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Reading Comprehension Test Questions

Directions : Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

At the time Jane Austen’s novels were published – between 1811 and 1818 – English literature was not part of any academic curriculum. In addition, fiction was under strenuous attack. Certain religious and political groups felt novels had the power to make so called immoral characters so interesting young readers would identify with them; these groups also considered novels to be of little practical use. Even Coleridge, certainly no literary reactionary, spoke for many when he asserted that “novel-reading occasions the destruction of the mind’s power.
These attitudes towards novels help explain why Austen received little attention from early nineteenth century literary critics. (In any case, a novelist published anonymously, as Austen was, would not be likely to receive much critical attention). The literary response that was accorded her, however, was often as incisive as twentieth century criticism. In his attack in 1816 on novelistic portrayals “outside of ordinary experience, ” for example, Scott made an insightful remark about the merits of Austen’s fiction. Her novels, wrote Scott, “present to the reader an accurate and exact picture of ordinary everyday people and places, reminiscent of seventeenth –century Flemish painting”. Scott did not use the word “realistic probability in judging novels. The critic whitely did not use the word realism either, but he expressed agreement with Scott’s evaluation, and went on to suggest the possibilities for moral instruction in what we have called Austen’s realistic method. Her characters, wrote whitely, are persuasive agents for moral truth since they are ordinary persons “so clearly evoked that was feel an interest in their fate as if it were our own Moral instruction, explained Whitely, is more likely to be effective when conveyed through recognizably human and interesting characters then when imparted by a sermonizing narrator. Whitely especially praised Austen’s ability to create characters who “mingle goodness and villainy, weakness and virtue, as in life they are always mingled. “Whitely concluded his remarks by comparing Austen’s art of characterization to Dicken’s, stating his preference for Austin’s often anticipated the reservations of twentieth-century critics.
An example of such a response was Lewes’ complaint in 1859 that Austen’s range of subjects and characters was too narrow. Praising her verisimilitude, Lewes added that nonetheless her focus was too often upon only the unlofty and the common place. (Twentieth-century Marxists, on the other hand, were to complain about what they saw as her exclusive emphasis on a lofty upper-middle class) In any case, having been rescued by some literary critics from neglect and indeed gradually lionized by them, Austen’s steadily reached, by the mid-nineteenth century, the enviable pinnacle of being considered controversial.

Refer the above for the Questions 41 to 40
41. What is the meaning of "˜verisimilitude"™ in the above passage?




SHOW ANSWER
Correct Ans:Quality of truth likeness in writing
Explanation:
It means realistic depiction.
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Directions : Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

At the time Jane Austen’s novels were published – between 1811 and 1818 – English literature was not part of any academic curriculum. In addition, fiction was under strenuous attack. Certain religious and political groups felt novels had the power to make so called immoral characters so interesting young readers would identify with them; these groups also considered novels to be of little practical use. Even Coleridge, certainly no literary reactionary, spoke for many when he asserted that “novel-reading occasions the destruction of the mind’s power.
These attitudes towards novels help explain why Austen received little attention from early nineteenth century literary critics. (In any case, a novelist published anonymously, as Austen was, would not be likely to receive much critical attention). The literary response that was accorded her, however, was often as incisive as twentieth century criticism. In his attack in 1816 on novelistic portrayals “outside of ordinary experience, ” for example, Scott made an insightful remark about the merits of Austen’s fiction. Her novels, wrote Scott, “present to the reader an accurate and exact picture of ordinary everyday people and places, reminiscent of seventeenth –century Flemish painting”. Scott did not use the word “realistic probability in judging novels. The critic whitely did not use the word realism either, but he expressed agreement with Scott’s evaluation, and went on to suggest the possibilities for moral instruction in what we have called Austen’s realistic method. Her characters, wrote whitely, are persuasive agents for moral truth since they are ordinary persons “so clearly evoked that was feel an interest in their fate as if it were our own Moral instruction, explained Whitely, is more likely to be effective when conveyed through recognizably human and interesting characters then when imparted by a sermonizing narrator. Whitely especially praised Austen’s ability to create characters who “mingle goodness and villainy, weakness and virtue, as in life they are always mingled. “Whitely concluded his remarks by comparing Austen’s art of characterization to Dicken’s, stating his preference for Austin’s often anticipated the reservations of twentieth-century critics.
An example of such a response was Lewes’ complaint in 1859 that Austen’s range of subjects and characters was too narrow. Praising her verisimilitude, Lewes added that nonetheless her focus was too often upon only the unlofty and the common place. (Twentieth-century Marxists, on the other hand, were to complain about what they saw as her exclusive emphasis on a lofty upper-middle class) In any case, having been rescued by some literary critics from neglect and indeed gradually lionized by them, Austen’s steadily reached, by the mid-nineteenth century, the enviable pinnacle of being considered controversial.

Refer the above for the Questions 42 to 41
42. According to the passage, the lack of critical attention paid to Jane Austen can be explained by all of the following nineteenth-century attitudes towards the novel EXCEPT the




SHOW ANSWER
Correct Ans:certainly shared by many political commentators that the range of novels was too narrow
Explanation:
Refer to the first few sentences of the third paragraph, This was the charge of the literary critics, not of political commentators.
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Directions : Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

At the time Jane Austen’s novels were published – between 1811 and 1818 – English literature was not part of any academic curriculum. In addition, fiction was under strenuous attack. Certain religious and political groups felt novels had the power to make so called immoral characters so interesting young readers would identify with them; these groups also considered novels to be of little practical use. Even Coleridge, certainly no literary reactionary, spoke for many when he asserted that “novel-reading occasions the destruction of the mind’s power.
These attitudes towards novels help explain why Austen received little attention from early nineteenth century literary critics. (In any case, a novelist published anonymously, as Austen was, would not be likely to receive much critical attention). The literary response that was accorded her, however, was often as incisive as twentieth century criticism. In his attack in 1816 on novelistic portrayals “outside of ordinary experience, ” for example, Scott made an insightful remark about the merits of Austen’s fiction. Her novels, wrote Scott, “present to the reader an accurate and exact picture of ordinary everyday people and places, reminiscent of seventeenth –century Flemish painting”. Scott did not use the word “realistic probability in judging novels. The critic whitely did not use the word realism either, but he expressed agreement with Scott’s evaluation, and went on to suggest the possibilities for moral instruction in what we have called Austen’s realistic method. Her characters, wrote whitely, are persuasive agents for moral truth since they are ordinary persons “so clearly evoked that was feel an interest in their fate as if it were our own Moral instruction, explained Whitely, is more likely to be effective when conveyed through recognizably human and interesting characters then when imparted by a sermonizing narrator. Whitely especially praised Austen’s ability to create characters who “mingle goodness and villainy, weakness and virtue, as in life they are always mingled. “Whitely concluded his remarks by comparing Austen’s art of characterization to Dicken’s, stating his preference for Austin’s often anticipated the reservations of twentieth-century critics.
An example of such a response was Lewes’ complaint in 1859 that Austen’s range of subjects and characters was too narrow. Praising her verisimilitude, Lewes added that nonetheless her focus was too often upon only the unlofty and the common place. (Twentieth-century Marxists, on the other hand, were to complain about what they saw as her exclusive emphasis on a lofty upper-middle class) In any case, having been rescued by some literary critics from neglect and indeed gradually lionized by them, Austen’s steadily reached, by the mid-nineteenth century, the enviable pinnacle of being considered controversial.

