

(A)- True
(B)- False
(C)- Uncertain
(D)- None of the options

Statement: Only educated people can find a solution.
Inference: No uneducated person can find a solution.

A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D

Directions for Questions 2- 5:

A room of floor area 3x3 is to be fitted with tiles of size 1x1 of different colors. The black tile is in between the green and the white tiles. The blue tile is adjacent the red tile. The orange tile is adjacent the pink tile. The yellow tile is to the right (east) of the red tile, and the violet tile is to the left (west) of the orange tile.

Q2. If the blue tile is present between the green and the violet tiles, the black tile will be to the north of:

A) The blue tile
B) The red tile
C) The orange tile
D) Cannot be determined

Q3. If the orange tile is between the black and the red tiles, and the orange tile is to the north of the red tile which of the following is definitely FALSE?

A) The green tile is to the north of the violet tile.
B) The white tile is to the south of the pink tile.
C) The orange tile is to the left of the pink tile.
D) The red tile is to the left of the yellow tile.

Q4. If the yellow tile is to the north of the white tile, and the black tile is between the red and the orange tiles, where is the violet tile?

A) To the north of the green tile
B) To the west of the orange tile
C) To the east of the blue tile
D) None of the options

Q5. If the pink tile is between the yellow and the white tiles, which of the following is/are TRUE?

A) The orange tile is between the red and the black tiles.
B) The blue tile is to the east of the red tile.
C) The yellow tile is to the west of the red tile.
D) All the options

Directions for Questions 6 - 10:
Read the passage and answer the questions that follow on the basis of the information provided in the passage.

Methods of File Organization:-

Records are stored in files using a file organization that determines how the records will be stored, located, and retrieved.

Sequential organization is the simplest way to store and retrieve records in a file. In a sequential file, records are stored one after the other without concern for the actual value of the data in the records. To read a sequential file, the system always starts at the beginning of the file and reads its way up to the record, one at a time. The system does not care what data values are stored in the fields within a record. In fact, sequential files do not use physical record keys; records are accessed in order of their appearance in the file. (For this reason, analysts refer to sequential files as non-keyed files.)

In contrast to sequential organization, processing a direct-access file does require the system to start at the first record in the file. Direct-access files are keyed files. They associate a record with a specific key value and a particular storage location. All records are stored by key at the address rather than by position; if the program knows the record key, it can determine the location address of are cord and retrieve it independently of every other record in the file.

Direct addressing should have a data set with the following characteristics:
1. The key set (I.e., the range of key values assigned) is in a dense, ascending order with few unused values (unused values mean wasted storage space). Therefore few open gaps in the key values are wanted.
2. The record keys correspond to the numbers of the storage addresses: there is a storage address for each actual or possible key value in the file and there are no duplicate key values.

In a dense key list, for each key value there is a storage space with an address that is equivalent to the key. The key values are also in a close sequence; there are few skips in the sequence. This is important in the file design since, when storage is assigned for the file, it starts at the lowest value and extends to the highest key value. Skips in the range of keys results in wasted storage space. Storage must be allocated even though it will go unused.

Another problem prohibiting use of direct addressing arises when the keys for the records do not match storage addresses. Even if the analyst want to use direct addressing, it is impossible to do so if key values and addresses do not correspond. For example, if keys contain characters (e.g., a key of AB1CD), direct addressing is not possible, since there is no address for AB1CD.

When direct addressing is not possible but the direct access is necessary, the analyst specifies the alternative access method of hashing. Hashing (also called key transformation or randomizing) refers to the process of deriving a storage address from a record key. An algorithm (an arithmetic procedure) is devised to change a key value into another value that serves as a storage address.

Indexed Organization
The basic form of index includes a record key and the storage address for a record. To find a record when the storage address is unknown (as with direct address and hashing structures), it is necessary to scan the records. However, the search will be faster if an index is used, since it takes less time to search an index than an entire file of data.

