Calsoft Placement Papers
Placement Papers for All Companies
Calsoft Verbal Ability Paper
DIRECTIONS for the questions 1 to 4:
Read the passage and answer the question based on it.
Many scientists rely on elaborately complex and costly equipment to probe the mysteries confronting humankind. Not Melissa Hines, a behavioural scientist who is hoping to solve one of life's oldest riddles with a toy box full of police cars, jigsaw puzzles and Barbie dolls. For the past two years, Hines and her colleagues have tried to determine the origins of gender differences by capturing on videotape the squeals of delight, furrows of concentration and myriad decisions that children from 5 to 8 make while playing. Although both sexes play with all the toys available in Hines' laboratory at the University of California, the experiments confirmed what parents and more than a few aunts, uncles and nursery school teachers already know.
As a group, the boys favour sports cars and fire trucks, while the girls are drawn more often, to dolls and kitchen toys. But one batch of girls defies expectation and consistently prefers boy toys. These youngsters have a rare genetic abnormality that caused them to produce higher levels of testosterone, among other hormones, during their embryonic development. On the average, they play with the same toys as boys, in the same ways and just as often. Could it be that the high level of testosterone present in their bodies before birth has left a permanent imprint on their brains, affecting their later behaviour? Or did their parents knowing of their disorder, somehow subtly influence their choices? If the first explanation is true and biology determines the choice, Hines wonders, "Why would you evolve to want to play with a truck?"
Not so long ago, any career-minded researcher would have hesitated to ask such a question. During the feminist revolution of the 1970s, talk of inborn differences in the behaviour of men and women was distinctly unfashionable, even taboo. Men dominated fields like architecture and engineering, it was argued, because of social, not hormonal, pressures. Women had the vast majority of society's child rearing because few other options were available to them. Once sexism was abolished, so the argument ran, the world would become a perfectly equitable, androgynous place, aside from a few anatomical details.
But biology has a funny way of confounding expectations. Rather than disappear, the evidence for innate sexual differences only began to mount. In medicine, researchers documented about heart disease; what it does to women and that women have a more moderate physiological response to stress. Researchers found subtle neurological differences between the sexes, both in the brain's structure and in its functioning. In spite of another generation of parents' best efforts to give baseballs to their daughters and sewing kits to their sons, girls still flocked to dollhouses while boys clambered into tree forts. Perhaps nature is more important than nurture after all.
Even professional skeptics have been converted. "When I was younger, I believed that 100 % of sex differences were due to the environment," says Jerre Levy, professor of psychology at the University of Chicago. Her own toddler toppled that Utopian notion. "My daughter was 15 months old, and I had just dressed her in her teeny little nightie. Some guest arrived, and she came into the room, knowing full well that she looked adorable. She came in with this saucy little walk, cocking her head, blinking her eyes, especially at the men. You never saw such flirtation in your life." After 20 years spent studying the brain, Levy is convinced "I am sure there are biologically based differences in our behaviour."
Now that it is OK to admit the possibility, the search for sexual differences has expanded into nearly every branch of the life sciences. Anthropologists have debunked Margaret Mead's work on the extreme variability of gender roles in New Guinea. Psychologists are untangling the complex interplay between hormones and aggression. But the most provocative, if as yet inconclusive, discoveries of all stem from the pioneering exploration of a tiny 1.4 kg universe: the human brain. In fact, some researchers predict that the confirmation of innate differences in behaviour could lead to an unprecedented understanding of the mind. Some of the findings seem merely curious. For example, more men than women are left-handed, reflecting the dominance of the brain's right hemisphere. By contrast, more women listen equally with both ears while men favour the right one. Other revelations are bound to provoke more controversies. Psychology tests, for instance, consistently support the notion that men and women perceive the world in subtly different ways. Males excel at rotating three-dimensional objects in their heads and females are better at reading emotions of people in photographs.
A growing number of scientists believe the discrepancies reflect functional differences in the brains of men and women. If true, then some misunderstanding between the sexes may have more to do with crossed wiring than crossed tempers. Most of the gender differences that have been uncovered so far are statistically speaking, quite small. "Even the largest differences in cognitive function are not as large as the differences in male and female height," Hines notes. "You still see a lot of overlap." Otherwise, women could never read maps and men would always be left handed.
That kind of flexibility within the sexes reveals just how complex a puzzle gender actually is, requiring pieces from biology, sociology and culture. Ironically, researchers are not entirely sure how or even why humans produce sexes in the first place. Why not just one or even three - as in some species? What is clear is that the two sexes originate with distinct chromosomes. Women bear a double dose of the large X chromosome, while men usually possess a single X and a short, stumpy Y chromosome. In 1990s, British scientists reported they had identified a single gene on the Y chromosome that determines maleness. This master gene turns on a host of other genes to the complex task of turning a fetus into a boy. Without such a signal, all human embryos would develop into girls. "I have all the genes for being male except this one, and my husband has all the genes for being female," marvels evolutionary psychologist Leda Cosmides, of the University of California at Santa Barbara. "The only difference is in which genes got turned on." Yet, even this snippet of DNA is not enough to ensure a masculine result. An elevated level of the hormone testosterone is also required during the pregnancy. Where does it come from? The fetuses' own undecided testes. In those rare cases in which the tiny body does not respond to the hormone, a genetically male foetus develops sex organs that look like a clitoris and vagina rather than a penis. Such people look and act female. The influence of the sex hormones extends into the nervous system. Both males and females produce androgens, such as testosterone, and estrogens, although in different amounts. Men and women who make no testosterone generally lack a libido. Researchers suspect that an excess of testosterone before birth enables the right hemisphere to dominate the brain, resulting in left-handedness. Since testosterone levels are higher in boys than in girls, that would explain why more boys are left-handed.