Refer the above for the Questions 43 to 42
43. The passage suggests that twentieth century Marxists would have admired Jane Austen"™s noels more if the novels, a he Marxists understood them, had




SHOW ANSWER
Correct Ans:portrayed characters from more than one class of society
Explanation:
Refer to the third paragraph of the passage, they criticized her exclusive depiction of upper- middle class.
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Directions : Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

At the time Jane Austen’s novels were published – between 1811 and 1818 – English literature was not part of any academic curriculum. In addition, fiction was under strenuous attack. Certain religious and political groups felt novels had the power to make so called immoral characters so interesting young readers would identify with them; these groups also considered novels to be of little practical use. Even Coleridge, certainly no literary reactionary, spoke for many when he asserted that “novel-reading occasions the destruction of the mind’s power.
These attitudes towards novels help explain why Austen received little attention from early nineteenth century literary critics. (In any case, a novelist published anonymously, as Austen was, would not be likely to receive much critical attention). The literary response that was accorded her, however, was often as incisive as twentieth century criticism. In his attack in 1816 on novelistic portrayals “outside of ordinary experience, ” for example, Scott made an insightful remark about the merits of Austen’s fiction. Her novels, wrote Scott, “present to the reader an accurate and exact picture of ordinary everyday people and places, reminiscent of seventeenth –century Flemish painting”. Scott did not use the word “realistic probability in judging novels. The critic whitely did not use the word realism either, but he expressed agreement with Scott’s evaluation, and went on to suggest the possibilities for moral instruction in what we have called Austen’s realistic method. Her characters, wrote whitely, are persuasive agents for moral truth since they are ordinary persons “so clearly evoked that was feel an interest in their fate as if it were our own Moral instruction, explained Whitely, is more likely to be effective when conveyed through recognizably human and interesting characters then when imparted by a sermonizing narrator. Whitely especially praised Austen’s ability to create characters who “mingle goodness and villainy, weakness and virtue, as in life they are always mingled. “Whitely concluded his remarks by comparing Austen’s art of characterization to Dicken’s, stating his preference for Austin’s often anticipated the reservations of twentieth-century critics.
An example of such a response was Lewes’ complaint in 1859 that Austen’s range of subjects and characters was too narrow. Praising her verisimilitude, Lewes added that nonetheless her focus was too often upon only the unlofty and the common place. (Twentieth-century Marxists, on the other hand, were to complain about what they saw as her exclusive emphasis on a lofty upper-middle class) In any case, having been rescued by some literary critics from neglect and indeed gradually lionized by them, Austen’s steadily reached, by the mid-nineteenth century, the enviable pinnacle of being considered controversial.

Refer the above for the Questions 44 to 43
44. The author quotes Coleridge in order to




SHOW ANSWER
Correct Ans:indicate how widespread was the attack on novels in the early nineteenth century
Explanation:
We can easily infer from last sentence of the first paragraph “Even Coleridge, certainly no literary reactionary, spoke for many when he asserted that “novel-reading occasions the destruction of the mind’s power” that sentence (e) is the correct choice.
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Directions : Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

At the time Jane Austen’s novels were published – between 1811 and 1818 – English literature was not part of any academic curriculum. In addition, fiction was under strenuous attack. Certain religious and political groups felt novels had the power to make so called immoral characters so interesting young readers would identify with them; these groups also considered novels to be of little practical use. Even Coleridge, certainly no literary reactionary, spoke for many when he asserted that “novel-reading occasions the destruction of the mind’s power.
These attitudes towards novels help explain why Austen received little attention from early nineteenth century literary critics. (In any case, a novelist published anonymously, as Austen was, would not be likely to receive much critical attention). The literary response that was accorded her, however, was often as incisive as twentieth century criticism. In his attack in 1816 on novelistic portrayals “outside of ordinary experience, ” for example, Scott made an insightful remark about the merits of Austen’s fiction. Her novels, wrote Scott, “present to the reader an accurate and exact picture of ordinary everyday people and places, reminiscent of seventeenth –century Flemish painting”. Scott did not use the word “realistic probability in judging novels. The critic whitely did not use the word realism either, but he expressed agreement with Scott’s evaluation, and went on to suggest the possibilities for moral instruction in what we have called Austen’s realistic method. Her characters, wrote whitely, are persuasive agents for moral truth since they are ordinary persons “so clearly evoked that was feel an interest in their fate as if it were our own Moral instruction, explained Whitely, is more likely to be effective when conveyed through recognizably human and interesting characters then when imparted by a sermonizing narrator. Whitely especially praised Austen’s ability to create characters who “mingle goodness and villainy, weakness and virtue, as in life they are always mingled. “Whitely concluded his remarks by comparing Austen’s art of characterization to Dicken’s, stating his preference for Austin’s often anticipated the reservations of twentieth-century critics.
An example of such a response was Lewes’ complaint in 1859 that Austen’s range of subjects and characters was too narrow. Praising her verisimilitude, Lewes added that nonetheless her focus was too often upon only the unlofty and the common place. (Twentieth-century Marxists, on the other hand, were to complain about what they saw as her exclusive emphasis on a lofty upper-middle class) In any case, having been rescued by some literary critics from neglect and indeed gradually lionized by them, Austen’s steadily reached, by the mid-nineteenth century, the enviable pinnacle of being considered controversial.

Refer the above for the Questions 45 to 44
45. The passage supplies information to suggest that the religious and political groups mentioned and Whately might have agreed that a novel




SHOW ANSWER
Correct Ans:has the ability to influence the moral values of its readers
Explanation:
It has been clearly mentioned in the third sentence of the first paragraph “Certain religious and political groups felt novels had the power to make so called immoral characters so interesting young readers would identify with them; these groups also considered novels to be of little practical use.”, making option (b) correct.
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Directions : Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

At the time Jane Austen’s novels were published – between 1811 and 1818 – English literature was not part of any academic curriculum. In addition, fiction was under strenuous attack. Certain religious and political groups felt novels had the power to make so called immoral characters so interesting young readers would identify with them; these groups also considered novels to be of little practical use. Even Coleridge, certainly no literary reactionary, spoke for many when he asserted that “novel-reading occasions the destruction of the mind’s power.
These attitudes towards novels help explain why Austen received little attention from early nineteenth century literary critics. (In any case, a novelist published anonymously, as Austen was, would not be likely to receive much critical attention). The literary response that was accorded her, however, was often as incisive as twentieth century criticism. In his attack in 1816 on novelistic portrayals “outside of ordinary experience, ” for example, Scott made an insightful remark about the merits of Austen’s fiction. Her novels, wrote Scott, “present to the reader an accurate and exact picture of ordinary everyday people and places, reminiscent of seventeenth –century Flemish painting”. Scott did not use the word “realistic probability in judging novels. The critic whitely did not use the word realism either, but he expressed agreement with Scott’s evaluation, and went on to suggest the possibilities for moral instruction in what we have called Austen’s realistic method. Her characters, wrote whitely, are persuasive agents for moral truth since they are ordinary persons “so clearly evoked that was feel an interest in their fate as if it were our own Moral instruction, explained Whitely, is more likely to be effective when conveyed through recognizably human and interesting characters then when imparted by a sermonizing narrator. Whitely especially praised Austen’s ability to create characters who “mingle goodness and villainy, weakness and virtue, as in life they are always mingled. “Whitely concluded his remarks by comparing Austen’s art of characterization to Dicken’s, stating his preference for Austin’s often anticipated the reservations of twentieth-century critics.
An example of such a response was Lewes’ complaint in 1859 that Austen’s range of subjects and characters was too narrow. Praising her verisimilitude, Lewes added that nonetheless her focus was too often upon only the unlofty and the common place. (Twentieth-century Marxists, on the other hand, were to complain about what they saw as her exclusive emphasis on a lofty upper-middle class) In any case, having been rescued by some literary critics from neglect and indeed gradually lionized by them, Austen’s steadily reached, by the mid-nineteenth century, the enviable pinnacle of being considered controversial.

Refer the above for the Questions 46 to 45
46. The authors mentions that English literature "œwas not part of any academic curriculum " in the early nineteenth century in order to




SHOW ANSWER
Correct Ans:give one reason why Jane Austen"™s novels received little critical attention in the early nineteenth century.
Explanation:
We can conclude by referring to the first paragraph of the passage that option (c) is the correct explanation as compared to others.
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Directions : Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

At the time Jane Austen’s novels were published – between 1811 and 1818 – English literature was not part of any academic curriculum. In addition, fiction was under strenuous attack. Certain religious and political groups felt novels had the power to make so called immoral characters so interesting young readers would identify with them; these groups also considered novels to be of little practical use. Even Coleridge, certainly no literary reactionary, spoke for many when he asserted that “novel-reading occasions the destruction of the mind’s power.
These attitudes towards novels help explain why Austen received little attention from early nineteenth century literary critics. (In any case, a novelist published anonymously, as Austen was, would not be likely to receive much critical attention). The literary response that was accorded her, however, was often as incisive as twentieth century criticism. In his attack in 1816 on novelistic portrayals “outside of ordinary experience, ” for example, Scott made an insightful remark about the merits of Austen’s fiction. Her novels, wrote Scott, “present to the reader an accurate and exact picture of ordinary everyday people and places, reminiscent of seventeenth –century Flemish painting”. Scott did not use the word “realistic probability in judging novels. The critic whitely did not use the word realism either, but he expressed agreement with Scott’s evaluation, and went on to suggest the possibilities for moral instruction in what we have called Austen’s realistic method. Her characters, wrote whitely, are persuasive agents for moral truth since they are ordinary persons “so clearly evoked that was feel an interest in their fate as if it were our own Moral instruction, explained Whitely, is more likely to be effective when conveyed through recognizably human and interesting characters then when imparted by a sermonizing narrator. Whitely especially praised Austen’s ability to create characters who “mingle goodness and villainy, weakness and virtue, as in life they are always mingled. “Whitely concluded his remarks by comparing Austen’s art of characterization to Dicken’s, stating his preference for Austin’s often anticipated the reservations of twentieth-century critics.
An example of such a response was Lewes’ complaint in 1859 that Austen’s range of subjects and characters was too narrow. Praising her verisimilitude, Lewes added that nonetheless her focus was too often upon only the unlofty and the common place. (Twentieth-century Marxists, on the other hand, were to complain about what they saw as her exclusive emphasis on a lofty upper-middle class) In any case, having been rescued by some literary critics from neglect and indeed gradually lionized by them, Austen’s steadily reached, by the mid-nineteenth century, the enviable pinnacle of being considered controversial.