An index is a separate file from the master file to which it pertains. (For this reason some of analysts refer to it as a detached index.) Each record in the index contains only two items of data: a record key and a storage address. (It does not duplicate each data item in the master file record.)

To find specific record when the file is stored under an indexed organization, this index is first searched to find the key of the record wanted. When it is found, the corresponding storage address is noted and then the program accesses the record directly. This method uses a sequential scan of the index, followed by direct access to the appropriate record. The index helps speed the search compared
with a sequential file, but it is slower than direct addressing.

Q6. The easiest way to store and retrieve records in a file is:

A) Sequential organization
B) Direct access organization
C) Hashing
D) Indexed Organisation

Q7. The sentence Direct-access files are keyed files implies that:

A) Every file has a key value associated with it
B) Every file has a particular storage position
C) Both A and B
D) None of the options

Q8. Indexed files can be:

A) Sequential
B) Non sequential
C) Both A and B
D) None of the options

Q9. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?

A) Sequential files do not assign addresses to records.
B) Sequential files assign addresses to records in a sequential way.
C) Sequential files assign addresses to records in a random way.
D) None of the options

Q10. Indexed search is used to find a file that the:

A) Index has searched
B) Record key has searched
C) Corresponding storage contains
D) All the options

Directions for Questions 11 - 13:

Study the given state diagram of an ATM (Automatic Teller Machine) system and answer the questions given below.

A small black circle represents the initial state, wait states are represented by rounded rectangles, and a small black circle surrounded by a white circle represents the final state. Transitions are represented by arrows, and reflect change of state. The event is an activity either from the user or the system that causes a change of state.

Q11. Which of the following is an example for the user event?

A) #Pressed/Display
B) Cancel Pressed
C) Enter Pressed/Validate
D) Invalid

Q12. Which of the following is an example for the system event?

A) Cancel Pressed/Clear
B) Invalid/Beep
C) Enter Pressed/Validate
D) Valid

Q13. What does the ATM system do as depicted in the state diagram?

B) Verifies the transaction
D) Prints out a mini account statement

Directions for Question 14:

In the following questions, mark
1, if statement I alone can help determine the conclusion
2, if statement II alone can help determine the conclusion
3, if statement I and II taken together can help determine the conclusion
4, if none of the statements, taken together or separately, can help determine the conclusion

Q14. Conclusion: The foundation stone for the building is laid.

Statement I: Without a foundation, a building cannot be raised.
Statement II: Ministers lay foundation stones.

A) 1
B) 2
C) 3
D) 4

Directions for Questions 15 - 18:-

Nita, Gita, Sita and Rita travelled in airplane, car, bus and train (not necessarily in that order). Sita did not travel by train. Gita travelled by car. Rita travelled neither by car nor by train. Sita could not travel by airplane due to health problems. Nita did not go by bus.

Q15. Who travelled by airplane?

A) Nita
B) Rita
C) Sita
D) Gita

Q16. Who travelled by train?

A) Nita
B) Rita
C) Sita
D) None of the options

Q17. If Gita interchanges her mode of transport with Sita, then by which mode would Gita travel?

A) Car
B) Bus
C) Airplane
D) None of the options

Q18. By which mode of transport did Sita travel?

A) Airplane
B) Train
C) Bus
D) None of the options

Q19. If RAGHU is written as GRUHA, what is the code for SHILU?

A) LSHUI
B) SILUH
C) ISULH
D) ISUHL

Directions for Question 20: Question has two statements and some conclusions. Choose the conclusion that logically follows:

Q20. All pens are books.
Some pens are pencils.

A) Some pencils are pens.
B) Some books are pencils.
C) All pens are pencils.
D) None of the options

Directions for Question 21:
In the following questions, mark
1, if statement I alone can help determine the conclusion
2, if statement II alone can help determine the conclusion
3, if statement I and II taken together can help determine the conclusion
4, if none of the statements, taken together or separately, can help determine the conclusion

Q21. Conclusion: Anand is intelligent without an education.

