NCERT SOLUTIONS FOR CLASS 8 SOCIAL SCIENCE

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science is provided here. Students can read the complete NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science for history, civics, and Geography. This page provides the complete solution for all Chapters of Class 8 Social Science. Download the NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science PDF here. Get the solutions for all chapters of Class 8 Social Science in this page.

Last modified:2019-08-22

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NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science – Our Pasts III – Part 1

History

01_How When and Where

02_From Trade to Territory

03_Ruling the Countryside

04_Tribals Dikus and the Vision of a Golden Age

05_When the People Rebel

06_Colonialism and the City

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science – Our Pasts III – Part 2

07_Weavers Iron smelters and Factory owners

08_Civilising the Native Educating the Nation

09_Women Caste and Reform

10_The Changing World of Visual Arts

11_The Making of the National Movement 1870s 1947

12_India After Independence

 

Civics (Social and Political Life – III)

Unit One: The Indian Constitution and Secularism

01_The Indian Constitution

02_Understanding Secularism

Unit Two: Parliament and the Making of Laws

03_Why do we Need a Parliament

04_Understanding Laws

Unit Three: The Judiciary

05_Judiciary

06_Understanding Our Criminal Justice

Unit Four: Social Justice and the Marginalised

07_Understanding Marginalisation

08_Confronting Marginalisation

Unit Five: Economic Presence of the Government

09_Public Facilities

10_Law and Social Justice

 

Geography (Resources and Development)

01_Resources

02_Land Soil Water Natural Vegetation and Wildlife Resources

03_Mineral and Power Resources

04_Agriculture

05_Industries

06_Human Resources

Chapter 1 - How, When and Where

 

Question 1

State whether true or false:

(a) James Mill divided Indian history into three periods—Hindu, Muslim, Christian.

(b) Official documents help us understand what the people of the country think.

(c) The British thought surveys were important for effective administration.

Answer

(a) False (b) False (c) True

 

Question 2

What is the problem with the periodisation of Indian history that James Mill offers?

Answer

James Mill divided Indian history into three periods—Hindu, Muslim and British. This periodisation has its own problem. It is difficult to refer to any period of history as ‘Hindu’ or ‘Muslim’ because a variety of faiths existed simultaneously in these periods. It is also not justified to characterise an age through the religion of the rulers of the time. What it suggests is that the lives and practices of others do not really matter. It is worth-mentioning that even rulers in ancient India did not all share the same faith.

 

Question 3

Why did the British preserve official documents?

Answer

The British believed that by preserving official documents, it would be easier for them or any other persons to know about the decisions taken in the past. One can study the notes and reports that were prepared in the past. Their copies may be prepared and used in present time if needed so.

 

Question 4

How will the information historians get from old newspapers be different from that found in police reports?

Answer

The information printed in newspaper are usually affected by the views and opinions of the reporters, news editors etc. But what historians find in police reports are usually true and realistic.

 

Question 5

Can you think of examples of surveys in your world today? Think about how toy companies get information about what young people enjoy playing with or how the government finds out about the number of young people in school. What can a historian derive from such surveys?

Answer

Do yourself

 

Chapter 2 - From Trade to Territory

 

Question 1

Match the following:

 

Diwani

Tipu Sultan

“Tiger of Mysore”

right to collect land revenue

faujdari adalat

Sepoy

Rani Channamma

criminal court

sipahi

led an anti-British

movement in Kitoor

Answer

Diwani

right to collect land revenue

“Tiger of Mysore”

Tipu Sultan

faujdari adalat

criminal court

Rani Channamma

led an anti-British

movement in Kitoor

sipahi

Sepoy

 

Question 2

Fill in the blanks:

(a) The British conquest of Bengal began with the Battle of …………

(b) Haider Ali and Tipu Sultan were the rulers of …………..

(c) Dalhousie implemented the Doctrine of ……………

(d) Maratha kingdoms were located mainly in the part of …………… India.

Answer

(a) Plassey (b) Mysore (c) Lapse (d) Western

 

Question 3

State whether true or false:

(a) The Mughal empire became stronger in the eighteenth century.

(b) The English East India Company was the only European company that traded with India.

(c) Maharaja Ranjit Singh was the ruler of Punjab.

(d) The British did not introduce administrative changes in the territories they conquered.

Answer

(a) False (b) False (c) True (d) False

 

Question 4

What attracted European trading companies to India?

Answer

(a) The fine qualities of cotton and silk produced in India.

(b) Indian spices such as pepper, cloves, cardamom and cinnamon.

 

Question 5

What were the areas of conflict between the Bengal Nawabs and the East India Company?

Answer

(a) The Bengal nawabs asserted their power and autonomy and refused to grant the Company concessions,

(b) They demanded large tributes for the Company’s right to trade,

(c) They denied the Company any right to mint coins,

(d) They stopped the Company from extending its fortifications

(e) Accusing the Company of deceit, they claimed that the Company was depriving the Bengal government of huge amounts of revenue and undermining the authority of the nawab. It was refusing to pay taxes, writing disrespectful letters, and trying to humiliate the nawab and his officials.

These were the areas of conflict between the Bengal Nawabs and the East India Company.

 

Question 6

How did the assumption of Diwani benefit the East India Company?

Answer

The Mughal emperor, in 1765, appointed the Company %s the Diwan of the provinces of Bengal. The Diwani allowed the Company to exploit the vast revenue resources of Bengal. This solved a major problem that the company had earlier faced. Although its trade had expanded, it had to buy most of the goods in India with gold and silver imported from Britain. The overflow of gold from Britain stopped after the assumption of Diwani. Now revenue from India could finance Company expenses. These revenues they used to purchase cotton and silk textiles in India, maintain Company troops and meet the cost of building the Company fort and offices at Calcutta.

 

Question 7

Explain the system of ‘subsidiary alliance’.

Answer

Under the system of ‘subsidiary alliance’, Indian rulers were not allowed to have their independent armed forces. They were to be protected by the Company, but had to pay for the ‘subsidiary forces’ that the Company was supposed to maintain for the purpose of this protection. If the Indian rulers failed to make the payment, the part of their territory was taken away as penalty. The states which had to lose their territories on this ground were Awadh and Hyderabad.

 

Question 8

In what way was the administration of the Company different from that of Indian rulers?

Answer

The administration of the Company was different from that of the Indian rulers in the following ways:

(a) The Company divided its administrative units called Presidencies. There were three Presidencies— Bengal, Madras and Bombay. In India, districts were the main administrative units.

(b) Each presidency was ruled by a Governor. Districts were ruled by the Collectors.

(c) The supreme head of the administration of the Company was the Governor-General. But in India, the head of the administration was the king.

(d) The main job of the Governor-General was to introduce administrative reforms while the main job of the Collector was to collect revenue and taxes- and maintain law and order in his district.

 

Question 9

Describe the changes that occurred in the composition of the Company’s army.

Answer

Several changes occurred in the composition of the Company’s army:

(a) The Company began recruitment for its own army, which came to be known as the sepoy army.

(b) As the warfare technology changed from the 1820s, the cavalry recruitments of the Company’s army declined.

(c) The soldiers of the Company’s army had to keep pace with changing military requirements and its infantry regiments now became more important.

(d) In the early 19th century the British began to develop a uniform military culture. Soldiers were increasingly subjected to European style training, drill and discipline that regulated Their life for more than before.