Refer the above for the Questions 47 to 46
47. The primary purpose of the passage is to




SHOW ANSWER
Correct Ans:Describe some of the responses of nineteenth – century criticaster Jane Austen’s novels as well as to fiction in general
Explanation:
Option (d) is correct as compared to others in context of the passage.
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Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

There are many “soft spots” in the world: some of them are haunted by organized crime, some others are known to turn sometimes a blind eye to illicit money, and certain individuals are capable of making huge fortunes by connecting the two dots on a map. But on a summer afternoon in 2012 the Italian investigators listening to a tapped conversation between a ‘Ndrangheta Don and a broker could not believe their ears, because these particular “soft spots” were unimaginably distant, even for men used to investigating criminals with an international attitude. As far as investigators knew, ‘Ndrangheta (pronounced “An-Dran-Gh-Ta”) - the Calabrian version of Cosa Nostra, ranking in the last 20 years as the most powerful Italian crime syndicate - had established connections with Canada and Australia, but never ventured into the Far East.
Or so they thought. The first man on the phone, Giuseppe Pensabene - aka “The Pope” - was no stranger to the detectives of SCO, a special squad of the Italian police focused on organized crime. Born in 1968 in Montebello Jonico, a tiny village in Italy’s southern region of Calabria and a ‘Ndrangheta stronghold, Pensabene started his criminal career in the early 1980 by joining the Imertis, a “respected family” involved in the so-called “Second ‘Ndrangheta War,” a bloody feud in which almost 500 people were killed between 1985 and 1991. In 1988, Pensabene moved north and settled in Brianza, the region surrounding Milan and one of Italy’s wealthiest areas. But as every investigator working on Calabrian syndicates might confirm, it seems you can not teach a new trick to an old ‘Ndrangheta mobster: “The Pope” turned into a professional of extortion, drug trafficking, and money laundering.
After the spate of arrests known as “OperazioneCrimine-Infinito,” in 2010 he was eventually crowned boss of one of Northern Italy’s most notorious organizations.The second voice on the phone was an Italian-Swiss broker named EmanueleSangiovanni. As investigators listened in, he said, “This company is good, it guarantees a double shielding… First step is a trust company in Malta, second step is a Hong Kong company, so it’s virtually unreachable for authorities. The administrator is a Hong Kongese architect.” “How do I do this from Italy?” Pensabene replied. “You need an attorney, someone you can trust… Or you can reach an agreement and make the guy come here [to Europe], but it’s too expensive, we have to do this in Malta.”
“I’ll take care of it.” When “The Pope,” EmanueleSangiovanni, and 38 other people were arrested in 2014 Italian investigators seized goods, apartments, bank accounts, and 39 companies worth dozens of millions of euros. From a tiny office in Brianza with no windows and no toilets, dubbed “iltugurio” (“the shack”), Pensabene and his organization were able to launder several million euros for their Calabrian cousins, working as the financial arm of the southern clans deeply involved in cocaine trafficking. The investigators never managed to fully identify the “Hong Kongese architect,” but his shell company was not the only clue pointing to a connection between Pensabene and the Far East. Almost 100 percent of the clients requesting Pensabene’s “services” were Calabrian gangs, but a certain invoice attracted the detectives’ attention: a Chinese company named Fengrun International Ltd.
It was connected to Pensabene’s shady web through several bank transfers for hundreds of thousands of euros. The key figure in this deal was Giuseppe Vinciguerra, a 40-something Sicilian who connected the Calabrian mobsters with businessmen looking for a safe way to clean their money and provided Pensabene and his partners with many firearms at his disposal after some former deals. In 2012, according to the SCO, the Pensabene-Vinciguerra joint venture was worth 8.2 million euros ($9.6 million), and the Sicilian had already accomplished a plan to diversify their business targeting new markets and brand new customers: the Chinese. Vinciguerra had been a person of interest since the end of “OperazioneCrimine-Infinito” and his different mobile phones were tapped, regardless of his efforts to switch from one telephone to another on a weekly basis. In December 2011 SCO detectives listened to six conversations between Vinciguerra and a Chinese national dubbed “Michele.”

Refer the above for the Questions 48 to 47
48. Give a suitable title for the passage. 




SHOW ANSWER
Correct Ans:How the Calabrian Mafia Discovered Hong Kong
Explanation:
In context of the passage, as compared to other options, option(a) seems to be the most appropriate title for the given passage.
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Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

There are many “soft spots” in the world: some of them are haunted by organized crime, some others are known to turn sometimes a blind eye to illicit money, and certain individuals are capable of making huge fortunes by connecting the two dots on a map. But on a summer afternoon in 2012 the Italian investigators listening to a tapped conversation between a ‘Ndrangheta Don and a broker could not believe their ears, because these particular “soft spots” were unimaginably distant, even for men used to investigating criminals with an international attitude. As far as investigators knew, ‘Ndrangheta (pronounced “An-Dran-Gh-Ta”) - the Calabrian version of Cosa Nostra, ranking in the last 20 years as the most powerful Italian crime syndicate - had established connections with Canada and Australia, but never ventured into the Far East.
Or so they thought. The first man on the phone, Giuseppe Pensabene - aka “The Pope” - was no stranger to the detectives of SCO, a special squad of the Italian police focused on organized crime. Born in 1968 in Montebello Jonico, a tiny village in Italy’s southern region of Calabria and a ‘Ndrangheta stronghold, Pensabene started his criminal career in the early 1980 by joining the Imertis, a “respected family” involved in the so-called “Second ‘Ndrangheta War,” a bloody feud in which almost 500 people were killed between 1985 and 1991. In 1988, Pensabene moved north and settled in Brianza, the region surrounding Milan and one of Italy’s wealthiest areas. But as every investigator working on Calabrian syndicates might confirm, it seems you can not teach a new trick to an old ‘Ndrangheta mobster: “The Pope” turned into a professional of extortion, drug trafficking, and money laundering.
After the spate of arrests known as “OperazioneCrimine-Infinito,” in 2010 he was eventually crowned boss of one of Northern Italy’s most notorious organizations.The second voice on the phone was an Italian-Swiss broker named EmanueleSangiovanni. As investigators listened in, he said, “This company is good, it guarantees a double shielding… First step is a trust company in Malta, second step is a Hong Kong company, so it’s virtually unreachable for authorities. The administrator is a Hong Kongese architect.” “How do I do this from Italy?” Pensabene replied. “You need an attorney, someone you can trust… Or you can reach an agreement and make the guy come here [to Europe], but it’s too expensive, we have to do this in Malta.”
“I’ll take care of it.” When “The Pope,” EmanueleSangiovanni, and 38 other people were arrested in 2014 Italian investigators seized goods, apartments, bank accounts, and 39 companies worth dozens of millions of euros. From a tiny office in Brianza with no windows and no toilets, dubbed “iltugurio” (“the shack”), Pensabene and his organization were able to launder several million euros for their Calabrian cousins, working as the financial arm of the southern clans deeply involved in cocaine trafficking. The investigators never managed to fully identify the “Hong Kongese architect,” but his shell company was not the only clue pointing to a connection between Pensabene and the Far East. Almost 100 percent of the clients requesting Pensabene’s “services” were Calabrian gangs, but a certain invoice attracted the detectives’ attention: a Chinese company named Fengrun International Ltd.
It was connected to Pensabene’s shady web through several bank transfers for hundreds of thousands of euros. The key figure in this deal was Giuseppe Vinciguerra, a 40-something Sicilian who connected the Calabrian mobsters with businessmen looking for a safe way to clean their money and provided Pensabene and his partners with many firearms at his disposal after some former deals. In 2012, according to the SCO, the Pensabene-Vinciguerra joint venture was worth 8.2 million euros ($9.6 million), and the Sicilian had already accomplished a plan to diversify their business targeting new markets and brand new customers: the Chinese. Vinciguerra had been a person of interest since the end of “OperazioneCrimine-Infinito” and his different mobile phones were tapped, regardless of his efforts to switch from one telephone to another on a weekly basis. In December 2011 SCO detectives listened to six conversations between Vinciguerra and a Chinese national dubbed “Michele.”

