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Reading Comprehension Test Questions

Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

Humans need water. If it is in short supply, conflicts can arise. Contrary to popular belief; however, these types of conflicts almost never lead to war, but rather to cooperation. Fresh water is one of the most precious of natural resources. Water is available in huge quantities throughout the world, but scarcities can arise on a local level, since rainfall, natural water reservoirs, and demand create an uneven distribution across the globe. A shortage of water can cause conflicting needs to emerge within and between countries. As early as 200 years ago, in the face of a growing population, the English political economist and demographer Thomas Malthus warned against resource scarcity and the potential for resulting social upheaval. Especially from the 1970s onwards, this gave rise to the argument that the ever-increasing overexploitation of natural resources, above all water, would ultimately lead to massive conflicts and even wars. This is why the term "water war" has come into widespread use in books, popular science texts, and statements by policy makers. In recent years, there has been a boom in assertions like these, as part of the discourse around climate change.

Research on this subject has contributed significantly to bringing such assertions back to reality. Statistical analyses of international and civil wars show that water scarcity is not a relevant variable for predicting this extreme form of conflict. Several research groups have also examined the scale of conflict and cooperation over water resources on an international and national level. Studies such as these analyze a vast number of worldwide media reports. The single most important conclusion is that social and political interactions around water resources adhere to a kind of normal distribution. Water conflicts that are fought out violently are extremely rare. Power struggles and politics have led to overt and institutionalized conflict over water - but no armed conflict, as there is over borders and statehood. No international or domestic water wars were observed in the available data dating back to the 1940s.On the other hand, water conflicts in the form of verbal disputes are relatively common. More common, however, are interactions of a cooperative nature. In other words, water scarcity more often leads to cooperation than to conflict.

The factors determining the risk of water-related conflicts have not yet been conclusively identified, though we know that the most important predictors are likely to include: political conflicts over problems that have nothing to do with water; large development gaps within and between countries; and missing or underdeveloped institutions in the water sector within and between countries. Even if water conflicts have so far, almost never resulted in armed conflicts, could acute water shortages resulting from massive climatic changes not lead to violent disputes about water in the future? This is of course conceivable in principle, but this is rather unlikely. In the vast majority of cases, the cost of armed conflict will be considerably higher than the cost of solutions reached at the negotiating table. It is important that the popular myth of water wars somehow be dispelled once and for all. This will not only stop unsettling and incorrect predictions of international conflict over water. It will also discourage a certain public resignation that climate change will bring war, and focus attention instead on what politicians can do to avoid it: most importantly, improve the conditions of trade for developing countries to strengthen their economies. And it would help to convince water engineers and managers, who still tend to see water shortages in terms of local supply and demand, that the solutions to water scarcity and security lie outside the water sector in the water/food/trade/economic development nexus. It would be great if we could unclog our stream of thought about the misleading notions of ‘water wars’.

Water management will need to adapt but the mechanisms of trade, international agreements and economic development that currently ease water shortages will persist. Instead of falling for the water war myth, it would make more sense for affected populations and their policy makers to consider research findings such as the ones referred to above to work out what is politically feasible in the short to medium term and to act accordingly. On the one hand, this means creating institutional conditions that are able to handle conflicts of interest and resolve domestic and international disputes over increasingly scarce water in an orderly and non-violent manner. Another feasible strategy is to use water resources more efficiently. This is particularly important, since a number of studies show that local overexploitation is in most cases a far more significant cause of water scarcity than climate change. UNESCO’s World Water Development Reports, for example, identify many possibilities for using water more efficiently, while access to technological innovation in poorer countries continues to play an important role.

Refer the above for the Questions 81 to 80
81. Despite water being available in huge quantities, why do water scarcities occur in many parts of the globe? Answer only with reference to the passage.




SHOW ANSWER
Correct Ans:As rainfall, natural water reservoirs, and demand create an uneven distribution.
Explanation:
By referring to the first paragraph, 'Fresh water is one of the most precious of natural resources. Water is available in huge quantities throughout the world, but scarcities can arise on a local level, since rainfall, natural water reservoirs, and demand create an uneven distribution across the globe.'.
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Directions: Read the following passage and answer the questions given below.

Sure, everyone wants to be happy. But what kind of happiness do people want? Is it happiness experienced moment-to-moment? Or is it being able to look back and remember a time as happy? Nobel Prize winner Daniel Kahneman described this distinction as 'being happy in your life' versus 'being happy about your life'. Take a moment to ask yourself, which happiness are you seeking? This might seem like a needless delineation; after all, a time experienced as happy is often also remembered as happy. An evening spent with good friends over good food and wine will be experienced and remembered happily. Similarly, an interesting project staffed with one's favourite colleagues will be fun to work on and look back on. But the two don’t always go hand in hand. A weekend spent relaxing in front of the TV will be experienced as happy in the moment, but that time won’t be memorable and may even usher feelings of guilt in hindsight. A day at the zoo with one's young children may involve many frustrating moments, but a singular moment of delight will make that day a happy memory. A week of late nights stuck at the office, while not fun exactly, will make one feel satisfied in hindsight if it results in a major achievement.
While happiness scholars have long grappled with which form of happiness should be measured and pursued, nobody has simply asked people which version of happiness they seek. But if we want to find ways to be happy, it may help to understand what type of happiness we truly want. In a series of studies, recently published in The Journal of Positive Psychologywe directly asked thousands of people (ages 18 to 81) about their preference between experienced and remembered happiness. We found that people’s preferences differed according to the length of time they were considering - and according to their culture. For Westerners, the happiness most people said they wanted for the next day was different from the happiness they said they wanted for their lifetime, even though one’s days add up to one's life. We found this interesting; if people make decisions by the hour, they may end up with a different version of happiness than what they say they want for their life.
In one study, we asked 1,145 Americans to choose between experienced happiness ('where you experience happiness on a moment-to-moment basis') and remembered happiness ('where afterwards you will reflect back and feel happy') for either a longer timeframe (i.e., their life overall or next year) or a shorter timeframe (i.e., their next day or hour). The majority of participants chose experienced happiness over remembered happiness when choosing for their life (79%) or their next year (65%). By contrast, there was a roughly even split of participants who chose experienced happiness and remembered happiness when choosing what they wanted for their next hour (49%) or day (48%).  This pattern of results was not affected by individuals’ overall happiness, impulsivity, age, household income, marital status, or parental status. After participants made their choices, we asked them to write a short paragraph explaining why. We found that those who favoured experienced happiness mostly expressed a belief in carpediem: a philosophy that one should seize the present moment because the future is uncertain and life is short. On the other hand, participants explanations for choosing remembered happiness ranged from a desire for a longer lasting happiness, to a nostalgic treasuring of memories, to the motivation to achieve in order to feel productive and proud. So people became more philosophical when asked to consider longer time periods like their life overall, and they reported wanting more happiness experienced in the moment. But when they thought about the next day or hour, it was as though a Puritan work ethic emerged - more people seemed to be willing to forfeit those moments of happiness, to put the work in now to be able to look back later and feel happy. This willingness is necessary, of course, during certain periods of life. But defaulting to it too often may lead to missing out on experiencing happiness. Those unseized moments add up, and together they may go against what many believe constitutes a happy life.
We conducted a few more studies to test the robustness of our results. In one study, we gave people different definitions of remembered happiness to see if a particular portrayal was driving the result. In another, we varied how soon the hour was that they were considering ('one hour today' vs. 'one hour toward the end of your life') to see if imminence and perhaps impatience played a role in people's preferences. In both cases, these treatments didn't change the pattern we saw: when choosing for their life, most people chose experienced happiness over remembered happiness; but when choosing for an hour, half chose remembered happiness.
Last, we wanted to test whether the pattern we saw among all of our American participants generalized to other cultures. We presented the same choice between experienced and remembered happiness, for either their next hour or for their life, to approximately 400 people in other Western countries (England and the Netherlands) and 400 in Eastern countries (China and Japan). Like Americans, when choosing for their life, the majority of Europeans (65%) chose experienced happiness over remembered happiness; but when choosing for their next hour, the Puritan work ethic appeared even more strongly with a majority (62%) choosing remembered happiness over experienced happiness. In contrast, Easterners’ preferred happiness persisted across timeframes. The majority of Easterners chose experienced happiness over remembered happiness regardless of whether choosing for their life (81%) or their next hour (84%). Why this consistency? We believe that participants in China and Japan were more clear in their preference for experienced happiness due to the long religious history in Eastern cultures of teaching the value of mindfulness and appreciating each present moment.
Our studies asked thousands of individuals which of two types of happiness - experienced or remembered - they preferred. We found that the answer depends on whether people are considering the short pieces of their life or their life overall, and where they are from. Though the pursuit of happiness is so fundamental as to be called an inalienable right, the particular form of happiness individuals pursue is surprisingly malleable. It's important to note that while this research helps us understand people's beliefs about which happiness is preferable, it does not prescribe which form of happiness would be better to pursue. But these results reveal that Westerners planning their lives by the day or the hour will likely achieve a different version of happiness than what they themselves believe makes a happy life. We are all too busy, and we are driven to turn down opportunities to constantly feel happy. But if you believe you want a life of happiness experienced in the moment, think twice before preventing yourself from achieving it.
 

Refer the above for the Questions 82 to 81
82. How much percent of Europeans choose experienced happiness over remembered happiness?




SHOW ANSWER
Correct Ans:65%
Explanation:
By referring fifth paragraph, 'Like Americans, when choosing for their life, the majority of Europeans (65%) chose experienced happiness over remembered happiness.'
Workspace



Directions: Read the following passage and answer the questions given below.