 

Question 10

After the British conquest of Bengal, Calcutta -grew from a small village to a big city. Find out about the culture, architecture and the life of Europeans and Indians of the city during the colonial period.

Answer

Hints: Visit school library or get information from internet.

Indians were influenced by the British culture, architecture and lifestyle.

Culture: British influence began.

Architecture: Influenced by the British Architecture (fortification of the city,churches etc.). Rich Indians started constructing bunglows in English style.

Life: English education, English clothes, became to be popular.

 

Question 11

Collect pictures, stories, poems and information about any of the following—the Rani of Jhansi, Mahadji Sindhia, Haidar Ali, Maharaja Ranjit Singh, Lord Dalhousie or any other contemporary ruler of your region.

 

Answer

Activity for Student

The Rani of Jhansi: Collect information and photographs

Hints:

 

Early childhood

Early marriage

Death of husband

Adopted son

Fight with British

Died fighting with   the British.

History would always remember her.

 

Chapter 3 - Ruling the Countryside

 

Question 1

Match the following:

 

ryot

Village

Mahal

peasant

nij

Cultivation on ryot’s lands

ryoti

Cultivation on planter’s own land

Answer

 

ryot

peasant

Mahal

Village

nij

Cultivation on planter’s own land

ryoti

Cultivation on ryot’s lands

 

Question 2

Fill in the blanks:

(a) Growers of woad in Europe saw …………… as a crop which would provide competition to their earnings.

(b) The demand for indigo increased in late eighteenth century Britain because of ………….

(c) The international demand for indigo was affected by the discovery of ………………

(d) The Champaran movement was against ………….

Answer

(a) indigo

(b) industrialisation

(c) synthetic dyes

 

Question 3

Describe the main features of the Permanent Settlement.

Answer

The main features of the Permanent settlements were:

(i) The amount of revenue was fixed permanently, that is, it was not to be increased in ever in future.

(ii) It was felt that this would ensure a regular flow of revenue into the Company’s coffers and at the same time encourage the zamindars to invest in improving the land.

(iii) Since the revenue demand of the state would not be increased, the zamindar would benefit from increased production from the land.

(iv) Under this system revenue had been fixed so high that the zamindars found it difficult to pay.

(v) Even when the income of zamindars increased with the expansion of cultivation, the company had no chance of gain because it could not increase a revenue demand that had been fixed permanently.

(vi) The system proved oppressive for the cultivators.

 

Question 4

How was the Mahalwari System different from the permanent settlement?

Answer

(i) Under the Permanent Settlement the rates of revenue was fixed permanently, that is, it was not to be increased ever in future. But in Mahalwari System it was decided that the rate of revenue would be revised periodically, not permanently fixed.

(ii) Under the Permanent Settlement, the zamindars were given the charge of collecting revenue from the peasants and paying it to the Company. But in the Mahalwari System this charge was given to the village headmen.

 

Question 5

Give two problems which arose with the new Munro system of fixing revenue.

Answer

Two problems:

(i) Revenue officials fixed a very high revenue demand and peasants were unable to pay it.

(ii) Ryots fled the countryside and villages became deserted in many regions.

 

Question 6

Why were ryots reluctant to grow indigo?

Answer

The planters usually forced the ryots to sign a contract. Those who signed the contract got cash advances from the planters at low rates of interest to produce indigo. But the loan committed the ryot to cultivating indigo on at least 25% of the area under his holding. The planter provided the seed and the drill, while cultivators prepared the soil, sowed the seed and looked after the crop. When the crop was delivered to the planter after the harvest, the ryots got another new loan. In this way, they were trapped in the cycle of loan from which it was difficult to come out. Soon, they realised that this was a harsh system. They did hard labour day and night and got a very low price for the indigo they produced.

Other reason was that the planters usually pressurised the ryots to cultivate indigo on the best soils. But the ryots preferred to grow rice on these soils. Indigo had deep roots and it exhausted the soil rapidly. After an indigo harvest the land could not be used for rice cultivation.

 

Question 7

What were the circumstances which led to the eventual collapse of indigo production in Bengal?

Answer

The ryots in Bengal got fed up with the coercive methods the planters used with them and finally refused to grow indigo. They became violent. They not only refused to pay rents to the planters, but also attacked indigo factories armed with swords and spears, bows and arrows. Meanwhile the local zamindars and village headmen also began to favour the indigo ryots. They mobilised the indigo peasants and fought pitched battles with the lathiyals, the lathi- wielding strong men maintained by the planters. In other places even the zamindars went around villages urging the ryots to resist the planters. Worried by the rebellion, the government brought in the military to protect the planters from assault, and set up the Indigo commission to enquire into the system of indigo production. The commission held the planters guilty and criticised them for the coercive method they used with indigo cultivators. It declared that indigo production was not profitable for ryots. The commission asked the ryots to fulfil their existing contracts but also told them that they could refuse to produce indigo in future. After this revolt, indigo production collapsed in Bengal.

 

Question 8

Find out more about the Champaran movement and Mahatma Gandhi’s role in it.

Answer

Students are suggested to visit their library and collect information about it.

 

Question 9

Look into the history of either tea or coffee plantations in India. See how the life of workers in these plantations was similar to or different from that of workers in indigo plantations.

Answer

Students may collect information about it from library.

 

Chapter 4 - Tribals, Dikus and the Vision of a Golden Age

 

Question 1

Fill in the blanks:

(a) The British described the tribal people as …………

(b) The method of sowing seeds in jhum cultivation is known as …………….

(c) The tribal chiefs got …………. titles in central India under the British land settlements.

(d) Tribals went to work in the of Assam and the ……………… in Bihar.

Answer

(a) savage

(b) broadcast

(c) land

(d) tea plantations, coal mines

 

Question 2

State whether true or false:

(a) Jhum cultivators plough the land and sow seeds.

(b) Cocoons were bought from the Santhals and sold by the traders at five times the purchase price.

(c) Birsa urged his followers to purify themselves, give up drinking liquor and stop believing in witchcraft and sorcery.

(d) The British wanted to preserve the tribal way of life.

Answer

(a) False (b) True (c) True (d) False

 

Question 3

What problems did shifting cultivators face under British rule?

Answer

The life of shifting cultivators was directly connected to the forest. So, when the British brought changes in forest laws, their life was badly affected. The British extended their control over all forests and declared that forests were state property. Some forests were classified as Reserved Forests for they produced timber which the British wanted. In these forests people were not allowed to move freely and practise jhum cultivations. As a result, many jhum cultivators had to move to other areas in search of work.

 

Question 4

How did the powers of tribal chiefs change under colonial rule?

Answer

The tribal chiefs were important people. They enjoyed a certain amount of economic power and had the right to administer and control their territories. Under the British rule, the functions and powers of these tribal chiefs changed to a great extent:

(i) They were allowed to keep their land titles over a cluster of villages and rent out lands, but they lost much of their administrative power and were forced to follow laws made by British officials in India.

(ii) They had to pay tribute to’ the British and discipline the tribal groups on behalf of the British.

(iii) They lost the authority they had earlier enjoyed amongst their people, and were unable to fulfil their traditional functions.

 

Question 5

What accounts for the anger of the tribals against the dikus?

Answer

The tribals wanted to drive out the dikus - missionaries, moneylenders, Hindu landlords, and the government because they saw them as the cause of their misery. The following facts account for their anger against the dikus:

(i) The land policies of the British were destroying their traditional land system.

