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Java Questions And Answers Sample Test 1


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Java Test 1


You have scored 3 out of 10
You Scored:2
Total Questions:2
Attended Questions:2
Correct Answered:2
1.
Which three statements are true?

Assertion checking is typically enabled when a program is deployed.
It is never appropriate to write code to handle failure of an assert statement.
Assertion checking is typically enabled during program development and testing.
Assertion checking can be selectively enabled or disabled on a per-package basis, but not on a per-class basis.
Assertion checking can be selectively enabled or disabled on both a per-package basis and a per-class basis.



Explanation:

(1) is wrong. It's just not true.

(2) is correct. You're never supposed to handle an assertion failure.

(3) is correct. Assertions let you test your assumptions during development, but the assertion code—in effect—evaporates when the program is deployed, leaving behind no overhead or debugging code to track down and remove.

(4) is wrong. See the explanation for (5) below.

(5) is correct. Assertion checking can be selectively enabled or disabled on a per-package basis. Note that the package default assertion status determines the assertion status for classes initialized in the future that belong to the named package or any of its "subpackages".

The assertion status can be set for a named top-level class and any nested classes contained therein. This setting takes precedence over the class loader's default assertion status, and over any applicable per-package default. If the named class is not a top-level class, the change of status will have no effect on the actual assertion status of any class


2.
class Test 
{  
    private Demo d; 
    void start() 
    {  
        d = new Demo(); 
        this.takeDemo(d); /* Line 7 */
    } /* Line 8 */
    void takeDemo(Demo demo) 
    { 
        demo = null;  
        demo = new Demo(); 
    } 
}
When is the Demo object eligible for garbage collection?



Explanation:

Option D is correct. By a process of elimination.

Option A is wrong. The variable d is a member of the Test class and is never directly set to null.

Option B is wrong. A copy of the variable d is set to null and not the actual variable d.

Option C is wrong. The variable d exists outside the start() method (it is a class member). So, when the start() method finishes the variable d still holds a reference.


3.
public class ExceptionTest 
    class TestException extends Exception {} 
    public void runTest() throws TestException {} 
    public void test() /* Point X */ 
    { 
        runTest(); 
    } 
}
At Point X on line 5, which code is necessary to make the code compile?



Explanation:

Option B is correct. This works because it DOES throw an exception if an error occurs.

Option A is wrong. If you compile the code as given the compiler will complain:

"unreported exception must be caught or declared to be thrown" The class extends Exception so we are forced to test for exceptions.

Option C is wrong. The catch statement belongs in a method body not a method specification.

Option D is wrong. TestException is a subclass of Exception therefore the test method, in this example, must throw TestException or some other class further up the Exception tree. Throwing RuntimeException is just not on as this belongs in the java.lang.RuntimeException branch (it is not a superclass of TestException). The compiler complains with the same error as in A above.


4.
Which three are legal array declarations?

int [] myScores [];
char [] myChars;
int [6] myScores;
Dog myDogs [];
Dog myDogs [7];



Explanation:

(1), (2), and (4) are legal array declarations. With an array declaration, you can place the brackets to the right or left of the identifier. Option A looks strange, but it's perfectly legal to split the brackets in a multidimensional array, and place them on both sides of the identifier. Although coding this way would only annoy your fellow programmers, for the exam, you need to know it's legal.

(3) and (5) are wrong because you can't declare an array with a size. The size is only needed when the array is actually instantiated (and the JVM needs to know how much space to allocate for the array, based on the type of array and the size).


5.
What will be the output of the program?

class Bitwise 
{
    public static void main(String [] args) 
    {
        int x = 11 & 9;
        int y = x ^ 3;
        System.out.println( y | 12 );
    }
}



Explanation:

The & operator produces a 1 bit when both bits are 1. The result of the & operation is 9. The ^ operator produces a 1 bit when exactly one bit is 1; the result of this operation is 10. The | operator produces a 1 bit when at least one bit is 1; the result of this operation is 14.


6. Which statement is true about a static nested class?



Explanation:

Option B is correct because a static nested class is not tied to an instance of the enclosing class, and thus can't access the nonstatic members of the class (just as a static method can't access nonstatic members of a class).

Option A is incorrect because static nested classes do not need (and can't use) a reference to an instance of the enclosing class.

Option C is incorrect because static nested classes can declare and define nonstatic members.

Option D is wrong because it just is. There's no rule that says an inner or nested class has to extend anything.