Sure, everyone wants to be happy. But what kind of happiness do people want? Is it happiness experienced moment-to-moment? Or is it being able to look back and remember a time as happy? Nobel Prize winner Daniel Kahneman described this distinction as 'being happy in your life' versus 'being happy about your life'. Take a moment to ask yourself, which happiness are you seeking? This might seem like a needless delineation; after all, a time experienced as happy is often also remembered as happy. An evening spent with good friends over good food and wine will be experienced and remembered happily. Similarly, an interesting project staffed with one's favourite colleagues will be fun to work on and look back on. But the two don’t always go hand in hand. A weekend spent relaxing in front of the TV will be experienced as happy in the moment, but that time won’t be memorable and may even usher feelings of guilt in hindsight. A day at the zoo with one's young children may involve many frustrating moments, but a singular moment of delight will make that day a happy memory. A week of late nights stuck at the office, while not fun exactly, will make one feel satisfied in hindsight if it results in a major achievement.
While happiness scholars have long grappled with which form of happiness should be measured and pursued, nobody has simply asked people which version of happiness they seek. But if we want to find ways to be happy, it may help to understand what type of happiness we truly want. In a series of studies, recently published in The Journal of Positive Psychologywe directly asked thousands of people (ages 18 to 81) about their preference between experienced and remembered happiness. We found that people’s preferences differed according to the length of time they were considering - and according to their culture. For Westerners, the happiness most people said they wanted for the next day was different from the happiness they said they wanted for their lifetime, even though one’s days add up to one's life. We found this interesting; if people make decisions by the hour, they may end up with a different version of happiness than what they say they want for their life.
In one study, we asked 1,145 Americans to choose between experienced happiness ('where you experience happiness on a moment-to-moment basis') and remembered happiness ('where afterwards you will reflect back and feel happy') for either a longer timeframe (i.e., their life overall or next year) or a shorter timeframe (i.e., their next day or hour). The majority of participants chose experienced happiness over remembered happiness when choosing for their life (79%) or their next year (65%). By contrast, there was a roughly even split of participants who chose experienced happiness and remembered happiness when choosing what they wanted for their next hour (49%) or day (48%).  This pattern of results was not affected by individuals’ overall happiness, impulsivity, age, household income, marital status, or parental status. After participants made their choices, we asked them to write a short paragraph explaining why. We found that those who favoured experienced happiness mostly expressed a belief in carpediem: a philosophy that one should seize the present moment because the future is uncertain and life is short. On the other hand, participants explanations for choosing remembered happiness ranged from a desire for a longer lasting happiness, to a nostalgic treasuring of memories, to the motivation to achieve in order to feel productive and proud. So people became more philosophical when asked to consider longer time periods like their life overall, and they reported wanting more happiness experienced in the moment. But when they thought about the next day or hour, it was as though a Puritan work ethic emerged - more people seemed to be willing to forfeit those moments of happiness, to put the work in now to be able to look back later and feel happy. This willingness is necessary, of course, during certain periods of life. But defaulting to it too often may lead to missing out on experiencing happiness. Those unseized moments add up, and together they may go against what many believe constitutes a happy life.
We conducted a few more studies to test the robustness of our results. In one study, we gave people different definitions of remembered happiness to see if a particular portrayal was driving the result. In another, we varied how soon the hour was that they were considering ('one hour today' vs. 'one hour toward the end of your life') to see if imminence and perhaps impatience played a role in people's preferences. In both cases, these treatments didn't change the pattern we saw: when choosing for their life, most people chose experienced happiness over remembered happiness; but when choosing for an hour, half chose remembered happiness.
Last, we wanted to test whether the pattern we saw among all of our American participants generalized to other cultures. We presented the same choice between experienced and remembered happiness, for either their next hour or for their life, to approximately 400 people in other Western countries (England and the Netherlands) and 400 in Eastern countries (China and Japan). Like Americans, when choosing for their life, the majority of Europeans (65%) chose experienced happiness over remembered happiness; but when choosing for their next hour, the Puritan work ethic appeared even more strongly with a majority (62%) choosing remembered happiness over experienced happiness. In contrast, Easterners’ preferred happiness persisted across timeframes. The majority of Easterners chose experienced happiness over remembered happiness regardless of whether choosing for their life (81%) or their next hour (84%). Why this consistency? We believe that participants in China and Japan were more clear in their preference for experienced happiness due to the long religious history in Eastern cultures of teaching the value of mindfulness and appreciating each present moment.
Our studies asked thousands of individuals which of two types of happiness - experienced or remembered - they preferred. We found that the answer depends on whether people are considering the short pieces of their life or their life overall, and where they are from. Though the pursuit of happiness is so fundamental as to be called an inalienable right, the particular form of happiness individuals pursue is surprisingly malleable. It's important to note that while this research helps us understand people's beliefs about which happiness is preferable, it does not prescribe which form of happiness would be better to pursue. But these results reveal that Westerners planning their lives by the day or the hour will likely achieve a different version of happiness than what they themselves believe makes a happy life. We are all too busy, and we are driven to turn down opportunities to constantly feel happy. But if you believe you want a life of happiness experienced in the moment, think twice before preventing yourself from achieving it.
 

Refer the above for the Questions 83 to 82
83. What is carpiedem mentioned in the passage?




SHOW ANSWER
Correct Ans:Seeking happiness in present as future is unpredictable
Explanation:
By referring third paragraph, 'We found that those who favoured experienced happiness mostly expressed a belief in carpediem: a philosophy that one should seize the present moment because the future is uncertain and life is short.'
Workspace



Directions: Read the following passage and answer the questions given below.

Sure, everyone wants to be happy. But what kind of happiness do people want? Is it happiness experienced moment-to-moment? Or is it being able to look back and remember a time as happy? Nobel Prize winner Daniel Kahneman described this distinction as 'being happy in your life' versus 'being happy about your life'. Take a moment to ask yourself, which happiness are you seeking? This might seem like a needless delineation; after all, a time experienced as happy is often also remembered as happy. An evening spent with good friends over good food and wine will be experienced and remembered happily. Similarly, an interesting project staffed with one's favourite colleagues will be fun to work on and look back on. But the two don’t always go hand in hand. A weekend spent relaxing in front of the TV will be experienced as happy in the moment, but that time won’t be memorable and may even usher feelings of guilt in hindsight. A day at the zoo with one's young children may involve many frustrating moments, but a singular moment of delight will make that day a happy memory. A week of late nights stuck at the office, while not fun exactly, will make one feel satisfied in hindsight if it results in a major achievement.
While happiness scholars have long grappled with which form of happiness should be measured and pursued, nobody has simply asked people which version of happiness they seek. But if we want to find ways to be happy, it may help to understand what type of happiness we truly want. In a series of studies, recently published in The Journal of Positive Psychologywe directly asked thousands of people (ages 18 to 81) about their preference between experienced and remembered happiness. We found that people’s preferences differed according to the length of time they were considering - and according to their culture. For Westerners, the happiness most people said they wanted for the next day was different from the happiness they said they wanted for their lifetime, even though one’s days add up to one's life. We found this interesting; if people make decisions by the hour, they may end up with a different version of happiness than what they say they want for their life.
In one study, we asked 1,145 Americans to choose between experienced happiness ('where you experience happiness on a moment-to-moment basis') and remembered happiness ('where afterwards you will reflect back and feel happy') for either a longer timeframe (i.e., their life overall or next year) or a shorter timeframe (i.e., their next day or hour). The majority of participants chose experienced happiness over remembered happiness when choosing for their life (79%) or their next year (65%). By contrast, there was a roughly even split of participants who chose experienced happiness and remembered happiness when choosing what they wanted for their next hour (49%) or day (48%).  This pattern of results was not affected by individuals’ overall happiness, impulsivity, age, household income, marital status, or parental status. After participants made their choices, we asked them to write a short paragraph explaining why. We found that those who favoured experienced happiness mostly expressed a belief in carpediem: a philosophy that one should seize the present moment because the future is uncertain and life is short. On the other hand, participants explanations for choosing remembered happiness ranged from a desire for a longer lasting happiness, to a nostalgic treasuring of memories, to the motivation to achieve in order to feel productive and proud. So people became more philosophical when asked to consider longer time periods like their life overall, and they reported wanting more happiness experienced in the moment. But when they thought about the next day or hour, it was as though a Puritan work ethic emerged - more people seemed to be willing to forfeit those moments of happiness, to put the work in now to be able to look back later and feel happy. This willingness is necessary, of course, during certain periods of life. But defaulting to it too often may lead to missing out on experiencing happiness. Those unseized moments add up, and together they may go against what many believe constitutes a happy life.
We conducted a few more studies to test the robustness of our results. In one study, we gave people different definitions of remembered happiness to see if a particular portrayal was driving the result. In another, we varied how soon the hour was that they were considering ('one hour today' vs. 'one hour toward the end of your life') to see if imminence and perhaps impatience played a role in people's preferences. In both cases, these treatments didn't change the pattern we saw: when choosing for their life, most people chose experienced happiness over remembered happiness; but when choosing for an hour, half chose remembered happiness.
Last, we wanted to test whether the pattern we saw among all of our American participants generalized to other cultures. We presented the same choice between experienced and remembered happiness, for either their next hour or for their life, to approximately 400 people in other Western countries (England and the Netherlands) and 400 in Eastern countries (China and Japan). Like Americans, when choosing for their life, the majority of Europeans (65%) chose experienced happiness over remembered happiness; but when choosing for their next hour, the Puritan work ethic appeared even more strongly with a majority (62%) choosing remembered happiness over experienced happiness. In contrast, Easterners’ preferred happiness persisted across timeframes. The majority of Easterners chose experienced happiness over remembered happiness regardless of whether choosing for their life (81%) or their next hour (84%). Why this consistency? We believe that participants in China and Japan were more clear in their preference for experienced happiness due to the long religious history in Eastern cultures of teaching the value of mindfulness and appreciating each present moment.
Our studies asked thousands of individuals which of two types of happiness - experienced or remembered - they preferred. We found that the answer depends on whether people are considering the short pieces of their life or their life overall, and where they are from. Though the pursuit of happiness is so fundamental as to be called an inalienable right, the particular form of happiness individuals pursue is surprisingly malleable. It's important to note that while this research helps us understand people's beliefs about which happiness is preferable, it does not prescribe which form of happiness would be better to pursue. But these results reveal that Westerners planning their lives by the day or the hour will likely achieve a different version of happiness than what they themselves believe makes a happy life. We are all too busy, and we are driven to turn down opportunities to constantly feel happy. But if you believe you want a life of happiness experienced in the moment, think twice before preventing yourself from achieving it.
 

Refer the above for the Questions 84 to 83
84. What age group people are mainly questioned in the survey?




SHOW ANSWER
Correct Ans:18 - 81
Explanation:
By referring the second paragraph, 'In a series of studies, recently published in The Journal of Positive Psychology, we directly asked thousands of people (ages 18 to 81) about their preference between experienced and remembered happiness.'
Workspace



Directions: Read the following passage and answer the questions given below.