Refer the above for the Questions 49 to 48
49. How the Italian investigators benefitted from the arrest of EmanueleSangiovanni and 38 other people?




SHOW ANSWER
Correct Ans:All of these
Explanation:
Read paragraph4 of the passage, it can be inferred that the arrest of EmanueleSangiovanni along with 38 other people helped the Italian investigators in tracking various links of these two people and their associates. It helped the investigators in knowing about the growth of their network from a tiny office to cocaine trafficking in different parts of the world.
Workspace



Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

There are many “soft spots” in the world: some of them are haunted by organized crime, some others are known to turn sometimes a blind eye to illicit money, and certain individuals are capable of making huge fortunes by connecting the two dots on a map. But on a summer afternoon in 2012 the Italian investigators listening to a tapped conversation between a ‘Ndrangheta Don and a broker could not believe their ears, because these particular “soft spots” were unimaginably distant, even for men used to investigating criminals with an international attitude. As far as investigators knew, ‘Ndrangheta (pronounced “An-Dran-Gh-Ta”) - the Calabrian version of Cosa Nostra, ranking in the last 20 years as the most powerful Italian crime syndicate - had established connections with Canada and Australia, but never ventured into the Far East.
Or so they thought. The first man on the phone, Giuseppe Pensabene - aka “The Pope” - was no stranger to the detectives of SCO, a special squad of the Italian police focused on organized crime. Born in 1968 in Montebello Jonico, a tiny village in Italy’s southern region of Calabria and a ‘Ndrangheta stronghold, Pensabene started his criminal career in the early 1980 by joining the Imertis, a “respected family” involved in the so-called “Second ‘Ndrangheta War,” a bloody feud in which almost 500 people were killed between 1985 and 1991. In 1988, Pensabene moved north and settled in Brianza, the region surrounding Milan and one of Italy’s wealthiest areas. But as every investigator working on Calabrian syndicates might confirm, it seems you can not teach a new trick to an old ‘Ndrangheta mobster: “The Pope” turned into a professional of extortion, drug trafficking, and money laundering.
After the spate of arrests known as “OperazioneCrimine-Infinito,” in 2010 he was eventually crowned boss of one of Northern Italy’s most notorious organizations.The second voice on the phone was an Italian-Swiss broker named EmanueleSangiovanni. As investigators listened in, he said, “This company is good, it guarantees a double shielding… First step is a trust company in Malta, second step is a Hong Kong company, so it’s virtually unreachable for authorities. The administrator is a Hong Kongese architect.” “How do I do this from Italy?” Pensabene replied. “You need an attorney, someone you can trust… Or you can reach an agreement and make the guy come here [to Europe], but it’s too expensive, we have to do this in Malta.”
“I’ll take care of it.” When “The Pope,” EmanueleSangiovanni, and 38 other people were arrested in 2014 Italian investigators seized goods, apartments, bank accounts, and 39 companies worth dozens of millions of euros. From a tiny office in Brianza with no windows and no toilets, dubbed “iltugurio” (“the shack”), Pensabene and his organization were able to launder several million euros for their Calabrian cousins, working as the financial arm of the southern clans deeply involved in cocaine trafficking. The investigators never managed to fully identify the “Hong Kongese architect,” but his shell company was not the only clue pointing to a connection between Pensabene and the Far East. Almost 100 percent of the clients requesting Pensabene’s “services” were Calabrian gangs, but a certain invoice attracted the detectives’ attention: a Chinese company named Fengrun International Ltd.
It was connected to Pensabene’s shady web through several bank transfers for hundreds of thousands of euros. The key figure in this deal was Giuseppe Vinciguerra, a 40-something Sicilian who connected the Calabrian mobsters with businessmen looking for a safe way to clean their money and provided Pensabene and his partners with many firearms at his disposal after some former deals. In 2012, according to the SCO, the Pensabene-Vinciguerra joint venture was worth 8.2 million euros ($9.6 million), and the Sicilian had already accomplished a plan to diversify their business targeting new markets and brand new customers: the Chinese. Vinciguerra had been a person of interest since the end of “OperazioneCrimine-Infinito” and his different mobile phones were tapped, regardless of his efforts to switch from one telephone to another on a weekly basis. In December 2011 SCO detectives listened to six conversations between Vinciguerra and a Chinese national dubbed “Michele.”

Refer the above for the Questions 50 to 49
50. What can be inferred from the conversation betweenGiuseppe Pensabene and EmanueleSangiovanni?




SHOW ANSWER
Correct Ans:both(a) and (c)
Explanation:
Read paragraph3 of the passage carefully, it is clearly mentioned that both Giuseppe Pensabene and EmanueleSangiovanni were part of Northern Italy’s criminal organization since long and they had various links in different countries to execute their operations and gain funding.
Workspace



Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

There are many “soft spots” in the world: some of them are haunted by organized crime, some others are known to turn sometimes a blind eye to illicit money, and certain individuals are capable of making huge fortunes by connecting the two dots on a map. But on a summer afternoon in 2012 the Italian investigators listening to a tapped conversation between a ‘Ndrangheta Don and a broker could not believe their ears, because these particular “soft spots” were unimaginably distant, even for men used to investigating criminals with an international attitude. As far as investigators knew, ‘Ndrangheta (pronounced “An-Dran-Gh-Ta”) - the Calabrian version of Cosa Nostra, ranking in the last 20 years as the most powerful Italian crime syndicate - had established connections with Canada and Australia, but never ventured into the Far East.
Or so they thought. The first man on the phone, Giuseppe Pensabene - aka “The Pope” - was no stranger to the detectives of SCO, a special squad of the Italian police focused on organized crime. Born in 1968 in Montebello Jonico, a tiny village in Italy’s southern region of Calabria and a ‘Ndrangheta stronghold, Pensabene started his criminal career in the early 1980 by joining the Imertis, a “respected family” involved in the so-called “Second ‘Ndrangheta War,” a bloody feud in which almost 500 people were killed between 1985 and 1991. In 1988, Pensabene moved north and settled in Brianza, the region surrounding Milan and one of Italy’s wealthiest areas. But as every investigator working on Calabrian syndicates might confirm, it seems you can not teach a new trick to an old ‘Ndrangheta mobster: “The Pope” turned into a professional of extortion, drug trafficking, and money laundering.
After the spate of arrests known as “OperazioneCrimine-Infinito,” in 2010 he was eventually crowned boss of one of Northern Italy’s most notorious organizations.The second voice on the phone was an Italian-Swiss broker named EmanueleSangiovanni. As investigators listened in, he said, “This company is good, it guarantees a double shielding… First step is a trust company in Malta, second step is a Hong Kong company, so it’s virtually unreachable for authorities. The administrator is a Hong Kongese architect.” “How do I do this from Italy?” Pensabene replied. “You need an attorney, someone you can trust… Or you can reach an agreement and make the guy come here [to Europe], but it’s too expensive, we have to do this in Malta.”
“I’ll take care of it.” When “The Pope,” EmanueleSangiovanni, and 38 other people were arrested in 2014 Italian investigators seized goods, apartments, bank accounts, and 39 companies worth dozens of millions of euros. From a tiny office in Brianza with no windows and no toilets, dubbed “iltugurio” (“the shack”), Pensabene and his organization were able to launder several million euros for their Calabrian cousins, working as the financial arm of the southern clans deeply involved in cocaine trafficking. The investigators never managed to fully identify the “Hong Kongese architect,” but his shell company was not the only clue pointing to a connection between Pensabene and the Far East. Almost 100 percent of the clients requesting Pensabene’s “services” were Calabrian gangs, but a certain invoice attracted the detectives’ attention: a Chinese company named Fengrun International Ltd.
It was connected to Pensabene’s shady web through several bank transfers for hundreds of thousands of euros. The key figure in this deal was Giuseppe Vinciguerra, a 40-something Sicilian who connected the Calabrian mobsters with businessmen looking for a safe way to clean their money and provided Pensabene and his partners with many firearms at his disposal after some former deals. In 2012, according to the SCO, the Pensabene-Vinciguerra joint venture was worth 8.2 million euros ($9.6 million), and the Sicilian had already accomplished a plan to diversify their business targeting new markets and brand new customers: the Chinese. Vinciguerra had been a person of interest since the end of “OperazioneCrimine-Infinito” and his different mobile phones were tapped, regardless of his efforts to switch from one telephone to another on a weekly basis. In December 2011 SCO detectives listened to six conversations between Vinciguerra and a Chinese national dubbed “Michele.”