7.
Which two are valid constructors for Thread?

Thread(Runnable r, String name)
Thread()
Thread(int priority)
Thread(Runnable r, ThreadGroup g)
Thread(Runnable r, int priority)



Explanation:

(1) and (2) are both valid constructors for Thread.

(3), (4), and (5) are not legal Thread constructors, although (4) is close. If you reverse the arguments in (4), you'd have a valid constructor.


8. What allows the programmer to destroy an object x?



Explanation:

Option D is correct. When an object is no longer referenced, it may be reclaimed by the garbage collector. If an object declares a finalizer, the finalizer is executed before the object is reclaimed to give the object a last chance to clean up resources that would not otherwise be released. When a class is no longer needed, it may be unloaded.

Option A is wrong. I found 4 delete() methods in all of the Java class structure. They are:

delete() - Method in class java.io.File : Deletes the file or directory denoted by this abstract pathname.
delete(int, int) - Method in class java.lang.StringBuffer : Removes the characters in a substring of this StringBuffer.
delete(int, int) - Method in interface javax.accessibility.AccessibleEditableText : Deletes the text between two indices
delete(int, int) - Method in class : javax.swing.text.JTextComponent.AccessibleJTextComponent; Deletes the text between two indices
None of these destroy the object to which they belong.

Option B is wrong. I found 19 finalize() methods. The most interesting, from this questions point of view, was the finalize() method in class java.lang.Object which is called by the garbage collector on an object when garbage collection determines that there are no more references to the object. This method does not destroy the object to which it belongs.

Option C is wrong. But it is interesting. The Runtime class has many methods, two of which are:

getRuntime() - Returns the runtime object associated with the current Java application.
gc() - Runs the garbage collector. Calling this method suggests that the Java virtual machine expend effort toward recycling unused objects in order to make the memory they currently occupy available for quick reuse. When control returns from the method call, the virtual machine has made its best effort to recycle all discarded objects. Interesting as this is, it doesn't destroy the object.


9. Which constructs an anonymous inner class instance?



Explanation:

D is correct. It defines an anonymous inner class instance, which also means it creates an instance of that new anonymous class at the same time. The anonymous class is an implementer of the Runnable interface, so it must override the run() method of Runnable.

A is incorrect because it doesn't override the run() method, so it violates the rules of interface implementation.

B and C use incorrect syntax.


10. Which is a reserved word in the Java programming language?



Explanation:

The word "native" is a valid keyword, used to modify a method declaration.

Option A, D and E are not keywords. Option C is wrong because the keyword for subclassing in Java is extends, not 'subclasses'.


11. Which interface provides the capability to store objects using a key-value pair?



Explanation:

An object that maps keys to values. A map cannot contain duplicate keys; each key can map to at most one value.


12.
Which of the following are Java reserved words?

run
import
default
implement



Explanation:

(2) - This is a Java keyword

(3) - This is a Java keyword

(1) - Is incorrect because although it is a method of Thread/Runnable it is not a keyword

(4) - This is not a Java keyword the keyword is implements


13.
Which three guarantee that a thread will leave the running state?

yield()
wait()
notify()
notifyAll()
sleep(1000)
aLiveThread.join()
Thread.killThread()



Explanation:

(2) is correct because wait() always causes the current thread to go into the object's wait pool.

(5) is correct because sleep() will always pause the currently running thread for at least the duration specified in the sleep argument (unless an interrupted exception is thrown).

(6) is correct because, assuming that the thread you're calling join() on is alive, the thread calling join() will immediately block until the thread you're calling join() on is no longer alive.

(1) is wrong, but tempting. The yield() method is not guaranteed to cause a thread to leave the running state, although if there are runnable threads of the same priority as the currently running thread, then the current thread will probably leave the running state.

(3) and (4) are incorrect because they don't cause the thread invoking them to leave the running state.

(7) is wrong because there's no such method.


14.
What will be the output of the program?

class PassS 
{
    public static void main(String [] args) 
    {
        PassS p = new PassS();
        p.start();
    }

    void start() 
    {
        String s1 = "slip";
        String s2 = fix(s1);
        System.out.println(s1 + " " + s2);
    }

    String fix(String s1) 
    {
        s1 = s1 + "stream";
        System.out.print(s1 + " ");
        return "stream";
    }
}



Explanation:

When the fix() method is first entered, start()'s s1 and fix()'s s1 reference variables both refer to the same String object (with a value of "slip"). Fix()'s s1 is reassigned to a new object that is created when the concatenation occurs (this second String object has a value of "slipstream"). When the program returns to start(), another String object is created, referred to by s2 and with a value of "stream".