Sure, everyone wants to be happy. But what kind of happiness do people want? Is it happiness experienced moment-to-moment? Or is it being able to look back and remember a time as happy? Nobel Prize winner Daniel Kahneman described this distinction as 'being happy in your life' versus 'being happy about your life'. Take a moment to ask yourself, which happiness are you seeking? This might seem like a needless delineation; after all, a time experienced as happy is often also remembered as happy. An evening spent with good friends over good food and wine will be experienced and remembered happily. Similarly, an interesting project staffed with one's favourite colleagues will be fun to work on and look back on. But the two don’t always go hand in hand. A weekend spent relaxing in front of the TV will be experienced as happy in the moment, but that time won’t be memorable and may even usher feelings of guilt in hindsight. A day at the zoo with one's young children may involve many frustrating moments, but a singular moment of delight will make that day a happy memory. A week of late nights stuck at the office, while not fun exactly, will make one feel satisfied in hindsight if it results in a major achievement.
While happiness scholars have long grappled with which form of happiness should be measured and pursued, nobody has simply asked people which version of happiness they seek. But if we want to find ways to be happy, it may help to understand what type of happiness we truly want. In a series of studies, recently published in The Journal of Positive Psychologywe directly asked thousands of people (ages 18 to 81) about their preference between experienced and remembered happiness. We found that people’s preferences differed according to the length of time they were considering - and according to their culture. For Westerners, the happiness most people said they wanted for the next day was different from the happiness they said they wanted for their lifetime, even though one’s days add up to one's life. We found this interesting; if people make decisions by the hour, they may end up with a different version of happiness than what they say they want for their life.
In one study, we asked 1,145 Americans to choose between experienced happiness ('where you experience happiness on a moment-to-moment basis') and remembered happiness ('where afterwards you will reflect back and feel happy') for either a longer timeframe (i.e., their life overall or next year) or a shorter timeframe (i.e., their next day or hour). The majority of participants chose experienced happiness over remembered happiness when choosing for their life (79%) or their next year (65%). By contrast, there was a roughly even split of participants who chose experienced happiness and remembered happiness when choosing what they wanted for their next hour (49%) or day (48%).  This pattern of results was not affected by individuals’ overall happiness, impulsivity, age, household income, marital status, or parental status. After participants made their choices, we asked them to write a short paragraph explaining why. We found that those who favoured experienced happiness mostly expressed a belief in carpediem: a philosophy that one should seize the present moment because the future is uncertain and life is short. On the other hand, participants explanations for choosing remembered happiness ranged from a desire for a longer lasting happiness, to a nostalgic treasuring of memories, to the motivation to achieve in order to feel productive and proud. So people became more philosophical when asked to consider longer time periods like their life overall, and they reported wanting more happiness experienced in the moment. But when they thought about the next day or hour, it was as though a Puritan work ethic emerged - more people seemed to be willing to forfeit those moments of happiness, to put the work in now to be able to look back later and feel happy. This willingness is necessary, of course, during certain periods of life. But defaulting to it too often may lead to missing out on experiencing happiness. Those unseized moments add up, and together they may go against what many believe constitutes a happy life.
We conducted a few more studies to test the robustness of our results. In one study, we gave people different definitions of remembered happiness to see if a particular portrayal was driving the result. In another, we varied how soon the hour was that they were considering ('one hour today' vs. 'one hour toward the end of your life') to see if imminence and perhaps impatience played a role in people's preferences. In both cases, these treatments didn't change the pattern we saw: when choosing for their life, most people chose experienced happiness over remembered happiness; but when choosing for an hour, half chose remembered happiness.
Last, we wanted to test whether the pattern we saw among all of our American participants generalized to other cultures. We presented the same choice between experienced and remembered happiness, for either their next hour or for their life, to approximately 400 people in other Western countries (England and the Netherlands) and 400 in Eastern countries (China and Japan). Like Americans, when choosing for their life, the majority of Europeans (65%) chose experienced happiness over remembered happiness; but when choosing for their next hour, the Puritan work ethic appeared even more strongly with a majority (62%) choosing remembered happiness over experienced happiness. In contrast, Easterners’ preferred happiness persisted across timeframes. The majority of Easterners chose experienced happiness over remembered happiness regardless of whether choosing for their life (81%) or their next hour (84%). Why this consistency? We believe that participants in China and Japan were more clear in their preference for experienced happiness due to the long religious history in Eastern cultures of teaching the value of mindfulness and appreciating each present moment.
Our studies asked thousands of individuals which of two types of happiness - experienced or remembered - they preferred. We found that the answer depends on whether people are considering the short pieces of their life or their life overall, and where they are from. Though the pursuit of happiness is so fundamental as to be called an inalienable right, the particular form of happiness individuals pursue is surprisingly malleable. It's important to note that while this research helps us understand people's beliefs about which happiness is preferable, it does not prescribe which form of happiness would be better to pursue. But these results reveal that Westerners planning their lives by the day or the hour will likely achieve a different version of happiness than what they themselves believe makes a happy life. We are all too busy, and we are driven to turn down opportunities to constantly feel happy. But if you believe you want a life of happiness experienced in the moment, think twice before preventing yourself from achieving it.
 

Refer the above for the Questions 85 to 84
85. On which of the following theme the survey mainly concentrated?




SHOW ANSWER
Correct Ans:Which happiness we truly want
Explanation:
By referring the second paragraph, 'But if we want to find ways to be happy, it may help to understand what type of happiness we truly want.'
Workspace



Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the question given below it. Certain words are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the question.

There is a sense of gloom pervading India’s $150-billion information technology (IT) industry, which earned India $88 billion in foreign exchange in 2015-16 through the exports of software and IT-enabled services (ITeS). According to data from the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), the rate of growth of the combined exports of software and ITeS fell from 20.8 per cent in 2012-13 to 14.9 per cent in 2014-15 and to a low of 7.3 per cent in 2015-16. Global circumstances combined with the specific nature of India’s IT prowess seem to be responsible for this fall. India’s IT industry recorded remarkable growth over a long period because it exploited an outsourcing opportunity by perfecting a global delivery model for software and ITeS based on cheap skilled labour. That opportunity was offered by the cost-cutting imperatives facing the corporate sector in the United States and elsewhere.

As a result, IT industry revenues grew in double digits, with export earnings accounting for a large share of those revenues. Employment grew rapidly, albeit from a low base and at a lower pace than revenues. And a service industry to support the IT sector’s growth grew around the principal centres of its activity, suggesting that despite the absence of physical production the sector had backward linkages through which it delivered some economy-wide benefits. This combination of the characteristics of India’s IT success not only gave the industry a position of privilege in the economy but made it the symbol of India’s ostensible post-globalisation success.

However, there were a number of features of that model that made it vulnerable to changes in circumstances. To start with, it had a high degree of dependence on exports for growth, with the U.S. accounting for a very large share of those exports, followed by the European Union (E.U.) at a distant second. At the turn of the century, the U.S. market accounted for close to two-thirds of India’s IT exports and the E.U. for about a quarter, and even in 2015-16, the U.S. was first with 62 per cent and Europe second with 24 per cent. Little had changed for the industry.

Secondly, software services (or code writing and customisation of different levels of sophistication) and ITeS, rather than IT products, accounted for an overwhelming share of revenues. To garner those revenues, a workforce with essential IT skills and familiarity with English, communication infrastructure, and the requisite organisation were the necessary ingredients. But sustaining those revenues required constant attention to cost competitiveness, which encouraged automation of the routine activities that constitute an important part of the industry’s operations.

Thirdly, this output composition required combining offshore delivery with local services provision to understand client requirements and customize services and even run operations. So, on-site work remained an important component of the industry’s activity. In 2002-03, 48 per cent of India’s exports of IT services was through the medium of a commercial presence on foreign soil and another 13.5 per cent through the presence of natural persons. By 2015-16 those figures had come down to 18.9 per cent and 16.1 per cent respectively. But the local presence, which ensured provision of 35 per cent of the value services that had risen in value from Rs. 31,100 crore to Rs.5,76,310 crore between 2002-03 and 2015-16, was undoubtedly large and crucial to the industry’s performance.

Finally, a few firms (such as Tata Consultancy Services (TCS), Infosys and Wipro) account for a very large share of the industry’s revenues, drawing attention to their operations and brand as happened in the U.S. recently.

Refer the above for the Questions 86 to 85
86. Choose the word/group of words which is most opposite in meaning to the word "Customize" printed in bold as used in passage.




SHOW ANSWER
Correct Ans:Broaden
Explanation:
Customize means modify (something) to suit a particular individual or task. Hence 'broaden' is the word most opposite in meaning to it.
Sustenance means the maintaining of someone or something in life or existence.
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Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the question given below it. Certain words are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the question.

There is a sense of gloom pervading India’s $150-billion information technology (IT) industry, which earned India $88 billion in foreign exchange in 2015-16 through the exports of software and IT-enabled services (ITeS). According to data from the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), the rate of growth of the combined exports of software and ITeS fell from 20.8 per cent in 2012-13 to 14.9 per cent in 2014-15 and to a low of 7.3 per cent in 2015-16. Global circumstances combined with the specific nature of India’s IT prowess seem to be responsible for this fall. India’s IT industry recorded remarkable growth over a long period because it exploited an outsourcing opportunity by perfecting a global delivery model for software and ITeS based on cheap skilled labour. That opportunity was offered by the cost-cutting imperatives facing the corporate sector in the United States and elsewhere.

As a result, IT industry revenues grew in double digits, with export earnings accounting for a large share of those revenues. Employment grew rapidly, albeit from a low base and at a lower pace than revenues. And a service industry to support the IT sector’s growth grew around the principal centres of its activity, suggesting that despite the absence of physical production the sector had backward linkages through which it delivered some economy-wide benefits. This combination of the characteristics of India’s IT success not only gave the industry a position of privilege in the economy but made it the symbol of India’s ostensible post-globalisation success.

However, there were a number of features of that model that made it vulnerable to changes in circumstances. To start with, it had a high degree of dependence on exports for growth, with the U.S. accounting for a very large share of those exports, followed by the European Union (E.U.) at a distant second. At the turn of the century, the U.S. market accounted for close to two-thirds of India’s IT exports and the E.U. for about a quarter, and even in 2015-16, the U.S. was first with 62 per cent and Europe second with 24 per cent. Little had changed for the industry.

Secondly, software services (or code writing and customisation of different levels of sophistication) and ITeS, rather than IT products, accounted for an overwhelming share of revenues. To garner those revenues, a workforce with essential IT skills and familiarity with English, communication infrastructure, and the requisite organisation were the necessary ingredients. But sustaining those revenues required constant attention to cost competitiveness, which encouraged automation of the routine activities that constitute an important part of the industry’s operations.

Thirdly, this output composition required combining offshore delivery with local services provision to understand client requirements and customize services and even run operations. So, on-site work remained an important component of the industry’s activity. In 2002-03, 48 per cent of India’s exports of IT services was through the medium of a commercial presence on foreign soil and another 13.5 per cent through the presence of natural persons. By 2015-16 those figures had come down to 18.9 per cent and 16.1 per cent respectively. But the local presence, which ensured provision of 35 per cent of the value services that had risen in value from Rs. 31,100 crore to Rs.5,76,310 crore between 2002-03 and 2015-16, was undoubtedly large and crucial to the industry’s performance.

Finally, a few firms (such as Tata Consultancy Services (TCS), Infosys and Wipro) account for a very large share of the industry’s revenues, drawing attention to their operations and brand as happened in the U.S. recently.

Refer the above for the Questions 87 to 86
87. Choose the word/group of words which is most opposite in meaning to the word "Ostensible" printed in bold as used in passage.




SHOW ANSWER
Correct Ans:Genuine
Explanation:
Ostensible means stated or appearing to be true, but not necessarily so. Hence 'genuine' is the word most opposite in meaning to it.
Avowed means that has been asserted, admitted, or stated publicly.
Workspace



Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the question given below it. Certain words are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the question.

There is a sense of gloom pervading India’s $150-billion information technology (IT) industry, which earned India $88 billion in foreign exchange in 2015-16 through the exports of software and IT-enabled services (ITeS). According to data from the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), the rate of growth of the combined exports of software and ITeS fell from 20.8 per cent in 2012-13 to 14.9 per cent in 2014-15 and to a low of 7.3 per cent in 2015-16. Global circumstances combined with the specific nature of India’s IT prowess seem to be responsible for this fall. India’s IT industry recorded remarkable growth over a long period because it exploited an outsourcing opportunity by perfecting a global delivery model for software and ITeS based on cheap skilled labour. That opportunity was offered by the cost-cutting imperatives facing the corporate sector in the United States and elsewhere.

As a result, IT industry revenues grew in double digits, with export earnings accounting for a large share of those revenues. Employment grew rapidly, albeit from a low base and at a lower pace than revenues. And a service industry to support the IT sector’s growth grew around the principal centres of its activity, suggesting that despite the absence of physical production the sector had backward linkages through which it delivered some economy-wide benefits. This combination of the characteristics of India’s IT success not only gave the industry a position of privilege in the economy but made it the symbol of India’s ostensible post-globalisation success.