Refer the above for the Questions 51 to 50
51. How "œThe Pope" started his criminal career in Italy?




SHOW ANSWER
Correct Ans:by joining the Imertis
Explanation:
Refer to paragraph 2 of the passage, it is clearly mentioned that the pope started his criminal career by joining imertis a “respected family” involved in the “Second ‘Ndrangheta,” War in which almost 500 people were killed between 1985 and 1991.
Workspace



Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

There are many “soft spots” in the world: some of them are haunted by organized crime, some others are known to turn sometimes a blind eye to illicit money, and certain individuals are capable of making huge fortunes by connecting the two dots on a map. But on a summer afternoon in 2012 the Italian investigators listening to a tapped conversation between a ‘Ndrangheta Don and a broker could not believe their ears, because these particular “soft spots” were unimaginably distant, even for men used to investigating criminals with an international attitude. As far as investigators knew, ‘Ndrangheta (pronounced “An-Dran-Gh-Ta”) - the Calabrian version of Cosa Nostra, ranking in the last 20 years as the most powerful Italian crime syndicate - had established connections with Canada and Australia, but never ventured into the Far East.
Or so they thought. The first man on the phone, Giuseppe Pensabene - aka “The Pope” - was no stranger to the detectives of SCO, a special squad of the Italian police focused on organized crime. Born in 1968 in Montebello Jonico, a tiny village in Italy’s southern region of Calabria and a ‘Ndrangheta stronghold, Pensabene started his criminal career in the early 1980 by joining the Imertis, a “respected family” involved in the so-called “Second ‘Ndrangheta War,” a bloody feud in which almost 500 people were killed between 1985 and 1991. In 1988, Pensabene moved north and settled in Brianza, the region surrounding Milan and one of Italy’s wealthiest areas. But as every investigator working on Calabrian syndicates might confirm, it seems you can not teach a new trick to an old ‘Ndrangheta mobster: “The Pope” turned into a professional of extortion, drug trafficking, and money laundering.
After the spate of arrests known as “OperazioneCrimine-Infinito,” in 2010 he was eventually crowned boss of one of Northern Italy’s most notorious organizations.The second voice on the phone was an Italian-Swiss broker named EmanueleSangiovanni. As investigators listened in, he said, “This company is good, it guarantees a double shielding… First step is a trust company in Malta, second step is a Hong Kong company, so it’s virtually unreachable for authorities. The administrator is a Hong Kongese architect.” “How do I do this from Italy?” Pensabene replied. “You need an attorney, someone you can trust… Or you can reach an agreement and make the guy come here [to Europe], but it’s too expensive, we have to do this in Malta.”
“I’ll take care of it.” When “The Pope,” EmanueleSangiovanni, and 38 other people were arrested in 2014 Italian investigators seized goods, apartments, bank accounts, and 39 companies worth dozens of millions of euros. From a tiny office in Brianza with no windows and no toilets, dubbed “iltugurio” (“the shack”), Pensabene and his organization were able to launder several million euros for their Calabrian cousins, working as the financial arm of the southern clans deeply involved in cocaine trafficking. The investigators never managed to fully identify the “Hong Kongese architect,” but his shell company was not the only clue pointing to a connection between Pensabene and the Far East. Almost 100 percent of the clients requesting Pensabene’s “services” were Calabrian gangs, but a certain invoice attracted the detectives’ attention: a Chinese company named Fengrun International Ltd.
It was connected to Pensabene’s shady web through several bank transfers for hundreds of thousands of euros. The key figure in this deal was Giuseppe Vinciguerra, a 40-something Sicilian who connected the Calabrian mobsters with businessmen looking for a safe way to clean their money and provided Pensabene and his partners with many firearms at his disposal after some former deals. In 2012, according to the SCO, the Pensabene-Vinciguerra joint venture was worth 8.2 million euros ($9.6 million), and the Sicilian had already accomplished a plan to diversify their business targeting new markets and brand new customers: the Chinese. Vinciguerra had been a person of interest since the end of “OperazioneCrimine-Infinito” and his different mobile phones were tapped, regardless of his efforts to switch from one telephone to another on a weekly basis. In December 2011 SCO detectives listened to six conversations between Vinciguerra and a Chinese national dubbed “Michele.”

Refer the above for the Questions 52 to 51
52. Which of the following statement(s) is/are NOT TRUE in the context of the passage?




SHOW ANSWER
Correct Ans:Giuseppe Pensabene was born in a tiny village of Italy"™s northern region of Calabria which was a "˜Ndrangheta stronghold.
Explanation:
Read the passage carefully, it can be easily inferred that only option (b) is incorrect in the context of the passage, remaining four statements are completely true.
Workspace



Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

There are many “soft spots” in the world: some of them are haunted by organized crime, some others are known to turn sometimes a blind eye to illicit money, and certain individuals are capable of making huge fortunes by connecting the two dots on a map. But on a summer afternoon in 2012 the Italian investigators listening to a tapped conversation between a ‘Ndrangheta Don and a broker could not believe their ears, because these particular “soft spots” were unimaginably distant, even for men used to investigating criminals with an international attitude. As far as investigators knew, ‘Ndrangheta (pronounced “An-Dran-Gh-Ta”) - the Calabrian version of Cosa Nostra, ranking in the last 20 years as the most powerful Italian crime syndicate - had established connections with Canada and Australia, but never ventured into the Far East.
Or so they thought. The first man on the phone, Giuseppe Pensabene - aka “The Pope” - was no stranger to the detectives of SCO, a special squad of the Italian police focused on organized crime. Born in 1968 in Montebello Jonico, a tiny village in Italy’s southern region of Calabria and a ‘Ndrangheta stronghold, Pensabene started his criminal career in the early 1980 by joining the Imertis, a “respected family” involved in the so-called “Second ‘Ndrangheta War,” a bloody feud in which almost 500 people were killed between 1985 and 1991. In 1988, Pensabene moved north and settled in Brianza, the region surrounding Milan and one of Italy’s wealthiest areas. But as every investigator working on Calabrian syndicates might confirm, it seems you can not teach a new trick to an old ‘Ndrangheta mobster: “The Pope” turned into a professional of extortion, drug trafficking, and money laundering.
After the spate of arrests known as “OperazioneCrimine-Infinito,” in 2010 he was eventually crowned boss of one of Northern Italy’s most notorious organizations.The second voice on the phone was an Italian-Swiss broker named EmanueleSangiovanni. As investigators listened in, he said, “This company is good, it guarantees a double shielding… First step is a trust company in Malta, second step is a Hong Kong company, so it’s virtually unreachable for authorities. The administrator is a Hong Kongese architect.” “How do I do this from Italy?” Pensabene replied. “You need an attorney, someone you can trust… Or you can reach an agreement and make the guy come here [to Europe], but it’s too expensive, we have to do this in Malta.”
“I’ll take care of it.” When “The Pope,” EmanueleSangiovanni, and 38 other people were arrested in 2014 Italian investigators seized goods, apartments, bank accounts, and 39 companies worth dozens of millions of euros. From a tiny office in Brianza with no windows and no toilets, dubbed “iltugurio” (“the shack”), Pensabene and his organization were able to launder several million euros for their Calabrian cousins, working as the financial arm of the southern clans deeply involved in cocaine trafficking. The investigators never managed to fully identify the “Hong Kongese architect,” but his shell company was not the only clue pointing to a connection between Pensabene and the Far East. Almost 100 percent of the clients requesting Pensabene’s “services” were Calabrian gangs, but a certain invoice attracted the detectives’ attention: a Chinese company named Fengrun International Ltd.
It was connected to Pensabene’s shady web through several bank transfers for hundreds of thousands of euros. The key figure in this deal was Giuseppe Vinciguerra, a 40-something Sicilian who connected the Calabrian mobsters with businessmen looking for a safe way to clean their money and provided Pensabene and his partners with many firearms at his disposal after some former deals. In 2012, according to the SCO, the Pensabene-Vinciguerra joint venture was worth 8.2 million euros ($9.6 million), and the Sicilian had already accomplished a plan to diversify their business targeting new markets and brand new customers: the Chinese. Vinciguerra had been a person of interest since the end of “OperazioneCrimine-Infinito” and his different mobile phones were tapped, regardless of his efforts to switch from one telephone to another on a weekly basis. In December 2011 SCO detectives listened to six conversations between Vinciguerra and a Chinese national dubbed “Michele.”