(ii) Hindu landlords and moneylenders were taking over their land.

(iii) Missionaries were criticising their traditional culture.

 

Question 6

What was Birsa’s vision of a golden age? Why do you think such a vision appealed to the people of the region?

Answer

Birsa was deeply influenced by many of the ideas he came in touch within his growing-up years. The movement that he led aimed at reforming tribal society. He urged the Munda to give up drinking liquor, clean their village, and stop believing in witchcraft and sorcery. He often remembered the golden past of the Mundas, when they lived a good life, constructed embankments, tapped natural springs, planted trees and orchards, practised cultivation to earn their living. They did not kill their brethren and relatives. They lived honestly. Birsa wanted to restore this glorious past.

Such a vision appealed to the people of the region because they were very much eager to lead a free life. They had got fed up with the colonial forest laws and the restrictions that were imposed on them.

 

Question 7

Find out from your parents, friends or teachers, the names of some heroes of other tribal revolts in the twentieth century. Write their story in your own words.

Answer

Students are suggested to do this work themselves.

 

Question 8

Choose any tribal group Hiring in India today. Find out about their customs and way of life, and how their lives have changed in the last 50 years.

Answer

Students are suggested to visit a neighbouring tribal area and collect information regarding their customs and way of life and other things.

 

Chapter 5 - When People Rebel (1857 and After)

 

Question 1

What was the demand of Rani Lakshmibai of Jhansi that was refused by the British?

Answer

Rani Lakshmibai of Jhansi wanted the Company to recognise her adopted son as the heir to the kingdom after the death of her husband. But the British refused her plea.

 

Question 2

What did the British do to protect the interests of those who converted to Christianity?

Answer

Those who converted to Christianity would inherit the property of his ancestors.

 

Question 3

What objections did the sepoys have to the new cartridges that they were asked to use?

Answer

The sepoys objected that the new cartridges that they were asked to use were coated with the fat of cows and pigs.

 

Question 4

How did the last Mughal emperor live the last years of his life?

Answer

The last Mughal emperor lived a very pathetic life during the last years of his life. He was tried in court and sentenced to life imprisonment. He and his wife were sent to prison in Rangoon. He died there after four years.

 

Question 5

What could be the reasons for the confidence of the British rulers about their position in India before May 1857?

Answer

The reasons are given below:

(i) Since the mid-18th century Nawabs and Rajas had gradually lost their

authority and honour. Residents had been stationed in many courts, the freedom of the rulers reduced, their armed forces disbanded and their revenues and territories taken away by stages.

(ii) The Company decided to end the Mughal dynasty. In 1849, Governor- General Dalhousie announced that after the death of Bahadur Shah Zafar the family of the king would be shifted out of the Red Fort. In 1856, Governor-General Canning decided that Bahadur Shah Zafar would be the last Mughal emperor and after his death his descendants would be recognised as princes.

 

Question 6

What impact did Bahadur Shah Zafar’s support to the rebellion have on the people and the ruling families?

Answer

Bahadur Shah Zafar’s support to the rebellion boosted the morale of the people and the ruling families. They became united to fight the British authority with double spirit.

People of the towns and villages rose up in rebellion and rallied around local leaders, zamindars and chiefs. Nana Saheb, the adopted son of the late Peshwa Baji Rao, who lived near Kanpur, gathered armed forces and expelled the British garrison from the city. He proclaimed himself Peshwa. He declared that he was a Governor under emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar. In Lucknow, Birjis Qadr, the son of the deposed Nawab Wajid Ali Shah, was proclaimed the new Nawab. He too acknowledged the suzerainty of Bahadur Shah Zafar.

In Jhansi, Rani Lakshmibai joined the rebel sepoys and fought the British along with Tantia Tope, the general of Nana Saheb.

 

Question 7

How did the British succeed in securing the submission of the rebel landowners of Awadh?

Answer

The British succeeded in securing the submission of the rebel landowners of Awadh by providing them inheritance rights, i.e. they would enjoy the traditional rights over their land. The British also exempted them from taxes.

 

Question 8

In what ways did the British change their policies as a result of the rebellion of 1857?

Answer

As a result of the rebellion of 1857, the British changed their policies. Following are the important changes that the British made:

(i) The powers of the East India Company, was transferred to the British Crown in order to ensure a more responsible management of Indian affairs.

(ii) The Governor-General of India was given the title of Viceroy, that is, a personal representative of the Crown.

(iii) All ruling chiefs of the country were assured that their territory would never be annexed in future. They were allowed to pass on their kingdoms to their heirs, including adopted son. But they had to acknowledge the British queen as their Sovereign Paramount.

(iv) It was decided that the proportion of Indian soldiers in the army would be reduced and the number of European soldiers would be increased. It was also decided that instead of recruiting soldiers from Awadh, Bihar, Central India and South India more soldiers would be recruited from among the Gurkhas, Sikhs and Pathans.

(v) The British decided to respect the customary religions and social practices of the people in India.

 

Question 9

Find out stories and songs remembered by people in your area or your family about San Sattavan Ki Ladaai. What memories do people cherish about the great uprising?

Answer

Students are suggested to visit the library of their school and collect songs and stories related to the revolt of 1857.

 

Question 10

Find out more about Rani Lakshmibai of Jhansi. In what ways would she have been an unusual woman for her times?

Answer

Rani Lakshmibai of Jhansi played a vital role in the revolt of 1857. She fought bravely with the British force. She challenged the British law which had debarred her adopted son from being the ruler. She was one of the great forces behind the revolt against the British. The matchless courage that she showed is rare.

Chapter 6 - Colonialism and the City

 

Question 1

State whether true or false:

(a) In the Western world, modem cities grew with industrialisation.

(b) Surat and Machilipatnam developed in the nineteenth century.

(c) In the twentieth century, the majority of Indians lived in cities.

(d) After 1857 no worship was allowed in the Jama Masjid for five years.

(e) More money was spent on cleaning Old Delhi than New Delhi.

Answer

(a) True

(b) False

(c) False

(d) True

(e) False

 

Question 2

Fill in the blanks:

(a) The first structure to successfully use the dome was called the …………

(b) The two architects who designed New Delhi and Shahjahanabad were …………… and ………..

(c) The British saw overcrowded spaces as …………

(d) In 1888 an extension scheme called the …………. was devised.

Answer

(a) Central dome

(b) Edward Lutyens; Herbert Baker

(c) Unhygienic

(d) Lahore Gate Improvement Scheme

 

Question 3

Identify three differences in the city design of New Delhi and Shahjahanabad.

Answer

Three differences were:

(i) Shahjahanabad was crowded with mohallas, and several dozen bazaars. But New Delhi was not crowded nor were there mazes of narrow by-lanes.

(ii) Shahjahanabad was not established in a planned manner while New Delhi was beautifully planned.

(iii) There was chaos everywhere in Shahjahanabad. But New Delhi represented a sense of law and order.’

 

Question 4

Who lived in the ‘white’ areas in cities such as Madras?

Answer

The British lived in the ‘white’ areas in cities such as Madras.

 

Question 5

What is meant by de-urbanisation?

Answer

De-urbanisation is a process by which more and more people began to live in villages or rural areas.