However, there were a number of features of that model that made it vulnerable to changes in circumstances. To start with, it had a high degree of dependence on exports for growth, with the U.S. accounting for a very large share of those exports, followed by the European Union (E.U.) at a distant second. At the turn of the century, the U.S. market accounted for close to two-thirds of India’s IT exports and the E.U. for about a quarter, and even in 2015-16, the U.S. was first with 62 per cent and Europe second with 24 per cent. Little had changed for the industry.

Secondly, software services (or code writing and customisation of different levels of sophistication) and ITeS, rather than IT products, accounted for an overwhelming share of revenues. To garner those revenues, a workforce with essential IT skills and familiarity with English, communication infrastructure, and the requisite organisation were the necessary ingredients. But sustaining those revenues required constant attention to cost competitiveness, which encouraged automation of the routine activities that constitute an important part of the industry’s operations.

Thirdly, this output composition required combining offshore delivery with local services provision to understand client requirements and customize services and even run operations. So, on-site work remained an important component of the industry’s activity. In 2002-03, 48 per cent of India’s exports of IT services was through the medium of a commercial presence on foreign soil and another 13.5 per cent through the presence of natural persons. By 2015-16 those figures had come down to 18.9 per cent and 16.1 per cent respectively. But the local presence, which ensured provision of 35 per cent of the value services that had risen in value from Rs. 31,100 crore to Rs.5,76,310 crore between 2002-03 and 2015-16, was undoubtedly large and crucial to the industry’s performance.

Finally, a few firms (such as Tata Consultancy Services (TCS), Infosys and Wipro) account for a very large share of the industry’s revenues, drawing attention to their operations and brand as happened in the U.S. recently.

Refer the above for the Questions 88 to 87
88. Choose the word/group of words which is most similar in meaning to the word "Imperative" printed in bold as used in passage.




SHOW ANSWER
Correct Ans:Vital
Explanation:
Imperative means a factor or influence making something necessary. Hence 'vital' is the word most similar in meaning to it.
Supple means bending and moving easily and gracefully; flexible.
Mercurial means subject to sudden or unpredictable changes of mood or mind.
Workspace



Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the question given below it. Certain words are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the question.

There is a sense of gloom pervading India’s $150-billion information technology (IT) industry, which earned India $88 billion in foreign exchange in 2015-16 through the exports of software and IT-enabled services (ITeS). According to data from the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), the rate of growth of the combined exports of software and ITeS fell from 20.8 per cent in 2012-13 to 14.9 per cent in 2014-15 and to a low of 7.3 per cent in 2015-16. Global circumstances combined with the specific nature of India’s IT prowess seem to be responsible for this fall. India’s IT industry recorded remarkable growth over a long period because it exploited an outsourcing opportunity by perfecting a global delivery model for software and ITeS based on cheap skilled labour. That opportunity was offered by the cost-cutting imperatives facing the corporate sector in the United States and elsewhere.

As a result, IT industry revenues grew in double digits, with export earnings accounting for a large share of those revenues. Employment grew rapidly, albeit from a low base and at a lower pace than revenues. And a service industry to support the IT sector’s growth grew around the principal centres of its activity, suggesting that despite the absence of physical production the sector had backward linkages through which it delivered some economy-wide benefits. This combination of the characteristics of India’s IT success not only gave the industry a position of privilege in the economy but made it the symbol of India’s ostensible post-globalisation success.

However, there were a number of features of that model that made it vulnerable to changes in circumstances. To start with, it had a high degree of dependence on exports for growth, with the U.S. accounting for a very large share of those exports, followed by the European Union (E.U.) at a distant second. At the turn of the century, the U.S. market accounted for close to two-thirds of India’s IT exports and the E.U. for about a quarter, and even in 2015-16, the U.S. was first with 62 per cent and Europe second with 24 per cent. Little had changed for the industry.

Secondly, software services (or code writing and customisation of different levels of sophistication) and ITeS, rather than IT products, accounted for an overwhelming share of revenues. To garner those revenues, a workforce with essential IT skills and familiarity with English, communication infrastructure, and the requisite organisation were the necessary ingredients. But sustaining those revenues required constant attention to cost competitiveness, which encouraged automation of the routine activities that constitute an important part of the industry’s operations.

Thirdly, this output composition required combining offshore delivery with local services provision to understand client requirements and customize services and even run operations. So, on-site work remained an important component of the industry’s activity. In 2002-03, 48 per cent of India’s exports of IT services was through the medium of a commercial presence on foreign soil and another 13.5 per cent through the presence of natural persons. By 2015-16 those figures had come down to 18.9 per cent and 16.1 per cent respectively. But the local presence, which ensured provision of 35 per cent of the value services that had risen in value from Rs. 31,100 crore to Rs.5,76,310 crore between 2002-03 and 2015-16, was undoubtedly large and crucial to the industry’s performance.

Finally, a few firms (such as Tata Consultancy Services (TCS), Infosys and Wipro) account for a very large share of the industry’s revenues, drawing attention to their operations and brand as happened in the U.S. recently.

Refer the above for the Questions 89 to 88
89. Choose the word/group of words which is most similar in meaning to the word "Garner" printed in bold as used in passage.




SHOW ANSWER
Correct Ans:Amass
Explanation:
Garner means gather or collect (something, especially information or approval). Hence "amass" is the word most similar in meaning to it.
Workspace



Directions: Read the following passage and answer the questions given below.

Sure, everyone wants to be happy. But what kind of happiness do people want? Is it happiness experienced moment-to-moment? Or is it being able to look back and remember a time as happy? Nobel Prize winner Daniel Kahneman described this distinction as 'being happy in your life' versus 'being happy about your life'. Take a moment to ask yourself, which happiness are you seeking? This might seem like a needless delineation; after all, a time experienced as happy is often also remembered as happy. An evening spent with good friends over good food and wine will be experienced and remembered happily. Similarly, an interesting project staffed with one's favourite colleagues will be fun to work on and look back on. But the two don’t always go hand in hand. A weekend spent relaxing in front of the TV will be experienced as happy in the moment, but that time won’t be memorable and may even usher feelings of guilt in hindsight. A day at the zoo with one's young children may involve many frustrating moments, but a singular moment of delight will make that day a happy memory. A week of late nights stuck at the office, while not fun exactly, will make one feel satisfied in hindsight if it results in a major achievement.
While happiness scholars have long grappled with which form of happiness should be measured and pursued, nobody has simply asked people which version of happiness they seek. But if we want to find ways to be happy, it may help to understand what type of happiness we truly want. In a series of studies, recently published in The Journal of Positive Psychologywe directly asked thousands of people (ages 18 to 81) about their preference between experienced and remembered happiness. We found that people’s preferences differed according to the length of time they were considering - and according to their culture. For Westerners, the happiness most people said they wanted for the next day was different from the happiness they said they wanted for their lifetime, even though one’s days add up to one's life. We found this interesting; if people make decisions by the hour, they may end up with a different version of happiness than what they say they want for their life.
In one study, we asked 1,145 Americans to choose between experienced happiness ('where you experience happiness on a moment-to-moment basis') and remembered happiness ('where afterwards you will reflect back and feel happy') for either a longer timeframe (i.e., their life overall or next year) or a shorter timeframe (i.e., their next day or hour). The majority of participants chose experienced happiness over remembered happiness when choosing for their life (79%) or their next year (65%). By contrast, there was a roughly even split of participants who chose experienced happiness and remembered happiness when choosing what they wanted for their next hour (49%) or day (48%).  This pattern of results was not affected by individuals’ overall happiness, impulsivity, age, household income, marital status, or parental status. After participants made their choices, we asked them to write a short paragraph explaining why. We found that those who favoured experienced happiness mostly expressed a belief in carpediem: a philosophy that one should seize the present moment because the future is uncertain and life is short. On the other hand, participants explanations for choosing remembered happiness ranged from a desire for a longer lasting happiness, to a nostalgic treasuring of memories, to the motivation to achieve in order to feel productive and proud. So people became more philosophical when asked to consider longer time periods like their life overall, and they reported wanting more happiness experienced in the moment. But when they thought about the next day or hour, it was as though a Puritan work ethic emerged - more people seemed to be willing to forfeit those moments of happiness, to put the work in now to be able to look back later and feel happy. This willingness is necessary, of course, during certain periods of life. But defaulting to it too often may lead to missing out on experiencing happiness. Those unseized moments add up, and together they may go against what many believe constitutes a happy life.
We conducted a few more studies to test the robustness of our results. In one study, we gave people different definitions of remembered happiness to see if a particular portrayal was driving the result. In another, we varied how soon the hour was that they were considering ('one hour today' vs. 'one hour toward the end of your life') to see if imminence and perhaps impatience played a role in people's preferences. In both cases, these treatments didn't change the pattern we saw: when choosing for their life, most people chose experienced happiness over remembered happiness; but when choosing for an hour, half chose remembered happiness.
Last, we wanted to test whether the pattern we saw among all of our American participants generalized to other cultures. We presented the same choice between experienced and remembered happiness, for either their next hour or for their life, to approximately 400 people in other Western countries (England and the Netherlands) and 400 in Eastern countries (China and Japan). Like Americans, when choosing for their life, the majority of Europeans (65%) chose experienced happiness over remembered happiness; but when choosing for their next hour, the Puritan work ethic appeared even more strongly with a majority (62%) choosing remembered happiness over experienced happiness. In contrast, Easterners’ preferred happiness persisted across timeframes. The majority of Easterners chose experienced happiness over remembered happiness regardless of whether choosing for their life (81%) or their next hour (84%). Why this consistency? We believe that participants in China and Japan were more clear in their preference for experienced happiness due to the long religious history in Eastern cultures of teaching the value of mindfulness and appreciating each present moment.
Our studies asked thousands of individuals which of two types of happiness - experienced or remembered - they preferred. We found that the answer depends on whether people are considering the short pieces of their life or their life overall, and where they are from. Though the pursuit of happiness is so fundamental as to be called an inalienable right, the particular form of happiness individuals pursue is surprisingly malleable. It's important to note that while this research helps us understand people's beliefs about which happiness is preferable, it does not prescribe which form of happiness would be better to pursue. But these results reveal that Westerners planning their lives by the day or the hour will likely achieve a different version of happiness than what they themselves believe makes a happy life. We are all too busy, and we are driven to turn down opportunities to constantly feel happy. But if you believe you want a life of happiness experienced in the moment, think twice before preventing yourself from achieving it.
 

Refer the above for the Questions 90 to 89
90. Which of the following is closest meaning of the word 'Delineation' mentioned in the passage?




SHOW ANSWER
Correct Ans:All of the above
Explanation:
Delineation - the action of describing or portraying something precisely.
All the given options are correcct answer.
Workspace



Directions: Read the following passage and answer the questions given below.