Refer the above for the Questions 53 to 52
53. Why it was difficult for the investigators to believe the conversation between "˜Ndrangheta Don and the broker?
(I) because the soft spot mentioned in the conversation between the don and the broker was haunted and daunting
(II) because the soft spot mentioned in the conversation between the don and the broker was hub of all the organized crimes
(III) because the soft spot mentioned in the conversation between the don and the broker was unexpectedly far away




SHOW ANSWER
Correct Ans:Only (III)
Explanation:
Refer to paragraph1 of the passage, we can easily conclude that the investigators didn’t have any hint of the place about which conversation was going on between the don and the broker, infact they were surprised to know about their operation being conducted from that faraway place.
Workspace



Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below them. Certain words/phrases have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

Indian roads are usually characterized by poor infrastructure and congestion which affect travel time and road safety. This is a big hindrance in economic development and leads to inefficiency in the transportation of goods and services across the country. To address this, the government has embarked upon a massive overhaul of the country’s road network through Bharatmala Pariyojana - an umbrella highway development programme involving 34,800 km of road network at an investment of Rs. 5.35 trillion, to be completed by 2022. The programme focuses on optimizing the efficiency of road traffic movement across the country by bridging critical infrastructure gaps through shorter routes. The end goal is to create economic corridors (ECs) along the path - new industries, more employment and new markets.

The programme, however, will have a negative bearing on the existing road network because it will compete directly with some of the existing build-operate-transfer (BOT) toll road projects. Out of the 44 ECs, about 21 would partially or fully affect the existing alignments, while the remaining 23 that involve upgradation of existing alignment will not result in any deviation. Among the 21 corridors affected, eight have a totally different route (which is shorter) while the remaining 13 have some deviations from the existing alignment. Overall, there are 24 BOT projects and one operate-maintain-transfer (OMT) project whose traffic could be affected by the proposed ECs. The Bharatmala programme may result in traffic diversion from the existing road network to new roads, thereby affecting the toll collection and, consequently, the debt servicing ability of some of the BOT and OMT projects. This has raised the risk of default on 25 national highway toll projects which involve Rs. 19,435 crore of debt. The risk of such loan defaults will add to banks’ and financial lenders’ stressed assets and non-performing assets. In terms of risk, 12% of the projects have a high risk of leakage in traffic, if a completely alternative route is available, 16% of the projects have moderate risks, and 72%, low risks. To arrive at the debt at risk, the debt outstanding for each of these special purpose vehicles (SPVs), their repayment tenure, concession end date, credit profile of the SPV and its sponsor credit risk profile, are considered. Out of the total debt at risk for the 25 affected projects about Rs. 6,536 crore, which accounts for about 34% of the total debt at risk, is high-risk. Projects with debt at a moderate risk have an aggregate debt of Rs. 3,483 crore, while about Rs. 9,416 crore of debt is considered to be low-risk.

To ensure that the existing BOT projects that are at risk of default do not turn bad for the financial institutions, swift and adequate measures are needed. The Kelkar committee had observed that since infrastructure projects span over 20-30 years, a private developer may lose bargaining power owing to abrupt changes in the economic or policy environment. It has thus recommended that the private sector must be protected against such loss. This could be ensured by allowing renegotiation of the terms of the concession agreement.

Financial institutions are already reluctant to finance the infrastructure sector, given the rise in non-performing assets (NPAs). Add to this the probable difficulties that would arise in the case of 25 BOT projects, which would put additional stress on the road infrastructure exposure. The need of the hour is to realign the terms and conditions of the model concession agreement to ensure that banks do not end up accumulating NPAs.Having an appropriate remedial mechanism for BOT operators will help retain interest for investments in new projects; for the lenders, it will help curtail the number of stressed assets from the risk of default.

Refer the above for the Questions 54 to 53
54. Which of the following alternatives among the five options provides the most opposite meaning(s) of the word given in BOLD as used in the passage?

Reluctant
(I) vaunt
(II) willing
(III) splendid
(IV) eager




SHOW ANSWER
Correct Ans:Only (II) and (IV)
Explanation:
Reluctant - unwilling and hesitant; disinclined
Hence it has opposite meaning as willing and eager. Therefore, II and IV are correct.
Workspace



Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below them. Certain words/phrases have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

Indian roads are usually characterized by poor infrastructure and congestion which affect travel time and road safety. This is a big hindrance in economic development and leads to inefficiency in the transportation of goods and services across the country. To address this, the government has embarked upon a massive overhaul of the country’s road network through Bharatmala Pariyojana - an umbrella highway development programme involving 34,800 km of road network at an investment of Rs. 5.35 trillion, to be completed by 2022. The programme focuses on optimizing the efficiency of road traffic movement across the country by bridging critical infrastructure gaps through shorter routes. The end goal is to create economic corridors (ECs) along the path - new industries, more employment and new markets.

The programme, however, will have a negative bearing on the existing road network because it will compete directly with some of the existing build-operate-transfer (BOT) toll road projects. Out of the 44 ECs, about 21 would partially or fully affect the existing alignments, while the remaining 23 that involve upgradation of existing alignment will not result in any deviation. Among the 21 corridors affected, eight have a totally different route (which is shorter) while the remaining 13 have some deviations from the existing alignment. Overall, there are 24 BOT projects and one operate-maintain-transfer (OMT) project whose traffic could be affected by the proposed ECs. The Bharatmala programme may result in traffic diversion from the existing road network to new roads, thereby affecting the toll collection and, consequently, the debt servicing ability of some of the BOT and OMT projects. This has raised the risk of default on 25 national highway toll projects which involve Rs. 19,435 crore of debt. The risk of such loan defaults will add to banks’ and financial lenders’ stressed assets and non-performing assets. In terms of risk, 12% of the projects have a high risk of leakage in traffic, if a completely alternative route is available, 16% of the projects have moderate risks, and 72%, low risks. To arrive at the debt at risk, the debt outstanding for each of these special purpose vehicles (SPVs), their repayment tenure, concession end date, credit profile of the SPV and its sponsor credit risk profile, are considered. Out of the total debt at risk for the 25 affected projects about Rs. 6,536 crore, which accounts for about 34% of the total debt at risk, is high-risk. Projects with debt at a moderate risk have an aggregate debt of Rs. 3,483 crore, while about Rs. 9,416 crore of debt is considered to be low-risk.

To ensure that the existing BOT projects that are at risk of default do not turn bad for the financial institutions, swift and adequate measures are needed. The Kelkar committee had observed that since infrastructure projects span over 20-30 years, a private developer may lose bargaining power owing to abrupt changes in the economic or policy environment. It has thus recommended that the private sector must be protected against such loss. This could be ensured by allowing renegotiation of the terms of the concession agreement.

Financial institutions are already reluctant to finance the infrastructure sector, given the rise in non-performing assets (NPAs). Add to this the probable difficulties that would arise in the case of 25 BOT projects, which would put additional stress on the road infrastructure exposure. The need of the hour is to realign the terms and conditions of the model concession agreement to ensure that banks do not end up accumulating NPAs.Having an appropriate remedial mechanism for BOT operators will help retain interest for investments in new projects; for the lenders, it will help curtail the number of stressed assets from the risk of default.

Refer the above for the Questions 55 to 54
55. Which of the following alternatives among the five options provides the most opposite meaning(s) of the word given in BOLD as used in the passage?

Hindrance
(I) contrite
(II) impetus
(III) plausible
(IV) privilege




SHOW ANSWER
Correct Ans:Only (II) and (IV)
Explanation:
Hindrance - a thing that provides resistance, delay, or obstruction to something or someone.
Hence it has opposite meaning as that to impetus and privilege.
Therefore, II and IV are correct.
Workspace



Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below them. Certain words/phrases have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

Indian roads are usually characterized by poor infrastructure and congestion which affect travel time and road safety. This is a big hindrance in economic development and leads to inefficiency in the transportation of goods and services across the country. To address this, the government has embarked upon a massive overhaul of the country’s road network through Bharatmala Pariyojana - an umbrella highway development programme involving 34,800 km of road network at an investment of Rs. 5.35 trillion, to be completed by 2022. The programme focuses on optimizing the efficiency of road traffic movement across the country by bridging critical infrastructure gaps through shorter routes. The end goal is to create economic corridors (ECs) along the path - new industries, more employment and new markets.