In the late 18th century, Calcutta, Bombay and Madras emerged as Presidency cities. They became the centres of British power in different regions of India. At the same time, several smaller cities declined. Old trading centres and ports could not survive when the flow of trade shifted to new centres. Similarly, earlier centres of regional power collapsed with the defeat of local rurals by the British and new centres of administration grew. This process is described as de-urbanisation.

 

Question 6

Why did the British choose to hold a grand Durbar in Delhi although it was not a capital?

Answer

During the Revolt of 1857, the British had realised that the Mughal emperor was still important to the people and they saw him as their leader. It was therefore important to celebrate British power with pomp and show in Delhi— the city the Mughal emperors had ruled earlier. The British thought that by doing this they would acknowledge people about their power and authority.

 

Question 7

How did the Old City of Delhi change under British rule?

Answer

The British changed the Old City of Delhi entirely. They wanted Delhi to forget its Mughal past. Hence, the area around the Fort was completely cleared of gardens, pavilions and mosques. They either destroyed, the mosques or put them to other uses. For example, the Zinat-al-Masjid was converted into a bakery. No worship was allowed in the Jama Masjid for five years.

One-third of the city was demolished and its canals were filled up.

In the 1870s, the western walls of Shahjahanabad were broken to establish the railway and to allow the city to expand beyond the walls. The British began living in the sprawling Civil Lines area that came up in the north, away from the Indians in the Walled City.

The Delhi College was turned into a school and shut down in 1877.

 

Question 8

How did the partition affect life in Delhi?

Answer

India got partitioned in 1947 and this led to a massive transfer of populations on both sides of the new border. As a result, the population of Delhi increased all of a sudden. The job of the people changed and the culture of the city became different. Most of these migrants were from Punjab. They stayed in camps, schools, etc. While some got the opportunity to occupy residences that had been vacated by the Muslims. Yet others were housed in refugee colonies. New colonies like Lajpat Nagar and Tilak Nagar grew at this time. Shops and stalls were set up to cater the needs of the migrants, schools and colleges were opened. The migrants coming to Delhi were rural landlords, lawyers, teachers, traders and small shopkeepers. Partition changed their lives and occupations. They had to take up new jobs like hawkers, vendors, carpenters, and ironsmiths.

 

Question 9

Find out the history of the town you live in or of any town nearby. Check when and how it grew, and how it has changed over the years. You could look at the history of the bazaars, the buildings, cultural institutions, and settlements.

Answer

Do Yourself

 

Question 10

Make a list of at least ten occupations in the city, town or village to which you belong, and find out how long they have existed. What does this tell you about the changes within this area?

Answer

I live in a village, I find here the following occupations in which villagers are engaged:

(i) Farming (ii) Fishing

(iii) Teaching (iv) Carpentry

(v) Grocery (vi) Vending

(vii) Weaving (viii) Cattle rearing

(ix) Blacksmith (x) Barber These occupations have existed from a long time in the village. We have seen many changes in the methods of these occupations. With spread of education and awareness, many new technologies have been adopted. For example, in the beginning farmers used ploughs in their fields but now they are using tractors.
Chapter 7 - Weavers, Iron Smelters and Factory Owners

 

Question 1

What kinds of cloth had a large market in Europe?

Answer

Chintz, cossaes or khassa and bandanna.

 

Question 2

What is jamdani?

Answer

Jamdani is a fine muslin on which decorative motifs are woven on the loom, typically in grey and white.

 

Question 3

What is bandanna?

Answer

Bandanna is a brightly coloured and printed scarf for the neck or head. Originally, the term derived from the word ‘bandhna’ and referred to a variety of brightly coloured cloth produced through a method of tying and dying.

 

Question 4

Who are the Agarias?

Answer

Groups of men and women carrying basket-loads of iron are known as the Agarias.

 

Question 5

Fill in the blanks:

(a) The word chintz comes from the word

(b) Tipu’s sword was made of steel.

(c) India’s textile exports declined in the century.

Answer

(a) chintz (b) Wootz (c) 19th.

 

Question 6

How do the names of different textiles tell us about their history?

Answer

European traders first saw fine cotton cloth from India carried by Arab merchants in Mosul in present-day Iraq. Hence, they began to refer to all finally woven textiles as muslino. When the Portuguese first came to India in search of spices, they landed in Calicut on the Kerala coast in south-west India. The cotton textiles which they took back to Europe came to be known as calico, which is derived from Calicut.

Printed cotton cloths called chintz, cossaes or khassa and bandanna were also in great demand. The chintz is derived from the Hindi word chhint, a cloth with small and colourful flowery designs. The word bandanna is referred to any brightly coloured and printed scarf for the neck or head. Originally, the term derived from the word ‘bandhna’ (Hindi for tying) and referred to a variety of brightly coloured cloth produced through a method of tying and dying.

 

Question 7

Why did the wool and silk producers in England protest against the import of Indian textiles in the early eighteenth century?

Answer

Textile industry had just begun to develop in England in the early 18th century. The wool and silk producers in England found themselves unable to compete with Indian textiles. They wanted to secure market within the country by preventing the entry of Indian textiles. Therefore, they protested against its import.

 

 

 

Question 8

How did the development of cotton industries in Britain affect textile producers in India?

Answer

The development of cotton industries in Britain badly affected textile producers in India:

(1) Indian textiles now had to compete with British textiles in the European and American markets.

(ii) Exporting textiles to England became increasingly difficult since very high duties were imposed on Indian textiles imported into Britain,

(iii) Thousands of weavers in India became unemployed. Bengal weavers were the worst hit.

(iv) By the 1830s British cotton cloth flooded Indian markets. This affected not only specialist weavers but also spinners.

 

Question 9

Why did the Indian iron smelting industry decline in the nineteenth century?

Answer

There were several reasons:

(i) The new forest laws of the colonial government prevented people from entering the reserved forests. Now it became difficult for the iron smelters to find wood for charcoal. Getting iron ore was also a big problem. Hence, many gave up their craft and looked for other jobs.

(ii) In some areas the government did grant access to the forest. But the iron smelters had to pay a very high tax to the forest department for every furnace they used. This reduced their income.

(iii) By the late 19th century iron and steel was being imported from Britain. Ironsmiths in India began using the imported iron to manufacture utensils and implements. This inevitably lowered the demand for iron produced by local smelters.

All these reasons caused the decline of the Indian iron smelting industry.

 

Question 10

What problems did the Indian textile industry face in the early years of its development?

Answer

In the early years of its development the Indian textile industry faced several problems:

(i) It found it difficult to compete with the cheap textiles imported from Britain.

(ii) In most countries, governments supported industrialisation by imposing heavy duties on imports. This eliminated competition and protected newly born industries. But the colonial government in India refused such protection to local industries.

However, during the First World War when textile imports from Britain declined Indian factories were called upon to produce cloth for military supplies. This boosted up cotton factory production in India.

 

Question 11

What helped TISCO expand steel production during the First World War?

Answer

Before the First World War India imported British steel for rails. When in 1914 the war broke out, steel produced in Britain now had to meet the demands of war in Europe. So, imports ‘of British steel into India declined and the Indian Railways turned to TISCO for supply of rails. As the war dragged on for several years, TISCO had to produce shells and carriage wheels for the war. By 1919 the colonial government was buying 90% of the steel manufactured by TISCO. Over time TISCO became the biggest steel industry within the British empire.