Sure, everyone wants to be happy. But what kind of happiness do people want? Is it happiness experienced moment-to-moment? Or is it being able to look back and remember a time as happy? Nobel Prize winner Daniel Kahneman described this distinction as 'being happy in your life' versus 'being happy about your life'. Take a moment to ask yourself, which happiness are you seeking? This might seem like a needless delineation; after all, a time experienced as happy is often also remembered as happy. An evening spent with good friends over good food and wine will be experienced and remembered happily. Similarly, an interesting project staffed with one's favourite colleagues will be fun to work on and look back on. But the two don’t always go hand in hand. A weekend spent relaxing in front of the TV will be experienced as happy in the moment, but that time won’t be memorable and may even usher feelings of guilt in hindsight. A day at the zoo with one's young children may involve many frustrating moments, but a singular moment of delight will make that day a happy memory. A week of late nights stuck at the office, while not fun exactly, will make one feel satisfied in hindsight if it results in a major achievement.
While happiness scholars have long grappled with which form of happiness should be measured and pursued, nobody has simply asked people which version of happiness they seek. But if we want to find ways to be happy, it may help to understand what type of happiness we truly want. In a series of studies, recently published in The Journal of Positive Psychologywe directly asked thousands of people (ages 18 to 81) about their preference between experienced and remembered happiness. We found that people’s preferences differed according to the length of time they were considering - and according to their culture. For Westerners, the happiness most people said they wanted for the next day was different from the happiness they said they wanted for their lifetime, even though one’s days add up to one's life. We found this interesting; if people make decisions by the hour, they may end up with a different version of happiness than what they say they want for their life.
In one study, we asked 1,145 Americans to choose between experienced happiness ('where you experience happiness on a moment-to-moment basis') and remembered happiness ('where afterwards you will reflect back and feel happy') for either a longer timeframe (i.e., their life overall or next year) or a shorter timeframe (i.e., their next day or hour). The majority of participants chose experienced happiness over remembered happiness when choosing for their life (79%) or their next year (65%). By contrast, there was a roughly even split of participants who chose experienced happiness and remembered happiness when choosing what they wanted for their next hour (49%) or day (48%).  This pattern of results was not affected by individuals’ overall happiness, impulsivity, age, household income, marital status, or parental status. After participants made their choices, we asked them to write a short paragraph explaining why. We found that those who favoured experienced happiness mostly expressed a belief in carpediem: a philosophy that one should seize the present moment because the future is uncertain and life is short. On the other hand, participants explanations for choosing remembered happiness ranged from a desire for a longer lasting happiness, to a nostalgic treasuring of memories, to the motivation to achieve in order to feel productive and proud. So people became more philosophical when asked to consider longer time periods like their life overall, and they reported wanting more happiness experienced in the moment. But when they thought about the next day or hour, it was as though a Puritan work ethic emerged - more people seemed to be willing to forfeit those moments of happiness, to put the work in now to be able to look back later and feel happy. This willingness is necessary, of course, during certain periods of life. But defaulting to it too often may lead to missing out on experiencing happiness. Those unseized moments add up, and together they may go against what many believe constitutes a happy life.
We conducted a few more studies to test the robustness of our results. In one study, we gave people different definitions of remembered happiness to see if a particular portrayal was driving the result. In another, we varied how soon the hour was that they were considering ('one hour today' vs. 'one hour toward the end of your life') to see if imminence and perhaps impatience played a role in people's preferences. In both cases, these treatments didn't change the pattern we saw: when choosing for their life, most people chose experienced happiness over remembered happiness; but when choosing for an hour, half chose remembered happiness.
Last, we wanted to test whether the pattern we saw among all of our American participants generalized to other cultures. We presented the same choice between experienced and remembered happiness, for either their next hour or for their life, to approximately 400 people in other Western countries (England and the Netherlands) and 400 in Eastern countries (China and Japan). Like Americans, when choosing for their life, the majority of Europeans (65%) chose experienced happiness over remembered happiness; but when choosing for their next hour, the Puritan work ethic appeared even more strongly with a majority (62%) choosing remembered happiness over experienced happiness. In contrast, Easterners’ preferred happiness persisted across timeframes. The majority of Easterners chose experienced happiness over remembered happiness regardless of whether choosing for their life (81%) or their next hour (84%). Why this consistency? We believe that participants in China and Japan were more clear in their preference for experienced happiness due to the long religious history in Eastern cultures of teaching the value of mindfulness and appreciating each present moment.
Our studies asked thousands of individuals which of two types of happiness - experienced or remembered - they preferred. We found that the answer depends on whether people are considering the short pieces of their life or their life overall, and where they are from. Though the pursuit of happiness is so fundamental as to be called an inalienable right, the particular form of happiness individuals pursue is surprisingly malleable. It's important to note that while this research helps us understand people's beliefs about which happiness is preferable, it does not prescribe which form of happiness would be better to pursue. But these results reveal that Westerners planning their lives by the day or the hour will likely achieve a different version of happiness than what they themselves believe makes a happy life. We are all too busy, and we are driven to turn down opportunities to constantly feel happy. But if you believe you want a life of happiness experienced in the moment, think twice before preventing yourself from achieving it.
 

Refer the above for the Questions 91 to 90
91. Which of the following is closest meaning of the word 'Robustness' mentioned in the passage?




SHOW ANSWER
Correct Ans:Strength
Explanation:
Robustness - the quality or condition of being strong and in good condition.
Hence, strength is the closest meaning of the word.
Workspace



Directions: Read the following passage and answer the questions given below.

Sure, everyone wants to be happy. But what kind of happiness do people want? Is it happiness experienced moment-to-moment? Or is it being able to look back and remember a time as happy? Nobel Prize winner Daniel Kahneman described this distinction as 'being happy in your life' versus 'being happy about your life'. Take a moment to ask yourself, which happiness are you seeking? This might seem like a needless delineation; after all, a time experienced as happy is often also remembered as happy. An evening spent with good friends over good food and wine will be experienced and remembered happily. Similarly, an interesting project staffed with one's favourite colleagues will be fun to work on and look back on. But the two don’t always go hand in hand. A weekend spent relaxing in front of the TV will be experienced as happy in the moment, but that time won’t be memorable and may even usher feelings of guilt in hindsight. A day at the zoo with one's young children may involve many frustrating moments, but a singular moment of delight will make that day a happy memory. A week of late nights stuck at the office, while not fun exactly, will make one feel satisfied in hindsight if it results in a major achievement.
While happiness scholars have long grappled with which form of happiness should be measured and pursued, nobody has simply asked people which version of happiness they seek. But if we want to find ways to be happy, it may help to understand what type of happiness we truly want. In a series of studies, recently published in The Journal of Positive Psychologywe directly asked thousands of people (ages 18 to 81) about their preference between experienced and remembered happiness. We found that people’s preferences differed according to the length of time they were considering - and according to their culture. For Westerners, the happiness most people said they wanted for the next day was different from the happiness they said they wanted for their lifetime, even though one’s days add up to one's life. We found this interesting; if people make decisions by the hour, they may end up with a different version of happiness than what they say they want for their life.
In one study, we asked 1,145 Americans to choose between experienced happiness ('where you experience happiness on a moment-to-moment basis') and remembered happiness ('where afterwards you will reflect back and feel happy') for either a longer timeframe (i.e., their life overall or next year) or a shorter timeframe (i.e., their next day or hour). The majority of participants chose experienced happiness over remembered happiness when choosing for their life (79%) or their next year (65%). By contrast, there was a roughly even split of participants who chose experienced happiness and remembered happiness when choosing what they wanted for their next hour (49%) or day (48%).  This pattern of results was not affected by individuals’ overall happiness, impulsivity, age, household income, marital status, or parental status. After participants made their choices, we asked them to write a short paragraph explaining why. We found that those who favoured experienced happiness mostly expressed a belief in carpediem: a philosophy that one should seize the present moment because the future is uncertain and life is short. On the other hand, participants explanations for choosing remembered happiness ranged from a desire for a longer lasting happiness, to a nostalgic treasuring of memories, to the motivation to achieve in order to feel productive and proud. So people became more philosophical when asked to consider longer time periods like their life overall, and they reported wanting more happiness experienced in the moment. But when they thought about the next day or hour, it was as though a Puritan work ethic emerged - more people seemed to be willing to forfeit those moments of happiness, to put the work in now to be able to look back later and feel happy. This willingness is necessary, of course, during certain periods of life. But defaulting to it too often may lead to missing out on experiencing happiness. Those unseized moments add up, and together they may go against what many believe constitutes a happy life.
We conducted a few more studies to test the robustness of our results. In one study, we gave people different definitions of remembered happiness to see if a particular portrayal was driving the result. In another, we varied how soon the hour was that they were considering ('one hour today' vs. 'one hour toward the end of your life') to see if imminence and perhaps impatience played a role in people's preferences. In both cases, these treatments didn't change the pattern we saw: when choosing for their life, most people chose experienced happiness over remembered happiness; but when choosing for an hour, half chose remembered happiness.
Last, we wanted to test whether the pattern we saw among all of our American participants generalized to other cultures. We presented the same choice between experienced and remembered happiness, for either their next hour or for their life, to approximately 400 people in other Western countries (England and the Netherlands) and 400 in Eastern countries (China and Japan). Like Americans, when choosing for their life, the majority of Europeans (65%) chose experienced happiness over remembered happiness; but when choosing for their next hour, the Puritan work ethic appeared even more strongly with a majority (62%) choosing remembered happiness over experienced happiness. In contrast, Easterners’ preferred happiness persisted across timeframes. The majority of Easterners chose experienced happiness over remembered happiness regardless of whether choosing for their life (81%) or their next hour (84%). Why this consistency? We believe that participants in China and Japan were more clear in their preference for experienced happiness due to the long religious history in Eastern cultures of teaching the value of mindfulness and appreciating each present moment.
Our studies asked thousands of individuals which of two types of happiness - experienced or remembered - they preferred. We found that the answer depends on whether people are considering the short pieces of their life or their life overall, and where they are from. Though the pursuit of happiness is so fundamental as to be called an inalienable right, the particular form of happiness individuals pursue is surprisingly malleable. It's important to note that while this research helps us understand people's beliefs about which happiness is preferable, it does not prescribe which form of happiness would be better to pursue. But these results reveal that Westerners planning their lives by the day or the hour will likely achieve a different version of happiness than what they themselves believe makes a happy life. We are all too busy, and we are driven to turn down opportunities to constantly feel happy. But if you believe you want a life of happiness experienced in the moment, think twice before preventing yourself from achieving it.
 

Refer the above for the Questions 92 to 91
92. Which of the following is closest meaning of the word 'Inalienability' mentioned in the passage?




SHOW ANSWER
Correct Ans:Indefeasible
Explanation:
Inalienability - incapable of being alienated, surrendered, or transferred.
Hence, indefeasible is the closest meaning of the word.
Workspace



Directions: Read the following passage and answer the questions given below.