Statement I: Anand is not educated but he is intelligent.
Statement II: Education has not made Anand intelligent.

A) 1
B) 2
C) 3
D) 4

Directions for Question 22:

Assuming the statement given in each question to be TRUE, point out the inference as one of the following:
(A)- True
(B)- False
(C)- Uncertain
(D)- None of the options

Q22. Statement: Either Ravi goes to the market or Shyam sings a song.
Inference: Ravi did not go to the market, so Shyam must be singing.

A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D

Study the following scenario:

A class has a combination of girls and boys as students. The age of girls is less than 21 years and the age of boys is greater than 20 years. Use the following rules to assign the grades to students based upon the marks obtained by them:
A Greater than 69%
B Greater than 59 AND Less than 70%
C Greater than 34 AND Less than 60%
D Less than 35
Only students who got marks greater than 34% are eligible for the next semester. Assume that the class strength is 100.

Q23. Which of the following is the CORRECT Algorithm to calculate the total number of students who obtained Grade A?

A) STEP 1: START
STEP 2: SET stud_num equals to 1 and result equals to 0
STEP 3: IF stud_number is less than 101 THEN goto
STEP 4: IF marks of student stud_num is greater than 69% THEN goto
STEP 5 otherwise goto
STEP 7
STEP 5: INCREMENT result by 1
STEP 6: INCREMENT stud_num by 1 goto STEP 3
STEP 7:PRINT result number of students got the Grade B
STEP 8:END

B)
STEP 1: START
STEP 2: SET stud_num equals to 1 and result equals to 0
STEP 3: IF stud_number is less than 101 THEN goto STEP 4 otherwise goto STEP 7
STEP 4: IF marks of student stud_num is greater than 69% THEN goto STEP 5 otherwise goto
STEP 6
STEP 5: INCREMENT result by 1
STEP 6: INCREMENT stud_num by 1 goto STEP 3
STEP 7:PRINT result number of students got the Grade B
STEP 8:END

C)
STEP 1: START
STEP 2: SET stud_num equals to 0 and result equals to 1
STEP 3: IF stud_number is less than 100 THEN goto STEP 6 goto STEP 7
STEP 4: IF marks of student stud_num is greater than 69% THEN goto STEP 8 otherwise goto
STEP 6
STEP 5: INCREMENT result by 1
STEP 6: INCREMENT stud_num by 1 goto STEP 3
STEP 7:PRINT result number of students got the Grade B
STEP 8:END

D)
STEP 1: START
STEP 2: SET stud_num equals to 1 and result equals to 1
STEP 3: IF stud_number is less than 101 THEN goto STEP 5 goto STEP 7
STEP 4: IF marks of student stud_num is greater than 69% THEN goto STEP 6 otherwise goto
STEP 7
STEP 5: INCREMENT result by 1
STEP 6: INCREMENT stud_num by 1
STEP 7:PRINT result number of students got the Grade B
STEP 8:END

Q24. Which of the following statement types is/are essential for describing algorithms?

A) Sequence
B) Selection
C) Repetition
D) All the options

Q25. In which of the following areas do you measure the efficiency of algorithms?

A) Time
B) Precision
D) Accuracy

Q26. Which kind of testing is related to the Coding phase of SDLC?

A) Integration testing
B) System testing
C) Component testing
D) User acceptance testing

Q27. Which of the following strategies ensure that the software system will meet the requirements of the product, as well as address future requirements?

A) Software Architecture
B) Implementation
C) Specification
D) Testing

Q28. In which of the following stages does decision making phase start with a Product?

A) Dogs
B) Stars
C) Question marks
D) Cash cows

Q29. He turned up early to make sure that he had a seat _______ the plane.

A) In
B) On
C) At
D) For

Q30. Dr. Robert Scaer examines dissociation and PTSD _______ the perspective of a neurologist.

A) In
B) By
C) With
D) From

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