The programme, however, will have a negative bearing on the existing road network because it will compete directly with some of the existing build-operate-transfer (BOT) toll road projects. Out of the 44 ECs, about 21 would partially or fully affect the existing alignments, while the remaining 23 that involve upgradation of existing alignment will not result in any deviation. Among the 21 corridors affected, eight have a totally different route (which is shorter) while the remaining 13 have some deviations from the existing alignment. Overall, there are 24 BOT projects and one operate-maintain-transfer (OMT) project whose traffic could be affected by the proposed ECs. The Bharatmala programme may result in traffic diversion from the existing road network to new roads, thereby affecting the toll collection and, consequently, the debt servicing ability of some of the BOT and OMT projects. This has raised the risk of default on 25 national highway toll projects which involve Rs. 19,435 crore of debt. The risk of such loan defaults will add to banks’ and financial lenders’ stressed assets and non-performing assets. In terms of risk, 12% of the projects have a high risk of leakage in traffic, if a completely alternative route is available, 16% of the projects have moderate risks, and 72%, low risks. To arrive at the debt at risk, the debt outstanding for each of these special purpose vehicles (SPVs), their repayment tenure, concession end date, credit profile of the SPV and its sponsor credit risk profile, are considered. Out of the total debt at risk for the 25 affected projects about Rs. 6,536 crore, which accounts for about 34% of the total debt at risk, is high-risk. Projects with debt at a moderate risk have an aggregate debt of Rs. 3,483 crore, while about Rs. 9,416 crore of debt is considered to be low-risk.

To ensure that the existing BOT projects that are at risk of default do not turn bad for the financial institutions, swift and adequate measures are needed. The Kelkar committee had observed that since infrastructure projects span over 20-30 years, a private developer may lose bargaining power owing to abrupt changes in the economic or policy environment. It has thus recommended that the private sector must be protected against such loss. This could be ensured by allowing renegotiation of the terms of the concession agreement.

Financial institutions are already reluctant to finance the infrastructure sector, given the rise in non-performing assets (NPAs). Add to this the probable difficulties that would arise in the case of 25 BOT projects, which would put additional stress on the road infrastructure exposure. The need of the hour is to realign the terms and conditions of the model concession agreement to ensure that banks do not end up accumulating NPAs.Having an appropriate remedial mechanism for BOT operators will help retain interest for investments in new projects; for the lenders, it will help curtail the number of stressed assets from the risk of default.

Refer the above for the Questions 56 to 55
56. Which of the following alternatives among the five options provides the most similar meaning(s) of the word given in BOLD as used in the passage?

Embarked
(I) commence
(II) initiate
(III) rot
(IV) undertake




SHOW ANSWER
Correct Ans:Only (I), (II) and (IV)
Explanation:
Embarked - Begin (a course of action).
Hence it has same meaning as commence, initiate and undertake.
Therefore, I, II and IV are correct.
Workspace



Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below them. Certain words/phrases have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

Indian roads are usually characterized by poor infrastructure and congestion which affect travel time and road safety. This is a big hindrance in economic development and leads to inefficiency in the transportation of goods and services across the country. To address this, the government has embarked upon a massive overhaul of the country’s road network through Bharatmala Pariyojana - an umbrella highway development programme involving 34,800 km of road network at an investment of Rs. 5.35 trillion, to be completed by 2022. The programme focuses on optimizing the efficiency of road traffic movement across the country by bridging critical infrastructure gaps through shorter routes. The end goal is to create economic corridors (ECs) along the path - new industries, more employment and new markets.

The programme, however, will have a negative bearing on the existing road network because it will compete directly with some of the existing build-operate-transfer (BOT) toll road projects. Out of the 44 ECs, about 21 would partially or fully affect the existing alignments, while the remaining 23 that involve upgradation of existing alignment will not result in any deviation. Among the 21 corridors affected, eight have a totally different route (which is shorter) while the remaining 13 have some deviations from the existing alignment. Overall, there are 24 BOT projects and one operate-maintain-transfer (OMT) project whose traffic could be affected by the proposed ECs. The Bharatmala programme may result in traffic diversion from the existing road network to new roads, thereby affecting the toll collection and, consequently, the debt servicing ability of some of the BOT and OMT projects. This has raised the risk of default on 25 national highway toll projects which involve Rs. 19,435 crore of debt. The risk of such loan defaults will add to banks’ and financial lenders’ stressed assets and non-performing assets. In terms of risk, 12% of the projects have a high risk of leakage in traffic, if a completely alternative route is available, 16% of the projects have moderate risks, and 72%, low risks. To arrive at the debt at risk, the debt outstanding for each of these special purpose vehicles (SPVs), their repayment tenure, concession end date, credit profile of the SPV and its sponsor credit risk profile, are considered. Out of the total debt at risk for the 25 affected projects about Rs. 6,536 crore, which accounts for about 34% of the total debt at risk, is high-risk. Projects with debt at a moderate risk have an aggregate debt of Rs. 3,483 crore, while about Rs. 9,416 crore of debt is considered to be low-risk.

To ensure that the existing BOT projects that are at risk of default do not turn bad for the financial institutions, swift and adequate measures are needed. The Kelkar committee had observed that since infrastructure projects span over 20-30 years, a private developer may lose bargaining power owing to abrupt changes in the economic or policy environment. It has thus recommended that the private sector must be protected against such loss. This could be ensured by allowing renegotiation of the terms of the concession agreement.

Financial institutions are already reluctant to finance the infrastructure sector, given the rise in non-performing assets (NPAs). Add to this the probable difficulties that would arise in the case of 25 BOT projects, which would put additional stress on the road infrastructure exposure. The need of the hour is to realign the terms and conditions of the model concession agreement to ensure that banks do not end up accumulating NPAs.Having an appropriate remedial mechanism for BOT operators will help retain interest for investments in new projects; for the lenders, it will help curtail the number of stressed assets from the risk of default.

Refer the above for the Questions 57 to 56
57. Which of the following alternatives among the five options provides the most similar meaning(s) of the word given in BOLD as used in the passage?

Curtail
(I) reduce
(II) curb
(III) retrench
(IV) truncate




SHOW ANSWER
Correct Ans:All are correct
Explanation:
Curtail - Reduce in extent or quantity; impose a restriction on.
Hence all the words are similar in meaning to Curtail.
Workspace



Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below them. Certain words/phrases have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

Indian roads are usually characterized by poor infrastructure and congestion which affect travel time and road safety. This is a big hindrance in economic development and leads to inefficiency in the transportation of goods and services across the country. To address this, the government has embarked upon a massive overhaul of the country’s road network through Bharatmala Pariyojana - an umbrella highway development programme involving 34,800 km of road network at an investment of Rs. 5.35 trillion, to be completed by 2022. The programme focuses on optimizing the efficiency of road traffic movement across the country by bridging critical infrastructure gaps through shorter routes. The end goal is to create economic corridors (ECs) along the path - new industries, more employment and new markets.

The programme, however, will have a negative bearing on the existing road network because it will compete directly with some of the existing build-operate-transfer (BOT) toll road projects. Out of the 44 ECs, about 21 would partially or fully affect the existing alignments, while the remaining 23 that involve upgradation of existing alignment will not result in any deviation. Among the 21 corridors affected, eight have a totally different route (which is shorter) while the remaining 13 have some deviations from the existing alignment. Overall, there are 24 BOT projects and one operate-maintain-transfer (OMT) project whose traffic could be affected by the proposed ECs. The Bharatmala programme may result in traffic diversion from the existing road network to new roads, thereby affecting the toll collection and, consequently, the debt servicing ability of some of the BOT and OMT projects. This has raised the risk of default on 25 national highway toll projects which involve Rs. 19,435 crore of debt. The risk of such loan defaults will add to banks’ and financial lenders’ stressed assets and non-performing assets. In terms of risk, 12% of the projects have a high risk of leakage in traffic, if a completely alternative route is available, 16% of the projects have moderate risks, and 72%, low risks. To arrive at the debt at risk, the debt outstanding for each of these special purpose vehicles (SPVs), their repayment tenure, concession end date, credit profile of the SPV and its sponsor credit risk profile, are considered. Out of the total debt at risk for the 25 affected projects about Rs. 6,536 crore, which accounts for about 34% of the total debt at risk, is high-risk. Projects with debt at a moderate risk have an aggregate debt of Rs. 3,483 crore, while about Rs. 9,416 crore of debt is considered to be low-risk.