Sure, everyone wants to be happy. But what kind of happiness do people want? Is it happiness experienced moment-to-moment? Or is it being able to look back and remember a time as happy? Nobel Prize winner Daniel Kahneman described this distinction as 'being happy in your life' versus 'being happy about your life'. Take a moment to ask yourself, which happiness are you seeking? This might seem like a needless delineation; after all, a time experienced as happy is often also remembered as happy. An evening spent with good friends over good food and wine will be experienced and remembered happily. Similarly, an interesting project staffed with one's favourite colleagues will be fun to work on and look back on. But the two don’t always go hand in hand. A weekend spent relaxing in front of the TV will be experienced as happy in the moment, but that time won’t be memorable and may even usher feelings of guilt in hindsight. A day at the zoo with one's young children may involve many frustrating moments, but a singular moment of delight will make that day a happy memory. A week of late nights stuck at the office, while not fun exactly, will make one feel satisfied in hindsight if it results in a major achievement.
While happiness scholars have long grappled with which form of happiness should be measured and pursued, nobody has simply asked people which version of happiness they seek. But if we want to find ways to be happy, it may help to understand what type of happiness we truly want. In a series of studies, recently published in The Journal of Positive Psychologywe directly asked thousands of people (ages 18 to 81) about their preference between experienced and remembered happiness. We found that people’s preferences differed according to the length of time they were considering - and according to their culture. For Westerners, the happiness most people said they wanted for the next day was different from the happiness they said they wanted for their lifetime, even though one’s days add up to one's life. We found this interesting; if people make decisions by the hour, they may end up with a different version of happiness than what they say they want for their life.
In one study, we asked 1,145 Americans to choose between experienced happiness ('where you experience happiness on a moment-to-moment basis') and remembered happiness ('where afterwards you will reflect back and feel happy') for either a longer timeframe (i.e., their life overall or next year) or a shorter timeframe (i.e., their next day or hour). The majority of participants chose experienced happiness over remembered happiness when choosing for their life (79%) or their next year (65%). By contrast, there was a roughly even split of participants who chose experienced happiness and remembered happiness when choosing what they wanted for their next hour (49%) or day (48%).  This pattern of results was not affected by individuals’ overall happiness, impulsivity, age, household income, marital status, or parental status. After participants made their choices, we asked them to write a short paragraph explaining why. We found that those who favoured experienced happiness mostly expressed a belief in carpediem: a philosophy that one should seize the present moment because the future is uncertain and life is short. On the other hand, participants explanations for choosing remembered happiness ranged from a desire for a longer lasting happiness, to a nostalgic treasuring of memories, to the motivation to achieve in order to feel productive and proud. So people became more philosophical when asked to consider longer time periods like their life overall, and they reported wanting more happiness experienced in the moment. But when they thought about the next day or hour, it was as though a Puritan work ethic emerged - more people seemed to be willing to forfeit those moments of happiness, to put the work in now to be able to look back later and feel happy. This willingness is necessary, of course, during certain periods of life. But defaulting to it too often may lead to missing out on experiencing happiness. Those unseized moments add up, and together they may go against what many believe constitutes a happy life.
We conducted a few more studies to test the robustness of our results. In one study, we gave people different definitions of remembered happiness to see if a particular portrayal was driving the result. In another, we varied how soon the hour was that they were considering ('one hour today' vs. 'one hour toward the end of your life') to see if imminence and perhaps impatience played a role in people's preferences. In both cases, these treatments didn't change the pattern we saw: when choosing for their life, most people chose experienced happiness over remembered happiness; but when choosing for an hour, half chose remembered happiness.
Last, we wanted to test whether the pattern we saw among all of our American participants generalized to other cultures. We presented the same choice between experienced and remembered happiness, for either their next hour or for their life, to approximately 400 people in other Western countries (England and the Netherlands) and 400 in Eastern countries (China and Japan). Like Americans, when choosing for their life, the majority of Europeans (65%) chose experienced happiness over remembered happiness; but when choosing for their next hour, the Puritan work ethic appeared even more strongly with a majority (62%) choosing remembered happiness over experienced happiness. In contrast, Easterners’ preferred happiness persisted across timeframes. The majority of Easterners chose experienced happiness over remembered happiness regardless of whether choosing for their life (81%) or their next hour (84%). Why this consistency? We believe that participants in China and Japan were more clear in their preference for experienced happiness due to the long religious history in Eastern cultures of teaching the value of mindfulness and appreciating each present moment.
Our studies asked thousands of individuals which of two types of happiness - experienced or remembered - they preferred. We found that the answer depends on whether people are considering the short pieces of their life or their life overall, and where they are from. Though the pursuit of happiness is so fundamental as to be called an inalienable right, the particular form of happiness individuals pursue is surprisingly malleable. It's important to note that while this research helps us understand people's beliefs about which happiness is preferable, it does not prescribe which form of happiness would be better to pursue. But these results reveal that Westerners planning their lives by the day or the hour will likely achieve a different version of happiness than what they themselves believe makes a happy life. We are all too busy, and we are driven to turn down opportunities to constantly feel happy. But if you believe you want a life of happiness experienced in the moment, think twice before preventing yourself from achieving it.
 

Refer the above for the Questions 93 to 92
93. Which of the following is closest meaning of the word 'Impulsivity' mentioned in the passage?




SHOW ANSWER
Correct Ans:Dilemma
Explanation:
Impulsivity - Actions done without planning or without consideration of consequences.
Hence, dilemma is the closest meaning of the word.
Workspace



Directions: Read the following passage and answer the questions given below.

Sure, everyone wants to be happy. But what kind of happiness do people want? Is it happiness experienced moment-to-moment? Or is it being able to look back and remember a time as happy? Nobel Prize winner Daniel Kahneman described this distinction as 'being happy in your life' versus 'being happy about your life'. Take a moment to ask yourself, which happiness are you seeking? This might seem like a needless delineation; after all, a time experienced as happy is often also remembered as happy. An evening spent with good friends over good food and wine will be experienced and remembered happily. Similarly, an interesting project staffed with one's favourite colleagues will be fun to work on and look back on. But the two don’t always go hand in hand. A weekend spent relaxing in front of the TV will be experienced as happy in the moment, but that time won’t be memorable and may even usher feelings of guilt in hindsight. A day at the zoo with one's young children may involve many frustrating moments, but a singular moment of delight will make that day a happy memory. A week of late nights stuck at the office, while not fun exactly, will make one feel satisfied in hindsight if it results in a major achievement.
While happiness scholars have long grappled with which form of happiness should be measured and pursued, nobody has simply asked people which version of happiness they seek. But if we want to find ways to be happy, it may help to understand what type of happiness we truly want. In a series of studies, recently published in The Journal of Positive Psychologywe directly asked thousands of people (ages 18 to 81) about their preference between experienced and remembered happiness. We found that people’s preferences differed according to the length of time they were considering - and according to their culture. For Westerners, the happiness most people said they wanted for the next day was different from the happiness they said they wanted for their lifetime, even though one’s days add up to one's life. We found this interesting; if people make decisions by the hour, they may end up with a different version of happiness than what they say they want for their life.
In one study, we asked 1,145 Americans to choose between experienced happiness ('where you experience happiness on a moment-to-moment basis') and remembered happiness ('where afterwards you will reflect back and feel happy') for either a longer timeframe (i.e., their life overall or next year) or a shorter timeframe (i.e., their next day or hour). The majority of participants chose experienced happiness over remembered happiness when choosing for their life (79%) or their next year (65%). By contrast, there was a roughly even split of participants who chose experienced happiness and remembered happiness when choosing what they wanted for their next hour (49%) or day (48%).  This pattern of results was not affected by individuals’ overall happiness, impulsivity, age, household income, marital status, or parental status. After participants made their choices, we asked them to write a short paragraph explaining why. We found that those who favoured experienced happiness mostly expressed a belief in carpediem: a philosophy that one should seize the present moment because the future is uncertain and life is short. On the other hand, participants explanations for choosing remembered happiness ranged from a desire for a longer lasting happiness, to a nostalgic treasuring of memories, to the motivation to achieve in order to feel productive and proud. So people became more philosophical when asked to consider longer time periods like their life overall, and they reported wanting more happiness experienced in the moment. But when they thought about the next day or hour, it was as though a Puritan work ethic emerged - more people seemed to be willing to forfeit those moments of happiness, to put the work in now to be able to look back later and feel happy. This willingness is necessary, of course, during certain periods of life. But defaulting to it too often may lead to missing out on experiencing happiness. Those unseized moments add up, and together they may go against what many believe constitutes a happy life.
We conducted a few more studies to test the robustness of our results. In one study, we gave people different definitions of remembered happiness to see if a particular portrayal was driving the result. In another, we varied how soon the hour was that they were considering ('one hour today' vs. 'one hour toward the end of your life') to see if imminence and perhaps impatience played a role in people's preferences. In both cases, these treatments didn't change the pattern we saw: when choosing for their life, most people chose experienced happiness over remembered happiness; but when choosing for an hour, half chose remembered happiness.
Last, we wanted to test whether the pattern we saw among all of our American participants generalized to other cultures. We presented the same choice between experienced and remembered happiness, for either their next hour or for their life, to approximately 400 people in other Western countries (England and the Netherlands) and 400 in Eastern countries (China and Japan). Like Americans, when choosing for their life, the majority of Europeans (65%) chose experienced happiness over remembered happiness; but when choosing for their next hour, the Puritan work ethic appeared even more strongly with a majority (62%) choosing remembered happiness over experienced happiness. In contrast, Easterners’ preferred happiness persisted across timeframes. The majority of Easterners chose experienced happiness over remembered happiness regardless of whether choosing for their life (81%) or their next hour (84%). Why this consistency? We believe that participants in China and Japan were more clear in their preference for experienced happiness due to the long religious history in Eastern cultures of teaching the value of mindfulness and appreciating each present moment.
Our studies asked thousands of individuals which of two types of happiness - experienced or remembered - they preferred. We found that the answer depends on whether people are considering the short pieces of their life or their life overall, and where they are from. Though the pursuit of happiness is so fundamental as to be called an inalienable right, the particular form of happiness individuals pursue is surprisingly malleable. It's important to note that while this research helps us understand people's beliefs about which happiness is preferable, it does not prescribe which form of happiness would be better to pursue. But these results reveal that Westerners planning their lives by the day or the hour will likely achieve a different version of happiness than what they themselves believe makes a happy life. We are all too busy, and we are driven to turn down opportunities to constantly feel happy. But if you believe you want a life of happiness experienced in the moment, think twice before preventing yourself from achieving it.
 

Refer the above for the Questions 94 to 93
94. What is the tone of passage?




SHOW ANSWER
Correct Ans:Both A&B
Explanation:
The tone of passage is both 'Tentative and Analytical'.
Workspace



Directions: Read the following passage and answer the questions given below.