 

Question 12

Find out about the history of any craft around the area you live. You may wish to know about the community of craftsmen, the changes in the techniques they use and the markets they supply. How have these changed in the past 50 years?

Answer

Students should visit the local library and collect information regarding it.

 

Question 13

On a map of India, locate the centres of different crafts today. Find out when these centres came up.

Answer

Activity for Student

 

 

 

Chapter 8 - Civilising the "Native", Educating the Nation

 

Question 1

Match the following

 

William Jones

Promotion of English Education

Rabindranath Tagore

Respect for ancient cultures

Thomas Macaulay

gurus

Mahatma Gandhi

Learning in a natural environment

Pathshalas

Critical of English Education

 

Answer

 

William Jones

Respect for ancient cultures

Rabindranath Tagore

Learning in a natural environment

Thomas Macaulay

Promotion of English Education

Mahatma Gandhi

Critical of English Education

Pathshalas

gurus

 

Question 2

State whether true or false

(a) James Mill was a severe critic of the Orientalists.

(b) The 1854 Despatch on education was in favour of English being introduced as a medium of higher education in India.

(c) Mahatma Gandhi thought that promotion of literacy was the most important aim of education.

(d) Rabindranath Tagore felt that children ought to be subjected to strict discipline.

Answer

(a) True

(b) True

(c) False

(d) False

 

Question 3

Why did William Jones feel the need to study Indian history, philosophy and law?

Answer

He felt the need to study Indian history, philosophy and law because only these texts could reveal the ideas and laws of the Hindus and Muslims, and only a new study of these texts could form the basis of future development in India.

 

Question 4

Why did James Mill and Thomas Macaulay think that European education was essential in India?

Answer

Both James Mill and Thomas Macaulay saw India as an uncivilised country that needed to be civilised. And for this purpose, European education Was essential. They felt that knowledge of English would allow Indians to read some of the finest literature of the world, it would make them aware of the developments in Western science and philosophy. Teaching of English could thus be a way of civilising people, changing their tastes, values and culture.

 

Question 5

Why did Mahatma Gandhi want to teach children handicrafts?

Answer

Mahatma Gandhi wanted to teach children handicrafts because only then they would be able to know how different things were operated. This would develop their mind and then- capacity to understand.

 

Question 6

Why did Mahatma Gandhi think that English education had enslaved Indians?

Answer

Mahatma Gandhi was dead against English education. He argued that this type of education had created a sense of inferiority in the minds of Indians. It had made them see Western civilisation as superior and had destroyed the pride they had in their own culture. It had cast an evil spell on Indians. Education in English had crippled them, distanced them from their own surroundings and made them strangers in their own lands. What is more, it had enslaved them.

 

Question 7

Find out from your grandparents about what they studied in school.

Answer

Attempt yourself.

 

Question 8

Find out about the history of your school or any other school in the area you live.

Answer

I study in St. Peter's Academy. It is the oldest one in this region. It was established by a Christian Missionary in 1980. It has created many histories by achieving so many events to its credit. The Principal is always appointed by the missionary. The man of high academic repute and administrative quality is appointed here as Principal. Teachers are also of high talent. There are five thousand students. Its students always bring high laurels to school and region by achieving bright result in Board Examinations. I am proud of my school.

 

Chapter 9 - Women, Caste and Reform

Question 1

What social ideas did the following people support.

Rammohun Roy

Dayanand Saraswati

Veeresalingam Pantulu

Jyotirao Phule

Pandita Ramabai

Periyar

Mumtaz Ali

Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar

 

Answer

These people supported the following ideas:

(i) Spread of education among women.

(ii) Widow remarriage.

(iii) Caste equality and justice.

(iv) Abolition of child marriage.

(v) Social equality for untouchables.

 

Question 2

State whether true or false:

(a) When the British captured Bengal they framed many new laws to regulate the rules regarding marriage, adoption, inheritance of property, etc.

(b) Social reformers had to discard the ancient texts in order to argue for reform in social practices.

(c) Reformers got full support from all sections of the people of the country.

(d) The Child Marriage Restraint Act was passed in 1929.

Answer

(a) True, (b) False, (c) False, (d) True.

 

Question 3

How did the knowledge of ancient texts help the reformers promote new laws?

Answer

The reformers tried to convince people that widow burning, caste distinctions, child marriage, etc had no sanction in ancient texts. Their knowledge of ancient texts gave them immense confidence and moral support which they utilised in promoting new laws. They did not get scared when people raised voice against the reforms they had brought.

 

Question 4

What were the different reasons people had for not sending girls to school?

Answer

In fact people afraid of the schools that were opened in the mid-19th century. They had their own reasons.

(i) They feared that schools would take girls away from home and prevent them from doing their domestic works.

(ii) As girls had to travel through public places in order to reach school, many people began to feel that this would have a corrupting influence on them.

(iii) Several people were of the opinion that girls should be stay away from public spaces.

 

Question 5

Why were Christian missionaries attacked by many people in the country? Would some people have supported them too? If so, for what reasons?

Answer

People suspected that Christian missionaries were involved in forced conversion of the poor and tribal people from Hinduism to Christianity. If some people have supported them, it must be due to the reason that the poor and the tribal people, converted to Christianity, would get a golden opportunity of going to school. The school would equip them with some resources to make their way into a changing world.

 

Question 6

In the British period, what new opportunities opened up for people who came from castes that were regarded as “low”?

Answer

With the expansion of cities new demands of labour created. Drains had to be dug, roads laid, buildings constructed and cities cleaned. This required coolies, diggers, carriers, bricklayers, sweepers, rickshaw pullers, etc. This labour came from people belonged to “low” caste. They left their villages and small towns and shifted to the cities to get work. Some went to work in plantations in Assam, Mauritius, Trinidad and Indonesia. Although it was not easy to work in the new locations, poor people saw this an opportunity to get away from the exploitations of the upper-caste.

 

Question 7

How did Jyotirao, the reformer, justify their criticism of caste inequality in society?

Answer

Jyotirao attacked the Brahmans, claim that they were superior to others because they were Aryans. Phule argued that the Aryans were outsiders. They came from outside the subcontinent, and defeated and subjugated the true children of the country—those who had lived here from before the coming of the Aryans. These Aryans established their dominance and began looking at the defeated population as low-caste people. Phule opined that the “upper’ castes had no right to their land and power. The land, in fact belonged to the natives, who were considered as low-caste people. .

 

Question 8

Why did Phule dedicate his book Gulamgiri to the American movement to free slaves?

Answer

Jyotirao Phule wrote a book in 1873. He named the book Gulamgiri meaning slavery. Some ten years before this, the American Civil War had been fought, leading to the end of slavery in America. Phule dedicated his book to all those Americans who had fought to free slaves. He did this in order to establish a link between the conditions of the lower castes in India and the black slaves in America.

 

Question 9

What did Ambedkar want to achieve through the temple entry movement?

Answer

Ambedkar led three temple entry movements between 1927 and 1935. His sole purpose behind these movements was to make people see the power of caste prejudices within society.

 

Question 10

Why were Jyotirao Phule and Ramaswami Naicker critical of the national movement ? Did their criticism help the national struggle in any way?

Answer

They were critical of the national movement because the nationalists often made seating arrangements following caste distinctions at feasts. The lower castes were made to sit at a distance from the upper castes. Their criticism helped the national struggle to a great extent. Ramaswamy Naicker inspired the untouchables to fight for their dignity by initiating the Self Respect Movement.