15.
public class Test 
    public void foo() 
    {
        assert false; /* Line 5 */
        assert false; /* Line 6 */
    } 
    public void bar()
    {
        while(true)
        {
            assert false; /* Line 12 */
        } 
        assert false;  /* Line 14 */
    } 
}
What causes compilation to fail?



Explanation:

Option D is correct. Compilation fails because of an unreachable statement at line 14. It is a compile-time error if a statement cannot be executed because it is unreachable. The question is now, why is line 20 unreachable? If it is because of the assert then surely line 6 would also be unreachable. The answer must be something other than assert.

Examine the following:

A while statement can complete normally if and only if at least one of the following is true:

- The while statement is reachable and the condition expression is not a constant expression with value true.

-There is a reachable break statement that exits the while statement.


16.
What will be the output of the program?

public class If2 
{
    static boolean b1, b2;
    public static void main(String [] args) 
    {
        int x = 0;
        if ( !b1 ) /* Line 7 */
        {
            if ( !b2 ) /* Line 9 */
            {
                b1 = true;
                x++;
                if ( 5 > 6 ) 
                {
                    x++;
                }
                if ( !b1 ) 
                    x = x + 10;
                else if ( b2 = true ) /* Line 19 */
                    x = x + 100;
                else if ( b1 | b2 ) /* Line 21 */
                    x = x + 1000;
            }
        }
        System.out.println(x);
    }
}



Explanation:

As instance variables, b1 and b2 are initialized to false. The if tests on lines 7 and 9 are successful so b1 is set to true and x is incremented. The next if test to succeed is on line 19 (note that the code is not testing to see if b2 is true, it is setting b2 to be true). Since line 19 was successful, subsequent else-if's (line 21) will be skipped.


17. Which collection class allows you to grow or shrink its size and provides indexed access to its elements, but whose methods are not synchronized?



Explanation:

All of the collection classes allow you to grow or shrink the size of your collection. ArrayList provides an index to its elements. The newer collection classes tend not to have synchronized methods. Vector is an older implementation of ArrayList functionality and has synchronized methods; it is slower than ArrayList.


18.
What will be the output of the program?

public class TestObj 
{
    public static void main (String [] args) 
    {
        Object o = new Object() /* Line 5 */
        {
            public boolean equals(Object obj) 
            {
                return true;
            } 
        }      /* Line 11 */
        
        System.out.println(o.equals("Fred"));
    }
}



Explanation:

This code would be legal if line 11 ended with a semicolon. Remember that line 5 is a statement that doesn't end until line 11, and a statement needs a closing semicolon!


19.
class Foo 
{
    class Bar{ }
}
class Test 
{
    public static void main (String [] args) 
    {
        Foo f = new Foo();
        /* Line 10: Missing statement ? */
    }
}
which statement, inserted at line 10, creates an instance of Bar?



Explanation:

Option B is correct because the syntax is correct-using both names (the enclosing class and the inner class) in the reference declaration, then using a reference to the enclosing class to invoke new on the inner class.

Option A, C and D all use incorrect syntax. A is incorrect because it doesn't use a reference to the enclosing class, and also because it includes both names in the new.

C is incorrect because it doesn't use the enclosing class name in the reference variable declaration, and because the new syntax is wrong.

D is incorrect because it doesn't use the enclosing class name in the reference variable declaration.


20.
Which three are valid declarations of a char?

char c1 = 064770;
char c2 = 'face';
char c3 = 0xbeef;
char c4 = u0022;
char c5 = 'iface';
char c6 = 'uface';



Explanation:

(1), (3), and (6) are correct. char c1 = 064770; is an octal representation of the integer value 27128, which is legal because it fits into an unsigned 16-bit integer. char c3 = 0xbeef; is a hexadecimal representation of the integer value 48879, which fits into an unsigned 16-bit integer. char c6 = 'uface'; is a Unicode representation of a character.

char c2 = 'face'; is wrong because you can't put more than one character in a char literal. The only other acceptable char literal that can go between single quotes is a Unicode value, and Unicode literals must always start with a 'u'.

char c4 = u0022; is wrong because the single quotes are missing.

char c5 = 'iface'; is wrong because it appears to be a Unicode representation (notice the backslash), but starts with 'i' rather than 'u'.