Sure, everyone wants to be happy. But what kind of happiness do people want? Is it happiness experienced moment-to-moment? Or is it being able to look back and remember a time as happy? Nobel Prize winner Daniel Kahneman described this distinction as 'being happy in your life' versus 'being happy about your life'. Take a moment to ask yourself, which happiness are you seeking? This might seem like a needless delineation; after all, a time experienced as happy is often also remembered as happy. An evening spent with good friends over good food and wine will be experienced and remembered happily. Similarly, an interesting project staffed with one's favourite colleagues will be fun to work on and look back on. But the two don’t always go hand in hand. A weekend spent relaxing in front of the TV will be experienced as happy in the moment, but that time won’t be memorable and may even usher feelings of guilt in hindsight. A day at the zoo with one's young children may involve many frustrating moments, but a singular moment of delight will make that day a happy memory. A week of late nights stuck at the office, while not fun exactly, will make one feel satisfied in hindsight if it results in a major achievement.
While happiness scholars have long grappled with which form of happiness should be measured and pursued, nobody has simply asked people which version of happiness they seek. But if we want to find ways to be happy, it may help to understand what type of happiness we truly want. In a series of studies, recently published in The Journal of Positive Psychologywe directly asked thousands of people (ages 18 to 81) about their preference between experienced and remembered happiness. We found that people’s preferences differed according to the length of time they were considering - and according to their culture. For Westerners, the happiness most people said they wanted for the next day was different from the happiness they said they wanted for their lifetime, even though one’s days add up to one's life. We found this interesting; if people make decisions by the hour, they may end up with a different version of happiness than what they say they want for their life.
In one study, we asked 1,145 Americans to choose between experienced happiness ('where you experience happiness on a moment-to-moment basis') and remembered happiness ('where afterwards you will reflect back and feel happy') for either a longer timeframe (i.e., their life overall or next year) or a shorter timeframe (i.e., their next day or hour). The majority of participants chose experienced happiness over remembered happiness when choosing for their life (79%) or their next year (65%). By contrast, there was a roughly even split of participants who chose experienced happiness and remembered happiness when choosing what they wanted for their next hour (49%) or day (48%).  This pattern of results was not affected by individuals’ overall happiness, impulsivity, age, household income, marital status, or parental status. After participants made their choices, we asked them to write a short paragraph explaining why. We found that those who favoured experienced happiness mostly expressed a belief in carpediem: a philosophy that one should seize the present moment because the future is uncertain and life is short. On the other hand, participants explanations for choosing remembered happiness ranged from a desire for a longer lasting happiness, to a nostalgic treasuring of memories, to the motivation to achieve in order to feel productive and proud. So people became more philosophical when asked to consider longer time periods like their life overall, and they reported wanting more happiness experienced in the moment. But when they thought about the next day or hour, it was as though a Puritan work ethic emerged - more people seemed to be willing to forfeit those moments of happiness, to put the work in now to be able to look back later and feel happy. This willingness is necessary, of course, during certain periods of life. But defaulting to it too often may lead to missing out on experiencing happiness. Those unseized moments add up, and together they may go against what many believe constitutes a happy life.
We conducted a few more studies to test the robustness of our results. In one study, we gave people different definitions of remembered happiness to see if a particular portrayal was driving the result. In another, we varied how soon the hour was that they were considering ('one hour today' vs. 'one hour toward the end of your life') to see if imminence and perhaps impatience played a role in people's preferences. In both cases, these treatments didn't change the pattern we saw: when choosing for their life, most people chose experienced happiness over remembered happiness; but when choosing for an hour, half chose remembered happiness.
Last, we wanted to test whether the pattern we saw among all of our American participants generalized to other cultures. We presented the same choice between experienced and remembered happiness, for either their next hour or for their life, to approximately 400 people in other Western countries (England and the Netherlands) and 400 in Eastern countries (China and Japan). Like Americans, when choosing for their life, the majority of Europeans (65%) chose experienced happiness over remembered happiness; but when choosing for their next hour, the Puritan work ethic appeared even more strongly with a majority (62%) choosing remembered happiness over experienced happiness. In contrast, Easterners’ preferred happiness persisted across timeframes. The majority of Easterners chose experienced happiness over remembered happiness regardless of whether choosing for their life (81%) or their next hour (84%). Why this consistency? We believe that participants in China and Japan were more clear in their preference for experienced happiness due to the long religious history in Eastern cultures of teaching the value of mindfulness and appreciating each present moment.
Our studies asked thousands of individuals which of two types of happiness - experienced or remembered - they preferred. We found that the answer depends on whether people are considering the short pieces of their life or their life overall, and where they are from. Though the pursuit of happiness is so fundamental as to be called an inalienable right, the particular form of happiness individuals pursue is surprisingly malleable. It's important to note that while this research helps us understand people's beliefs about which happiness is preferable, it does not prescribe which form of happiness would be better to pursue. But these results reveal that Westerners planning their lives by the day or the hour will likely achieve a different version of happiness than what they themselves believe makes a happy life. We are all too busy, and we are driven to turn down opportunities to constantly feel happy. But if you believe you want a life of happiness experienced in the moment, think twice before preventing yourself from achieving it.
 

Refer the above for the Questions 95 to 94
95. What is the theme of the passage?




SHOW ANSWER
Correct Ans:What happiness you value most experienced or remembered?
Explanation:
The theme of the passage is 'What happiness you value most experienced or remembered?'.
Workspace



Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the question given below it. Certain words are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the question.

There is a sense of gloom pervading India’s $150-billion information technology (IT) industry, which earned India $88 billion in foreign exchange in 2015-16 through the exports of software and IT-enabled services (ITeS). According to data from the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), the rate of growth of the combined exports of software and ITeS fell from 20.8 per cent in 2012-13 to 14.9 per cent in 2014-15 and to a low of 7.3 per cent in 2015-16. Global circumstances combined with the specific nature of India’s IT prowess seem to be responsible for this fall. India’s IT industry recorded remarkable growth over a long period because it exploited an outsourcing opportunity by perfecting a global delivery model for software and ITeS based on cheap skilled labour. That opportunity was offered by the cost-cutting imperatives facing the corporate sector in the United States and elsewhere.

As a result, IT industry revenues grew in double digits, with export earnings accounting for a large share of those revenues. Employment grew rapidly, albeit from a low base and at a lower pace than revenues. And a service industry to support the IT sector’s growth grew around the principal centres of its activity, suggesting that despite the absence of physical production the sector had backward linkages through which it delivered some economy-wide benefits. This combination of the characteristics of India’s IT success not only gave the industry a position of privilege in the economy but made it the symbol of India’s ostensible post-globalisation success.

However, there were a number of features of that model that made it vulnerable to changes in circumstances. To start with, it had a high degree of dependence on exports for growth, with the U.S. accounting for a very large share of those exports, followed by the European Union (E.U.) at a distant second. At the turn of the century, the U.S. market accounted for close to two-thirds of India’s IT exports and the E.U. for about a quarter, and even in 2015-16, the U.S. was first with 62 per cent and Europe second with 24 per cent. Little had changed for the industry.

Secondly, software services (or code writing and customisation of different levels of sophistication) and ITeS, rather than IT products, accounted for an overwhelming share of revenues. To garner those revenues, a workforce with essential IT skills and familiarity with English, communication infrastructure, and the requisite organisation were the necessary ingredients. But sustaining those revenues required constant attention to cost competitiveness, which encouraged automation of the routine activities that constitute an important part of the industry’s operations.

Thirdly, this output composition required combining offshore delivery with local services provision to understand client requirements and customize services and even run operations. So, on-site work remained an important component of the industry’s activity. In 2002-03, 48 per cent of India’s exports of IT services was through the medium of a commercial presence on foreign soil and another 13.5 per cent through the presence of natural persons. By 2015-16 those figures had come down to 18.9 per cent and 16.1 per cent respectively. But the local presence, which ensured provision of 35 per cent of the value services that had risen in value from Rs. 31,100 crore to Rs.5,76,310 crore between 2002-03 and 2015-16, was undoubtedly large and crucial to the industry’s performance.

Finally, a few firms (such as Tata Consultancy Services (TCS), Infosys and Wipro) account for a very large share of the industry’s revenues, drawing attention to their operations and brand as happened in the U.S. recently.

Refer the above for the Questions 96 to 95
96. Choose the word/group of words which is most similar in meaning to the word "Prowess" printed in bold as used in passage.




SHOW ANSWER
Correct Ans:Dexterity
Explanation:
Prowess means skill or expertise in a particular activity or field.
Dexterity means skill in performing tasks, especially with the hands. Hence both are similar in meanings.
Serenity means the state of being calm, peaceful, and untroubled.
Workspace



Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the question given below it. Certain words are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the question.

There is a sense of gloom pervading India’s $150-billion information technology (IT) industry, which earned India $88 billion in foreign exchange in 2015-16 through the exports of software and IT-enabled services (ITeS). According to data from the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), the rate of growth of the combined exports of software and ITeS fell from 20.8 per cent in 2012-13 to 14.9 per cent in 2014-15 and to a low of 7.3 per cent in 2015-16. Global circumstances combined with the specific nature of India’s IT prowess seem to be responsible for this fall. India’s IT industry recorded remarkable growth over a long period because it exploited an outsourcing opportunity by perfecting a global delivery model for software and ITeS based on cheap skilled labour. That opportunity was offered by the cost-cutting imperatives facing the corporate sector in the United States and elsewhere.

As a result, IT industry revenues grew in double digits, with export earnings accounting for a large share of those revenues. Employment grew rapidly, albeit from a low base and at a lower pace than revenues. And a service industry to support the IT sector’s growth grew around the principal centres of its activity, suggesting that despite the absence of physical production the sector had backward linkages through which it delivered some economy-wide benefits. This combination of the characteristics of India’s IT success not only gave the industry a position of privilege in the economy but made it the symbol of India’s ostensible post-globalisation success.

However, there were a number of features of that model that made it vulnerable to changes in circumstances. To start with, it had a high degree of dependence on exports for growth, with the U.S. accounting for a very large share of those exports, followed by the European Union (E.U.) at a distant second. At the turn of the century, the U.S. market accounted for close to two-thirds of India’s IT exports and the E.U. for about a quarter, and even in 2015-16, the U.S. was first with 62 per cent and Europe second with 24 per cent. Little had changed for the industry.

Secondly, software services (or code writing and customisation of different levels of sophistication) and ITeS, rather than IT products, accounted for an overwhelming share of revenues. To garner those revenues, a workforce with essential IT skills and familiarity with English, communication infrastructure, and the requisite organisation were the necessary ingredients. But sustaining those revenues required constant attention to cost competitiveness, which encouraged automation of the routine activities that constitute an important part of the industry’s operations.

Thirdly, this output composition required combining offshore delivery with local services provision to understand client requirements and customize services and even run operations. So, on-site work remained an important component of the industry’s activity. In 2002-03, 48 per cent of India’s exports of IT services was through the medium of a commercial presence on foreign soil and another 13.5 per cent through the presence of natural persons. By 2015-16 those figures had come down to 18.9 per cent and 16.1 per cent respectively. But the local presence, which ensured provision of 35 per cent of the value services that had risen in value from Rs. 31,100 crore to Rs.5,76,310 crore between 2002-03 and 2015-16, was undoubtedly large and crucial to the industry’s performance.

Finally, a few firms (such as Tata Consultancy Services (TCS), Infosys and Wipro) account for a very large share of the industry’s revenues, drawing attention to their operations and brand as happened in the U.S. recently.

Refer the above for the Questions 97 to 96
97. Why according to the passage the growth rate of combined exports of software and ITeS slumped to a new low? 




SHOW ANSWER
Correct Ans:Global circumstances combined with the specific nature of India's IT prowess seem to be responsible for this fall
Explanation:
Refer the first paragraph, "According to data from the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), the rate of growth of the combined exports of software and ITeS fell from 20.8 per cent in 2012-13 to 14.9 per cent
in 2014-15 and to a low of 7.3 per cent in 2015-16. Global circumstances combined with the specific nature of India's IT prowess seem to be responsible for this fall." Hence (a) is the correct option in context of the passage.
Workspace



Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the question given below it. Certain words are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the question.