 

Chapter 10 - The Changing World of Visual Arts

 

Question 1

Fill in the blanks:

 

(a) The art form which observed carefully and tried to capture exactly what the eye saw is called _________.

 

(b) The style of painting which showed Indian landscape as a quaint, unexplored land is called _________.

 

(c) Paintings which showed the social lives of Europeans in India are called _________.

 

(d) Paintings which depicted scenes from British imperial history and their victories are called _________.

 

Answer

(a) realistic

(b) picturesque landscape

(c) Portraiture

(d) History painting

 

Question 2

Point out which of the following were brought in with British art: (a) oil painting (b) miniatures (c) life-size portrait painting (d) use of perspective (e) mural art

 

Answer

(a) Oil painting

(b) life-size portrait painting

(c) Use of perspective

 

Question 3

Describe in your own words one painting from this chapter which suggests that the British were more powerful than Indians. How does the artist depict this?

Answer

The painting which depicts the discovery of the body of Tipu Sultan shows the British as more powerful than Indians. In this painting, the British General is shown as if standing on a high pedestal and exuding all the confidence. On the other hand, Tipu Sultan is shown half naked and lifeless; lying in the dark recess. The painting appears to announce that those who dare to challenge the British authority would meet the same fate.

 

Question 4

Why did the scroll painters and potters come to Kalighat? Why did they begin to paint new themes?

Answer

The scroll painters and potters come to Kalighat in the hope of new patrons and neve buyers of their art. After the 1 & IOs, a new trend was visible within the Kalighat artists. Living in a society where values, tastes, social norms and customs were undergoing rapid changes, Kalighat artists responded to the world around and produced paintings on social and political themes.

 

Question 5

Why can we think of Raja Ravi Varma’s paintings as national?

Answer

Raja Ravi Varma was one of the first artists who tried to create a style that was both modern and national. He used the Western art of oil painting and realistic life study to paint themes from Indian mythology. He dramatised on canvas scene after scene from the Indian epics Ramayana and Mahabharata. This portrayal of an Indian consciousness is what makes his paintings national. This was perhaps one of the reasons why his paintings were popular not only among Indian princes and art collectors but also among the masses.

 

Question 6

In what way did the British history paintings in India reflect the attitudes of imperial conquerors?

Answer

The British history paintings sought to dramatize and recreate various episodes of British imperial history. These paintings celebrated the British power, their victories and their supremacy. The imperial history paintings attempted to create a public memory of imperial triumphs. Victories had to be remembered, implanted in the memory of people, both in India and Britain. Only then could the British appear invincible and all-powerful.

 

Question 7

Why do you think some artists wanted to develop a national style of art?

Answer

Some artists rejected the art of Raja Ravi Varma as imitative and westernized and declared that such a style was unsuitable for depicting the nations ancient myths and legends. They felt that a genuine Indian style of painting had to draw inspiration from non-Western art traditions, and try to capture the spiritual essence of the East. These artists broke away from the convention of oil painting and the realistic style, and turned for inspiration to medieval Indian traditions of miniature painting and the ancient art of mural painting in the Ajanta caves. Abanindranath Tagore was one of the first artists who wanted to develop a national style of art.

Chapter 11 - The Making of the National Movement

Question 1

Why were people dissatisfied with British rule in the 1870s and 1880s?

Answer

 

People were dissatisfied with British rule in the 1870s and 1880s due to the following reasons:

(i) The British passed the Arms Act in 1878 which disallowed Indians from possessing arms.

(ii) In the same year they passed the Vernacular Press Act. This Act snatched the freedom of speech and expression. It allowed the government to confiscate the assets of newspapers including their printing presses if the newspapers published anything that was critical of the government.

(iii) In 1883, the Ilbert Bill was introduced. The bill provided for the trial of British or European persons by Indians and sought equality between British and Indian judges in the country. But the white opposition forced the government to withdraw the bill.

Question 2

Who did the Indian National Congress wish to speak for?

Answer

The Indian National Congress wished to speak for the entire people belonging to different communities of India.

Question 3

What economic impact did the First World War have on India?

Answer

 

The First World War led to a huge rise in the defence expenditure of the Government of India. The government in turn increased taxes on individual incomes and business profits. Increased military expenditure and the demands for war supplies led to the sharp rise in prices which badly affected the common mass. They found it difficult to fulfil even their essential needs.

But the business groups earned huge profits from the war. The war created a demand for industrial goods like jute bags, cloth, rails, and caused a decline of imports from other countries into India. As a result Indian industries expanded during the war.

Question 4

What did the Muslim League resolution of 1940 ask for?

Answer

The Muslim League resolution of 1940 asked for “Independent States’ for Muslims in the north-western and eastern areas of the country. The resolution did not mention partition or the name Pakistan.

 

Question 5

Who were the Moderates? How did they propose to struggle against British rule?

Answer

The Moderates were against taking extreme actions. They had deep faith in the good intention of the government. They^were of the opinion that slowly and steadily they would make the British go to their own land. The Moderate leaders developed public awareness about the unjust nature of British rule. They published newspapers, wrote articles and showed how British rule was leading to the economic ruin of the country. They criticised British rule in their speeches and sent representatives to different parts of the country to mobilise public opinion. They believed that the British had respect for the ideals of freedom and justice and therefore they would definitely accept all the just demands of the people of India. Their main task was to acknowledge the British government with these demands.

 

Question 6

How was the politics of the Radicals within the Congress different from that of the Moderates?

Answer

The Radicals within the Congress cherished different opinions. They had deep faith in action and wanted to drive away the foreigners as soon as possible. They criticised the Moderates for their “politics of prayers’ and gave emphasis on self-reliance and constructive work. They argued that people must fight for swaraj. Unless they fought against the British rule unitedly, they would not bring independence to their country.

 

Question 7

Discuss the various forms of the Non-Cooperation Movement took in different parts of India. How did the people understand Gandhiji?

Answer

The Non-Cooperation Movement spread far and wide. It took various forms in different parts of the country:

(i) In Kheda, Gujarat, Patidar peasants were worried about the high land revenue demand of the British. Hence, they orgainsed non-violent campaigns against it.

(ii) In coastal Andhra and interior Tamil Nadu, liquor shops were picketed.

(iii) In the Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh, tribals and poor peasants started several forest satyagrahas’, sometimes sending their cattle into forests without paying grazing tax. They were very much fed up with the restrictions imposed on them by the British regarding the use of forest resources. They wanted the abolition of the forest regulations.

(iv) In Sind, now in Pakistan, Muslim traders and peasants were very enthusiastic about the Khilafat call. In Bengal too, the Khilafat-Non- Cooperation alliance gave enormous communal unity and strength to the national movement.

(v) In Punjab, the Akali agitation of the Sikhs sought to drive out corrupt mahants, supported by the British, from the gurudwaras. This movement got closely identified with the Non-Cooperation Movement.

(vi) In Assam, tea garden labourers left the British-owned plantations and became the followers of Gandhiji. People viewed Gandhiji as a messiah, as someone who could help them overcome their misery and poverty.

 

Question 8

Why did Gandhiji choose to break the salt law?