21. Which method must be defined by a class implementing the java.lang.Runnable interface?



Explanation:

Option B is correct because in an interface all methods are abstract by default therefore they must be overridden by the implementing class. The Runnable interface only contains 1 method, the void run() method therefore it must be implemented.

Option A and D are incorrect because they are narrowing the access privileges i.e. package(default) access is narrower than public access.

Option C is not method in the Runnable interface therefore it is incorrect.


22.
What will be the output of the program?

public class Test 
{
    public static void main(String [] args) 
    {
        int I = 1;
        do while ( I < 1 )
        System.out.print("I is " + I);
        while ( I > 1 ) ;
    }
}



Explanation:

There are two different looping constructs in this problem. The first is a do-while loop and the second is a while loop, nested inside the do-while. The body of the do-while is only a single statement-brackets are not needed. You are assured that the while expression will be evaluated at least once, followed by an evaluation of the do-while expression. Both expressions are false and no output is produced.


23.
What will be the output of the program?

class BoolArray 
{
    boolean [] b = new boolean[3];
    int count = 0;

    void set(boolean [] x, int i) 
    {
        x[i] = true;
        ++count;
    }

    public static void main(String [] args) 
    {
        BoolArray ba = new BoolArray();
        ba.set(ba.b, 0);
        ba.set(ba.b, 2);
        ba.test();
    }

    void test() 
    {
        if ( b[0] && b[1] | b[2] )
            count++;
        if ( b[1] && b[(++count - 2)] )
            count += 7;
        System.out.println("count = " + count);
    }
}



Explanation:

The reference variables b and x both refer to the same boolean array. count is incremented for each call to the set() method, and once again when the first if test is true. Because of the && short circuit operator, count is not incremented during the second if test.


24.
What will be the output of the program?

class Equals 
{
    public static void main(String [] args) 
    {
        int x = 100;
        double y = 100.1;
        boolean b = (x = y); /* Line 7 */
        System.out.println(b);
    }
}



Explanation:

The code will not compile because in line 7, the line will work only if we use (x==y) in the line. The == operator compares values to produce a boolean, whereas the = operator assigns a value to variables.

Option A, B, and D are incorrect because the code does not get as far as compiling. If we corrected this code, the output would be false.


25. Which is a valid keyword in java?



Explanation:

interface is a valid keyword.

Option B is wrong because although "String" is a class type in Java, "string" is not a keyword.

Option C is wrong because "Float" is a class type. The keyword for the Java primitive is float.

Option D is wrong because "unsigned" is a keyword in C/C++ but not in Java.


26. What is the name of the method used to start a thread execution?



Explanation:

Option B is Correct. The start() method causes this thread to begin execution; the Java Virtual Machine calls the run method of this thread.

Option A is wrong. There is no init() method in the Thread class.

Option C is wrong. The run() method of a thread is like the main() method to an application. Starting the thread causes the object's run method to be called in that separately executing thread.

Option D is wrong. The resume() method is deprecated. It resumes a suspended thread.


27. Which cannot directly cause a thread to stop executing?



Explanation:

notify() - wakes up a single thread that is waiting on this object's monitor.


28.
What will be the output of the program?

public class Foo 
{  
    public static void main(String[] args) 
    {
        try 
        { 
            return; 
        } 
        finally 
        {
            System.out.println( "Finally" ); 
        } 
    } 
}



Explanation:

If you put a finally block after a try and its associated catch blocks, then once execution enters the try block, the code in that finally block will definitely be executed except in the following circumstances:

An exception arising in the finally block itself.
The death of the thread.
The use of System.exit()
Turning off the power to the CPU.
I suppose the last three could be classified as VM shutdown.


29.
What will be the output of the program?

public class X 
    public static void main(String [] args) 
    {
        try 
        {
            badMethod();  
            System.out.print("A"); 
        }  
        catch (Exception ex) 
        {
            System.out.print("B"); 
        }  
        finally 
        {
            System.out.print("C"); 
        }  
        System.out.print("D"); 
    }  
    public static void badMethod() {} 



Explanation:

There is no exception thrown, so all the code with the exception of the catch statement block is run.


30. Which will contain the body of the thread?



Explanation:

Option A is Correct. The run() method to a thread is like the main() method to an application. Starting the thread causes the object's run method to be called in that separately executing thread.

Option B is wrong. The start() method causes this thread to begin execution; the Java Virtual Machine calls the run method of this thread.

Option C is wrong. The stop() method is deprecated. It forces the thread to stop executing.

Option D is wrong. Is the main entry point for an application.




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