Global Tuberculosis Report 2015 released by WHO

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Who: Global Tuberculosis Report 2015
What: Released by World Health Organization (WHO)
When: 28 October 2015

World Health Organization (WHO) on 28 October 2015 released Global Tuberculosis Report 2015 in Washington. This is the twentieth global report on tuberculosis (TB) that started in 1997.

The 2015 edition focuses on whether 2015 global TB targets set in the context of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were achieved worldwide and at regional and country levels.

According to the report, globally the prevalence of TB was reduced by half than what was in 1990.

Moreover, effective diagnosis and treatment saved 43 million lives between 2000 and 2015 and resulted in fall in TB incidence by 1.5 percent per year since 200, for a total reduction of 18%.

India with 23 percent of TB cases has the largest number of cases in the world and it accounted for 27 percent global TB notifications in 2014.

Highlights of the report

• Globally, TB prevalence in 2015 was 42% lower than in 1990.
• The target of halving the rate compared with 1990 was achieved in three WHO regions, namely the Region of the Americas, the South-East Asia Region and the Western Pacific Region
• The TB prevalence also halved in nine high-burden countries, namely Brazil, Cambodia, China, Ethiopia, India, Myanmar, the Philippines, Uganda and Viet Nam.
• In 2014, there was a marked increase in global TB notifications for the first time since 2007. The annual total of new TB cases, which had been about 5.7 million until 2013, rose to slightly more than 6 million in 2014 (an increase of 6%).
• About 1.5 million people (890000 men, 480000 women and 140000 children) died from TB in 2014, of which most of the deaths could have been prevented.
• Of the 1.5 million people killed by TB in 2014, 400000 were HIV-positive. The disease ranks alongside HIV as a leading killer worldwide.
• About 4400 people are dying every day due to TB, at least in the era when the disease can be diagnosed and cured.
• More than half of the world’s TB cases (54%) occurred in China, India, Indonesia, Nigeria and Pakistan.
• India, Indonesia and China had the largest number of cases: 23%, 10% and 10% of the global total, respectively.
• Among new cases, an estimated 3.3% have multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB), a level that has remained unchanged in recent years.
• If all of the TB cases notified in 2014 had been tested for drug resistance, an estimated 300000 would have been found to have MDR-TB, with more than half of them (54%) occurring in India, China and the Russian Federation
• Of the 9.6 million people who fell ill with TB in 2014, 6 million (62.5%) were reported to national authorities. That means that, worldwide, more than a third (37.5%) of the cases went undiagnosed or was not reported to national authorities.
• Domestic funding accounts for more than 90% of the total funding in 2015 in three country groups: Brazil, the Russian Federation, India, China and South Africa (BRICS); upper-middle-income countries; and regions outside Africa and Asia.

Highlights about India
• India was part of the nine high-burden countries where all three of the 2015 targets for incidence, prevalence and mortality were met.
• India accounted for 27% of global TB notifications in 2014.
• India that followed the introduction of a policy of mandatory notification in May 2012 saw a rise of 29 percent TB notifications.
• India with 23 percent of TB cases has the largest number of cases in the world.
• India is among the group of countries wherein more than half of the world’s TB cases occurred.
• India is one of three countries wherein more than half (54%) TB cases that were notified in 2014 had Multi-Drug Resistance (MDR) – TB.

Suggestions of the Report
The report says that if the world wants to end this epidemic than it needs to scale up services and investment in research, that is,  to reduce TB’s overall burden, detection and treatment gaps need to be closed, funding shortfalls should be filled and new diagnostics, drugs and vaccines should be developed.

This shortfall in funding in 2015 amounted to 1.4 billion US dollars of the 8 billion US dollar needed to fully implement interventions. In addition, an annual funding gap of at least 1.3 billion US dollar must be filled for research that would include the development of new diagnostics, drugs and vaccines.

Comment
The report provides a comprehensive and up-to-date assessment of the TB epidemic and progress in implementing and financing TB prevention, care, control and research global, regional and country levels using data reported by over 200 countries that account for more than 99 percent of the World’s TB cases.

From 2016, the global goal will shift from controlling TB to ending the global TB epidemic. The End TB Strategy, adopted by all WHO Member States, serves as a blueprint for countries to reduce TB incidence by 80% and TB deaths by 90% and to eliminate catastrophic costs for TB-affected households by 2030.

Ending the TB epidemic is now part of the Sustainable Development Goal agenda.