Answer

Gandhiji was very much worried about the salt law. According to this law, the state had a monopoly on the manufacture and sale of salt. Gandhiji thought that it was sinful to tax salt because it is an essential item of our food and is required equally by the rich and the poor. Hence he decided to break this law in anticipation that people from all walks of life would extend their support. Needless to say that Gandhiji’s Salt March became very successful.

 

Question 9

Discuss those developments of the 1937-47 period that led to the creation of Pakistan.

Answer

From the late-1930s, the Muslim League began viewing the Muslims as a separate-nation from the Hindus. This nation might have developed because of the history of tension between some Hindu and Muslim groups in the 1920s and 1930s. The provincial elections of 1937 also might have convinced the League the Muslims were a minority and they would always have to play second fiddle, in any democratic structure. Meanwhile, the Congress rejected the League’s desire to form a joint Congress-League government in the United Provinces in 1937. This annoyed the League.

In 1940, the League finally moved a resolution demanding ‘Independent States’ for Muslims in the north¬western and eastern areas of the country. The resolution did not mention partition or Pakistan.

 

In 1945, the British opened negotiations between the Congress, the League and themselves for the independence of India. The talks could not succeed because the League saw itself as the sole spokesperson of India’s Muslims. The Congress proved this claim baseless because several Muslims still supported it.

In the provincial electrons in 1946 the League got grand success in the seats reserved for Muslims. Hence it persisted its demand for Pakistan.

 

In March 1946, the Cabinet Mission came to Delhi to examine this demand and to suggest a suitable political framework for a free India. This Mission suggested that India should remain united and constitute itself as a loose confederation with some autonomy for Muslim-majority areas. Neither the Congress nor the Muslim League agreed to it. The failure of the Cabinet Mission made partition inevitable. Ultimately in 1947 partition took place with the birth of a new country, i.e. Pakistan.

 

Question 10

Find out how the national movement was organised in your city, district, area or state. Who participated in it and who led it? What did the movement in your area achieve?

Answer

Visit your school library to answer this question.

 

Question 11

Find out more about the life and work of any two participants or leaders of the national movement and write a short essay about them. You may choose a person not mentioned in this chapter.

Answer

 

(a) Dr. Rajendra Prasad

 

Dr. Rajendra Prasad started his political career as a social worker. He came under the influence of Mahatma Gandhi since the Champaran Satyagrahas of 1918. He came in the light when he took sincere part in Champaran Satyagraha. The Jallianwala Bagh atrocities deeply perturbed him. He was sent to jail many times. He struggled hard for the independence of the country. Under his presidentship the country made all round progress.

 

(b) Jai Prakash Narayan

 

Jaiprakash Narayan fully dedicated his life for the welfare of the country. In 1934, be plunged into the struggle for freedom. In the same he became the Secretary of the Socialist Party. Jawaharlal Nehru offered him the membership of the Congress Working Committee in 1946 but he rejected the offer. On Nehru’s second request, he joined the Congress Committee with Ram Manohar Lohia but both of them left it soon. Shri jaiprakash Narayan became the General Secretary of the Socialist Party which got itself separated from the Congress. He took great interest in the political development of the country. He is known for his selfless service for the nation.

Chapter 12 - India After Independence

 

Question 1

Name three problems that the newly independent nation of India faced. The Problem of the rehabilitation of given below.

Answer

(i)The three problems that the newly 8 million refugees who had come into the country from newly bom Pakistan.

(ii) The problem of the princely states. There were almost 500 princely states, each ruled by a Maharaja or a Nawab, and each of them had to be persuaded to join the new nation,

(iii) The new nation had to adopt a political system that would best serve the hopes and aspirations of the people.

 

Question 2

What was the role of the Planning Commission?

Answer

The Planning Commission helped design and execute suitable policies for economic development.

 

Question 3

Fill in the blanks.

(a) Subjects that were placed on the Union List were _____ , _____ and _____

(b) Subjects on the Concurrent List were _____ and _____

(c) Economic planning by which both the state and the private sector played a role in development was called a _____ model.

(d) The death of _____ sparked off such violent protests that the government was forced to give into the demand for linguistic state of Andhra.

Answer

 (a) Taxes, defence, foreign affairs

(b) Forests, agriculture

(c) ‘mixed economy’

(d) Potti Sriramulu

 

Question 4

State whether true or false:

(a) At independence, the majority of Indians lived in villages.

(fa) The Constituent Assembly was made up of members of the Congress Party.

(c) In the first national election, only men were allowed to vote.

(d) The Second Five Year Plan focused on the development of heavy industry.

Answer

(a) True

(b) False

(c) False

(d) True

 

Question 5

What did Dr. Ambedkar mean when he said that In politics we will have equality, and in social and economic life we will have inequality”?

Answer

What Ambedkar wanted to say was that providing voting right to the lower caste people would not remove other inequalities such as between rich and poor, or between upper castes and lower castes. These classes of people could be labelled equal only politically but in reality it could not be possible due to our social and economic structure.

 

Question 6

After Independence, why was there a reluctance to divide the country on Uguistic times?

Answer

India got independence at the cost of its division. This division had been done on the basis of religion. As a result of this division more than a million people had been killed in riots between Hindus and Muslims. In such circumstances, it was not wise to further divide the country on the basis of language. Therefore, both Prime Minister Nehru and Deputy Prime Minister Patel were against the creation of linguistic states.

 

Question 7

Give one reason why English continued to be used in India after Independence.

Answer

English continued to be used in India after Independence because south Indian states expressed strong opposition to Hindi.

 

Question 8

How was the economic development of India visualised in the early decades after Independence?

Answer

In 1950, the government set up a Planning Commission to help design and execute suitable policies for economic development. There was a broad agreement on “mixed economy’ model. Here, both the state and the private sector would play important and complementary roles in increasing production and generating jobs. Now, it was on the Planning Commission to define which industries should be initiated by the state and which by the market and how to achieve a balance between the different regions and states.

 

In 1956, the Second Five Year Plan was formulated which focused on the development of heavy industries such as steel, and on the building of large dams. These sectors would be under the control of the state. This focus on heavy industry, and the effort at state regulation of the economy was to guide economic policy for the next few decades.

 

Question 9

Who was Mira Behn? Find out more about her life and her ideas.

Answer

Mira Behn (1892-1982) was the daughter of a British Admiral. Her real name was Madeline Shade. She left England to live and work with Mahatma Gandhi. She devoted her life to human development, the advancement of Gandhiji’s principles and to the freedom struggle. She was awarded the Padma Vibhushan in 1982’

 

Question 10

Find out more about the language divisions in Pakistan that led to the creation of the new nation of Bangladesh. How did Bangladesh achieve independence from Pakistan?

Answer

Pakistan was divided into two regions—East Pakistan and West Pakistan. This division was done on the basis of linguistic majority. The East Pakistan was dominated by Bengali-speaking Muslims while the West Pakistan was dominated by Urdu-speaking Muslims. The people of the West Pakistan always considered the Bengali Muslims living in the East Pakistan inferior to them. So, the Muslims living in East Pakistan were devoid of all facilities and fundamental rights. It caused great dissatisfaction among them. They began migrating to India. Their number grew so large that India was compelled to intervene the situation. It supported the cause of the East Pakistan which resulted in a war between India and Pakistan. Finally India won the war in favour of the East Pakistan and declared it as a new country named Bangladesh on 16th December 1971. Bangladesh was now recognised as a sovereign nation and Mujibur Rahman was its first President.