To ensure that the existing BOT projects that are at risk of default do not turn bad for the financial institutions, swift and adequate measures are needed. The Kelkar committee had observed that since infrastructure projects span over 20-30 years, a private developer may lose bargaining power owing to abrupt changes in the economic or policy environment. It has thus recommended that the private sector must be protected against such loss. This could be ensured by allowing renegotiation of the terms of the concession agreement.

Financial institutions are already reluctant to finance the infrastructure sector, given the rise in non-performing assets (NPAs). Add to this the probable difficulties that would arise in the case of 25 BOT projects, which would put additional stress on the road infrastructure exposure. The need of the hour is to realign the terms and conditions of the model concession agreement to ensure that banks do not end up accumulating NPAs.Having an appropriate remedial mechanism for BOT operators will help retain interest for investments in new projects; for the lenders, it will help curtail the number of stressed assets from the risk of default.

Refer the above for the Questions 58 to 57
58. A phrase "did not turn" is given in the passage is highlighted which may or may not contain grammatical error. There are five alternatives given below, one of which may replace the existing highlighted part to make the sentence grammatically correct and contextually meaningful. Choose the most appropriate alternative as your answer. If the phrase is grammatically correct, as given, and doesn't require any correction, choose option (e) i.e., 'No correction required' as your answer.




SHOW ANSWER
Correct Ans:do not turn
Explanation:
Here, 'do not turn' is the correct phrase to be replaced thus making the sentence grammatically correct.
Workspace



Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below them. Certain words/phrases have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

Indian roads are usually characterized by poor infrastructure and congestion which affect travel time and road safety. This is a big hindrance in economic development and leads to inefficiency in the transportation of goods and services across the country. To address this, the government has embarked upon a massive overhaul of the country’s road network through Bharatmala Pariyojana - an umbrella highway development programme involving 34,800 km of road network at an investment of Rs. 5.35 trillion, to be completed by 2022. The programme focuses on optimizing the efficiency of road traffic movement across the country by bridging critical infrastructure gaps through shorter routes. The end goal is to create economic corridors (ECs) along the path - new industries, more employment and new markets.

The programme, however, will have a negative bearing on the existing road network because it will compete directly with some of the existing build-operate-transfer (BOT) toll road projects. Out of the 44 ECs, about 21 would partially or fully affect the existing alignments, while the remaining 23 that involve upgradation of existing alignment will not result in any deviation. Among the 21 corridors affected, eight have a totally different route (which is shorter) while the remaining 13 have some deviations from the existing alignment. Overall, there are 24 BOT projects and one operate-maintain-transfer (OMT) project whose traffic could be affected by the proposed ECs. The Bharatmala programme may result in traffic diversion from the existing road network to new roads, thereby affecting the toll collection and, consequently, the debt servicing ability of some of the BOT and OMT projects. This has raised the risk of default on 25 national highway toll projects which involve Rs. 19,435 crore of debt. The risk of such loan defaults will add to banks’ and financial lenders’ stressed assets and non-performing assets. In terms of risk, 12% of the projects have a high risk of leakage in traffic, if a completely alternative route is available, 16% of the projects have moderate risks, and 72%, low risks. To arrive at the debt at risk, the debt outstanding for each of these special purpose vehicles (SPVs), their repayment tenure, concession end date, credit profile of the SPV and its sponsor credit risk profile, are considered. Out of the total debt at risk for the 25 affected projects about Rs. 6,536 crore, which accounts for about 34% of the total debt at risk, is high-risk. Projects with debt at a moderate risk have an aggregate debt of Rs. 3,483 crore, while about Rs. 9,416 crore of debt is considered to be low-risk.

To ensure that the existing BOT projects that are at risk of default do not turn bad for the financial institutions, swift and adequate measures are needed. The Kelkar committee had observed that since infrastructure projects span over 20-30 years, a private developer may lose bargaining power owing to abrupt changes in the economic or policy environment. It has thus recommended that the private sector must be protected against such loss. This could be ensured by allowing renegotiation of the terms of the concession agreement.

Financial institutions are already reluctant to finance the infrastructure sector, given the rise in non-performing assets (NPAs). Add to this the probable difficulties that would arise in the case of 25 BOT projects, which would put additional stress on the road infrastructure exposure. The need of the hour is to realign the terms and conditions of the model concession agreement to ensure that banks do not end up accumulating NPAs.Having an appropriate remedial mechanism for BOT operators will help retain interest for investments in new projects; for the lenders, it will help curtail the number of stressed assets from the risk of default.

Refer the above for the Questions 59 to 58
59. Remedial measure(s) available to BOT operators is/are

(I) Providing them the necessary resources for accomplishment of the project
(II) realigning the terms and conditions of the model concession agreement to ensure that banks do not end up accumulating NPAs
(III) Allowing renegotiation of the terms of concession agreement to private sector.




SHOW ANSWER
Correct Ans:Both (II) and (III)
Explanation:
By referring the third paragraph, 'This could be ensured by allowing renegotiation of the terms of the concession agreement.' And also referring the fourth paragraph, 'The need of the hour is to realign the terms and conditions of the model concession agreement to ensure that banks do not end up accumulating NPAs.'
Hence, II and III are correct and I is irrelevant.
Workspace



Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below them. Certain words/phrases have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

Indian roads are usually characterized by poor infrastructure and congestion which affect travel time and road safety. This is a big hindrance in economic development and leads to inefficiency in the transportation of goods and services across the country. To address this, the government has embarked upon a massive overhaul of the country’s road network through Bharatmala Pariyojana - an umbrella highway development programme involving 34,800 km of road network at an investment of Rs. 5.35 trillion, to be completed by 2022. The programme focuses on optimizing the efficiency of road traffic movement across the country by bridging critical infrastructure gaps through shorter routes. The end goal is to create economic corridors (ECs) along the path - new industries, more employment and new markets.

The programme, however, will have a negative bearing on the existing road network because it will compete directly with some of the existing build-operate-transfer (BOT) toll road projects. Out of the 44 ECs, about 21 would partially or fully affect the existing alignments, while the remaining 23 that involve upgradation of existing alignment will not result in any deviation. Among the 21 corridors affected, eight have a totally different route (which is shorter) while the remaining 13 have some deviations from the existing alignment. Overall, there are 24 BOT projects and one operate-maintain-transfer (OMT) project whose traffic could be affected by the proposed ECs. The Bharatmala programme may result in traffic diversion from the existing road network to new roads, thereby affecting the toll collection and, consequently, the debt servicing ability of some of the BOT and OMT projects. This has raised the risk of default on 25 national highway toll projects which involve Rs. 19,435 crore of debt. The risk of such loan defaults will add to banks’ and financial lenders’ stressed assets and non-performing assets. In terms of risk, 12% of the projects have a high risk of leakage in traffic, if a completely alternative route is available, 16% of the projects have moderate risks, and 72%, low risks. To arrive at the debt at risk, the debt outstanding for each of these special purpose vehicles (SPVs), their repayment tenure, concession end date, credit profile of the SPV and its sponsor credit risk profile, are considered. Out of the total debt at risk for the 25 affected projects about Rs. 6,536 crore, which accounts for about 34% of the total debt at risk, is high-risk. Projects with debt at a moderate risk have an aggregate debt of Rs. 3,483 crore, while about Rs. 9,416 crore of debt is considered to be low-risk.

To ensure that the existing BOT projects that are at risk of default do not turn bad for the financial institutions, swift and adequate measures are needed. The Kelkar committee had observed that since infrastructure projects span over 20-30 years, a private developer may lose bargaining power owing to abrupt changes in the economic or policy environment. It has thus recommended that the private sector must be protected against such loss. This could be ensured by allowing renegotiation of the terms of the concession agreement.

Financial institutions are already reluctant to finance the infrastructure sector, given the rise in non-performing assets (NPAs). Add to this the probable difficulties that would arise in the case of 25 BOT projects, which would put additional stress on the road infrastructure exposure. The need of the hour is to realign the terms and conditions of the model concession agreement to ensure that banks do not end up accumulating NPAs.Having an appropriate remedial mechanism for BOT operators will help retain interest for investments in new projects; for the lenders, it will help curtail the number of stressed assets from the risk of default.

Refer the above for the Questions 60 to 59
60. The appropriate title of the passage is




SHOW ANSWER
Correct Ans:Bharatmala and the rising debt issues
Explanation:
Here, 'Bharatmala and the rising debt issues' is an appropriate title of the passage.
Workspace



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