There is a sense of gloom pervading India’s $150-billion information technology (IT) industry, which earned India $88 billion in foreign exchange in 2015-16 through the exports of software and IT-enabled services (ITeS). According to data from the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), the rate of growth of the combined exports of software and ITeS fell from 20.8 per cent in 2012-13 to 14.9 per cent in 2014-15 and to a low of 7.3 per cent in 2015-16. Global circumstances combined with the specific nature of India’s IT prowess seem to be responsible for this fall. India’s IT industry recorded remarkable growth over a long period because it exploited an outsourcing opportunity by perfecting a global delivery model for software and ITeS based on cheap skilled labour. That opportunity was offered by the cost-cutting imperatives facing the corporate sector in the United States and elsewhere.

As a result, IT industry revenues grew in double digits, with export earnings accounting for a large share of those revenues. Employment grew rapidly, albeit from a low base and at a lower pace than revenues. And a service industry to support the IT sector’s growth grew around the principal centres of its activity, suggesting that despite the absence of physical production the sector had backward linkages through which it delivered some economy-wide benefits. This combination of the characteristics of India’s IT success not only gave the industry a position of privilege in the economy but made it the symbol of India’s ostensible post-globalisation success.

However, there were a number of features of that model that made it vulnerable to changes in circumstances. To start with, it had a high degree of dependence on exports for growth, with the U.S. accounting for a very large share of those exports, followed by the European Union (E.U.) at a distant second. At the turn of the century, the U.S. market accounted for close to two-thirds of India’s IT exports and the E.U. for about a quarter, and even in 2015-16, the U.S. was first with 62 per cent and Europe second with 24 per cent. Little had changed for the industry.

Secondly, software services (or code writing and customisation of different levels of sophistication) and ITeS, rather than IT products, accounted for an overwhelming share of revenues. To garner those revenues, a workforce with essential IT skills and familiarity with English, communication infrastructure, and the requisite organisation were the necessary ingredients. But sustaining those revenues required constant attention to cost competitiveness, which encouraged automation of the routine activities that constitute an important part of the industry’s operations.

Thirdly, this output composition required combining offshore delivery with local services provision to understand client requirements and customize services and even run operations. So, on-site work remained an important component of the industry’s activity. In 2002-03, 48 per cent of India’s exports of IT services was through the medium of a commercial presence on foreign soil and another 13.5 per cent through the presence of natural persons. By 2015-16 those figures had come down to 18.9 per cent and 16.1 per cent respectively. But the local presence, which ensured provision of 35 per cent of the value services that had risen in value from Rs. 31,100 crore to Rs.5,76,310 crore between 2002-03 and 2015-16, was undoubtedly large and crucial to the industry’s performance.

Finally, a few firms (such as Tata Consultancy Services (TCS), Infosys and Wipro) account for a very large share of the industry’s revenues, drawing attention to their operations and brand as happened in the U.S. recently.

Refer the above for the Questions 98 to 97
98. Which of the following statements is/are true in context of the passage?
(I) In 2002-03, 18.9 per cent of India"™s exports of IT services was through the medium of a commercial presence on foreign soil and another 16.1 per cent through the presence of natural persons.
(II) India"™s IT success not only gave the industry a position of privilege in the economy but made it the symbol of India"™s ostensible post globalisation success.
(III) A workforce with essential IT skills and familiarity with English, communication infrastructure, and the requisite organisation were the necessary ingredients for drawing attention of the outsourcing opportunity.




SHOW ANSWER
Correct Ans:Only (II) is true
Explanation:
Refer the statements, "In 2002-03, 48 per cent of India's exports of IT services was through the medium of a commercial presence on foreign soil and another 13.5 per cent through the presence of natural persons.", "This combination of the characteristics of India's IT success not only gave the industry a position of privilege in the economy but made it the symbol of India's ostensible postglobalisation success." and "To garner those revenues, a workforce with essential IT skills and familiarity with English, communication infrastructure, and the requisite organisation were the necessary ingredients." Hence only statement (II) is true in context of the passage.
Workspace



Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the question given below it. Certain words are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the question.

There is a sense of gloom pervading India’s $150-billion information technology (IT) industry, which earned India $88 billion in foreign exchange in 2015-16 through the exports of software and IT-enabled services (ITeS). According to data from the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), the rate of growth of the combined exports of software and ITeS fell from 20.8 per cent in 2012-13 to 14.9 per cent in 2014-15 and to a low of 7.3 per cent in 2015-16. Global circumstances combined with the specific nature of India’s IT prowess seem to be responsible for this fall. India’s IT industry recorded remarkable growth over a long period because it exploited an outsourcing opportunity by perfecting a global delivery model for software and ITeS based on cheap skilled labour. That opportunity was offered by the cost-cutting imperatives facing the corporate sector in the United States and elsewhere.

As a result, IT industry revenues grew in double digits, with export earnings accounting for a large share of those revenues. Employment grew rapidly, albeit from a low base and at a lower pace than revenues. And a service industry to support the IT sector’s growth grew around the principal centres of its activity, suggesting that despite the absence of physical production the sector had backward linkages through which it delivered some economy-wide benefits. This combination of the characteristics of India’s IT success not only gave the industry a position of privilege in the economy but made it the symbol of India’s ostensible post-globalisation success.

However, there were a number of features of that model that made it vulnerable to changes in circumstances. To start with, it had a high degree of dependence on exports for growth, with the U.S. accounting for a very large share of those exports, followed by the European Union (E.U.) at a distant second. At the turn of the century, the U.S. market accounted for close to two-thirds of India’s IT exports and the E.U. for about a quarter, and even in 2015-16, the U.S. was first with 62 per cent and Europe second with 24 per cent. Little had changed for the industry.

Secondly, software services (or code writing and customisation of different levels of sophistication) and ITeS, rather than IT products, accounted for an overwhelming share of revenues. To garner those revenues, a workforce with essential IT skills and familiarity with English, communication infrastructure, and the requisite organisation were the necessary ingredients. But sustaining those revenues required constant attention to cost competitiveness, which encouraged automation of the routine activities that constitute an important part of the industry’s operations.

Thirdly, this output composition required combining offshore delivery with local services provision to understand client requirements and customize services and even run operations. So, on-site work remained an important component of the industry’s activity. In 2002-03, 48 per cent of India’s exports of IT services was through the medium of a commercial presence on foreign soil and another 13.5 per cent through the presence of natural persons. By 2015-16 those figures had come down to 18.9 per cent and 16.1 per cent respectively. But the local presence, which ensured provision of 35 per cent of the value services that had risen in value from Rs. 31,100 crore to Rs.5,76,310 crore between 2002-03 and 2015-16, was undoubtedly large and crucial to the industry’s performance.

Finally, a few firms (such as Tata Consultancy Services (TCS), Infosys and Wipro) account for a very large share of the industry’s revenues, drawing attention to their operations and brand as happened in the U.S. recently.

Refer the above for the Questions 99 to 98
99. What does the author mean by the sentence, "Little had changed for the industry" as used in the passage?




SHOW ANSWER
Correct Ans:Both (b) and (c)
Explanation:
Refer the first few sentences of the third paragraph, "However, there were a number of features of that model that made it vulnerable to changes in circumstances. To start with, it had a high degree of dependence on exports for growth, with the U.S. accounting for a very large share of those exports…" and the first sentence of the fourth paragraph, "Secondly, software services (or code writing and customisation of different levels of sophistication) and ITeS, rather than IT products, accounted for an overwhelming share of revenues." Hence both the statements (b) and (c) are correct in context of the passage.
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Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the question given below it. Certain words are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the question.

There is a sense of gloom pervading India’s $150-billion information technology (IT) industry, which earned India $88 billion in foreign exchange in 2015-16 through the exports of software and IT-enabled services (ITeS). According to data from the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), the rate of growth of the combined exports of software and ITeS fell from 20.8 per cent in 2012-13 to 14.9 per cent in 2014-15 and to a low of 7.3 per cent in 2015-16. Global circumstances combined with the specific nature of India’s IT prowess seem to be responsible for this fall. India’s IT industry recorded remarkable growth over a long period because it exploited an outsourcing opportunity by perfecting a global delivery model for software and ITeS based on cheap skilled labour. That opportunity was offered by the cost-cutting imperatives facing the corporate sector in the United States and elsewhere.

As a result, IT industry revenues grew in double digits, with export earnings accounting for a large share of those revenues. Employment grew rapidly, albeit from a low base and at a lower pace than revenues. And a service industry to support the IT sector’s growth grew around the principal centres of its activity, suggesting that despite the absence of physical production the sector had backward linkages through which it delivered some economy-wide benefits. This combination of the characteristics of India’s IT success not only gave the industry a position of privilege in the economy but made it the symbol of India’s ostensible post-globalisation success.

However, there were a number of features of that model that made it vulnerable to changes in circumstances. To start with, it had a high degree of dependence on exports for growth, with the U.S. accounting for a very large share of those exports, followed by the European Union (E.U.) at a distant second. At the turn of the century, the U.S. market accounted for close to two-thirds of India’s IT exports and the E.U. for about a quarter, and even in 2015-16, the U.S. was first with 62 per cent and Europe second with 24 per cent. Little had changed for the industry.

Secondly, software services (or code writing and customisation of different levels of sophistication) and ITeS, rather than IT products, accounted for an overwhelming share of revenues. To garner those revenues, a workforce with essential IT skills and familiarity with English, communication infrastructure, and the requisite organisation were the necessary ingredients. But sustaining those revenues required constant attention to cost competitiveness, which encouraged automation of the routine activities that constitute an important part of the industry’s operations.

Thirdly, this output composition required combining offshore delivery with local services provision to understand client requirements and customize services and even run operations. So, on-site work remained an important component of the industry’s activity. In 2002-03, 48 per cent of India’s exports of IT services was through the medium of a commercial presence on foreign soil and another 13.5 per cent through the presence of natural persons. By 2015-16 those figures had come down to 18.9 per cent and 16.1 per cent respectively. But the local presence, which ensured provision of 35 per cent of the value services that had risen in value from Rs. 31,100 crore to Rs.5,76,310 crore between 2002-03 and 2015-16, was undoubtedly large and crucial to the industry’s performance.

Finally, a few firms (such as Tata Consultancy Services (TCS), Infosys and Wipro) account for a very large share of the industry’s revenues, drawing attention to their operations and brand as happened in the U.S. recently.

Refer the above for the Questions 100 to 99
100. How the outsourcing opportunity helped India's IT industry in achieving exceptional growth?
(I) It bettered India"™s global delivery model for software and ITeS based on cheap skilled labour.
(II) There was a significant growth in generation of revenues of IT industry.
(III) It helped in rapid growth of employment.




SHOW ANSWER
Correct Ans:All are correct
Explanation:
Refer the last few lines of first paragraph, "India's IT industry recorded remarkable growth over a long period because it exploited an outsourcing opportunity by perfecting a global delivery model for software and ITeS based on cheap skilled labour." and the first few lines of second paragraph, "As a result, IT industry revenues grew in double digits, with export earnings accounting for a large share of those revenues. Employment grew rapidly, albeit from a low base and at a lower pace than revenues."
Hence all three statements are correct in context of the passage.
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