Subtle sex-linked preferences have been detected as early as 52 hours after birth. In studies of 72 new-borns, University of Chicago psychologist Martha McClintock and her students found that a toe-fanning reflex was stronger in the left foot for 60% of the males, while all the females favoured their right. However, apart from such reflexes in the hands, legs and feet, the team could find no other differences in the babies' responses. One obvious place to look for gender differences is in the hypothalamus, a lusty little organ perched over the brain stem that, when sufficiently provoked, consumes a person with rage, thirst, hunger or desire and is somewhat larger in males than in females. But its size need not remain constant. Studies of tropical fish by Stanford University neurobiologist Russell Fernald reveal that certain cells in this tiny region of the brain swell markedly in an individual male whenever he comes to dominate a school. Unfortunately for the piscine pasha, the cells will also shrink if he loses control of his harem to another male. Many researchers suspect that, in humans too, sexual preferences are controlled by the hypothalamus. Based on a study of 41 autopsied brains, Simon Levay of the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in San Diego announced last summer that he had found a region in the hypothalamus that was on average, twice as large in heterosexual men as in either women or homosexual men. Levay's findings support the idea that varying hormone levels before birth may immutably stamp the developing brain in one erotic direction or another. These prenuptial fluctuations may also steer boys towards more rambunctious behaviour than girls.
June Reinisch, director of the Kinsey Institute for Researches in Sex, Gender and Reproduction at Indiana University, in a pioneering study of eight pairs of brothers and 17 pairs of sisters aged 6 to 18, uncovered a complex interplay between hormones and aggression. As a group, the young males gave more belligerent answers than did the females on a multiple-choice test in which they had to imagine their response to stressful situations. But siblings who had been exposed in-utero to synthetic anti-miscarriage hormones that mimic testosterone were the most combative of all. The affected boys proved significantly more aggressive than their unaffected brothers, and the drug-exposed girls were much contentious than their unexposed sisters. Reinisch could not determine, however, whether this childhood aggression would translate into greater ambition or competitiveness in the adult world.
Q1. According to the passage, which of the following statements is correct?
A) Hines' work confirms that boys favour sports cars and fire trucks, while the girls are drawn more often to dolls and kitchen toys.
B) Levy is sure that there are biologically based differences in our behaviour
C) Levy is correct that 100% sex differences were only due to the environment
D) Both A and B
Read the first lines of the passage.
Q2. During the feminist revolution of the 1970s,
A) During the feminist revolution of the 1970s,
B) women had the vast majority in society's child rearing field
C) Both A and B.
D) None of these
Refer to lines Read the lines “ During the feminist revolution……..were available to them .”
Q3. Which of the following statements, according to the passage, is incorrect?
A) Males excel at rotating three-dimensional objects in their heads
B) Females prove better at reading emotions of people in photographs
C) More men, than women, are left-handed, which shows the dominance of the brain's right hemisphere
D) None of these
Read the lines “ for example,……..people in photographs.”
Q4. According to the researches, as given in the passage, more boys are left-handed because
A) testosterone levels are higher in boys than in girls.
B) an excess of testosterone before birth enabled the right hemisphere to dominate the brain, resulting in left handedness.
C) Both A & B.
D) None Of these
Read the lines “ Researchers suspect that ………more boys are left handed.”
DIRECTIONS for the questions 5-6:
Choose the word which is most nearly the OPPOSITE in meaning to the word given below
'Obsequious' is an adjective meaning 'servile' or 'given to flattery'. The answer would be sharp-tongued.
'Obstreperous' means 'unruly, difficult to control/ discipline'. The word which is most nearly the opposite is ' calm'.
DIRECTIONS for the questions 7-9:
Each of these questions is followed by two arguments numbered I and II.
Decide which of the arguments is a ‘strong’ argument and which is a 'weak' argument. Mark answer as
1. if only Argument II is strong.
2. if only Argument I is strong.
3. if either Argument I or II is strong.
4. if neither Argument I nor II is strong.
Q7. Should there be only one rate of interest for term deposits of varying durations in banks?
I . No, people will refrain from keeping money for longer durations resulting into reduction of liquidity level of banks.
II. Yes, this will be much simpler for the common people and they may be encouraged to keep more money in banks.
In case of statement II, people keep money in the bank based on interest rates – additional information related to that would have helped. With the current level of information we cannot say that this is a strong argument.
In case of statement I, people will keep the money for a shorter time if the rates of interest are the same – hence the liquidity crisis will definitely be there.
Q8. Should all those who have come in contact with the patients' infectious respiratory disease be quarantined in their houses?
I . No, nobody should be quarantined unless they are tested and found to be infected by the virus causing the disease.
II. Yes, this is the only way to control the spread of the dreaded disease.
There is no point in quarantining a person if she is not infected. In order to find that out you will need to test her – hence argument I is strong. Given the fact related to argument I, II is a generic statement, which has lesser validity if we can do what argument I states.
Q9. Should mutual funds be brought under strict Govt. control?
I . Yes, that is one of the ways to protect the interest of the investors.
II. No, strict Govt. controls are likely to be counter productive.
If Mutual funds are made to follow a set of government controls, then the risks to investors stand reduced. Hence argument 1 can be justified. When Mutual funds make less risky investments, returns are going to be limited. Investors do not come with uniform risk profiles – some of them are ready to take higher risks attracted by higher returns. So there is a case to be made against government controls also. Obviously both cannot be simultaneously implemented.
Q10. Select the most probable antonym of ENDEMIC
D) Barring a few
‘Endemic’ means affecting a few so its opposite will be ‘universal’