 

 

Chapter 1 - The Indian Constitution

 

Question 1

Why does a democratic country need a Constitution?

Answer

A democratic country needs a constitution because:

A constitution puts down certain principles that form the basis of the kind of country that we as citizens, desire to live in.

A Constitution tells us the fundamental nature of our society.

A Constitution helps serve as a set of rules and principles that all persons in a country can agree upon as the basis of the way in which they want the country to be governed.

The constitution also spells out the ideals the citizens believe that their country should uphold.

 

Question 2

What is the difference in who exercises Executive Power in the 1990 and Interim Constitutions of Nepal? Keeping this in mind, why do you think Nepal needs a new Constitution today?

Answer

In the 1990 Nepal constitution the Executive powers of the Kingdom was entirely in the hands of the King. According to the Interim constitution drafted in 2007, the executive powers of Nepal are in the hands of the council of ministers headed by the Prime Minister.

 

There was a dire need for a new constitution as the ideals of the people had changed as the country had moved from a monarchy to a democracy. The old constitution was drafted when the country was under the rule of the king. The people of Nepal fought for a democratic government for many years. So the old constitution does not reflect the ideals of the people. The new constitution will change the rules of the old constitution in order to bring in a new society with new ideals.

 

Question 3

What would happen if there were no restrictions on the power of elected representatives?

Answer

If there are no restrictions on the power of the elected representatives the leaders might misuse the powers given to them. The Indian Constitution provides safeguards against this misuse of power by our political leaders. The Constitution lays down rules that guard the citizens against misuse of power.

 

Question 4

In each of the following situations, identify the minority. Write one reason why you think it is important to respect the views of the minority in each of these situations.

(a) In a school with 30 teachers, 20 of them are male.

(b) In a city, 5 percent of the population are Buddhists.

(c) In a factory mess for all employees, 80 percent are vegetarians.

(d) In a class of 50 students, 40 belong to more well-off families.

Answer

 

(a) Female teachers are in the minority – It is necessary to respect the views of the lady teachers also as their viewpoints may also be in the best interest of the students.

?

(b) Buddhists are in the minority- Every individual has the right to follow the religion of his choice.

(c) Non – vegetarians are in the minority – The food a person eats is his personal wish and so he should have the freedom to eat what he wants.

(d) The under privileged are in minority – Citizens cannot be discriminated by their birth so their views have to be respected.

 

Question 5

Listed below are the key features of the Indian Constitution. Write two sentences, in your own words, on why you think this feature is important key feature of

 

Federalism

Separation of Powers

Fundamental Rights

Parliamentary Form of Government

Answer

 

Federalism:

means more than one level of government in the country. India has a 3 tier government. India needs a 3 tier government because of the diverse religious and cultural composition of its citizens. A government at the centre alone could not be effective for everyone.

Separation of Powers:

In order to prevent the misuse of power by the elected representative the constitution advocate Separation of powers. Each branch of the government has its powers fixed by the Constitution. The Constitution ensures that a balance of power is maintained between the Legislature Executive and the Judiciary.

Fundamental Rights:

Fundamental Rights guarantees the rights of individuals against the State as well as against other individuals. It protects minority communities and guarantees rights against the majority.

Parliamentary Form of Government:

In a Parliamentary form of government the constitution guarantees universal adult franchise for all citizens. That is, all adults have a right to vote, irrespective of whether they are poor or rich, educated or uneducated, a Hindu, Muslim or a Christian.The idea of universal adult franchise is based on equality.

 

Chapter 2 - Understanding Secularism

 

Question 1

Will the government intervene if some religious group says that their religion allows them to practise infanticide? Give reasons for your answer.

Answer

The government will intervene if some religious group says that their religion allows them to practise female infanticide.

In this instance, the State is intervening in religion in order to end a social practice that violates the Fundamental Rights of the female child to live on this earth.

 

Let’s Recall

 

Question 1

List the different types of religious practice that you find in your neighbourhood. This could be different forms of prayer, worship of different gods, sacred sites, different kinds of religious music and singing, etc. Does this indicate freedom of religious practice?

Answer

Different types of religious practice:

(i) Jagran

(ii) Kirtan

(iii) Namaj

(iv) Mass

(v) Havan

Yes, this indicates freedom of religious practice.

 

Question 2

Will the government intervene if some religious group says that their religion allows them to practice infanticide? Give reasons for your answer.

Answer

The government will surely intervene if some religious group says that their religion allows them to practice infanticide. Needless to say that the practice of infanticide is a crime. Under this practice the life of a newly-born child is killed. The law does not allow anyone to kill a life.

 

Question 3

Complete the following table:

 

Objective

Why is this important?

Example of a violation of this objective

One religious community does not dominate another

 

The state does not enforce any particular religion nor take away the religious freedom of individuals.

 

That some members do not dominate other members of the same religious community.

 

 

 

 

Answer

 

 

 

 

 

 

Objective

Why is this important?

Example of a violation of this objective

One religious community does not dominate another

It is important for establishing harmony in the society.

A muslim family living among Hindu people in a locality is forbidden to offer namaz.

A Hindu religious procession is not allowed to cross along the road passing through a mosque.

 

The state does not enforce any particular religion nor take away the religious freedom of individuals.

 

It is essential in order to stabilise the ideals of the Indian Constitution.

Demolition of Babri Masjid

That some members do not dominate other members of the same religious community.

It is important in order to establish equality in the society.

Dalits are discouraged to enter a temple

 

 

Question 4

Look up the annual calendar of holidays of your school. How many of them pertain to different religions? What does this indicate?

Answer

Holidays in a school calendar for different religions:

 

Religions

Holidays

Hindu

Holi, Dussehra, Deepawali

Muslim

Id-ul-zoha, Id-ul-fitr, Muharram

Sikh

Lohri, Guru Gobind Singh Jayanti, Guru Parv

Christian

Christmas, Good Friday

 

 

Question 5

Find out some examples of different views within the same religion.

Answer

Different views are followed even within the same religion. As for example, only in the Hindu religion, we have hundreds of deities worshipped by different groups of people. Similarly, in Muslim community, there are Shiyas and Shunnis. In Jainas, there are Shwetambar and Digambar sects. In Buddha Dharma, there are Hinayaans and Mahayaans.

 

Question 6

The Indian State both keeps away from religion as well as intervenes in religion. This idea can be quite confusing. Discuss this once again in class using examples from the chapter as well as those that you might have come up with.

Answer

India is a land of complex ideas. It is difficult to understand what it really wants. There are many ideals in the Constitution but practices are quite different from them. In many cases we see laws explain a concept in a different way. But people interpret it differently. Law itself in some cases act differently. As for example, in a secular state law has nothing to say in any of the religions practices but when the dominance of upper castes in religion was brought to question the law took favour of the lower castes. This interference of the State creates confusion.

 

Question 7

This poster alongside highlights the need for ‘Peace’. It says, “Peace is an ever-ending process….. It cannot ignore our differences or overlook our common interests.” Write in your own words what you think the above sentences are trying to convey? How does it relate to the need for religious tolerance?

 

This chapter had three drawings on religious tolerance made by students of your age. Design your own poster on religious tolerance for your peers.

Answer

This poster conveys a message for the establishment of peace in the society. The message explains that peace is a long-cherished process. But in this process we cannot ignore the differences or overlook our common interests. It means peace can be brought only after establishing a coordination between the common interests. Religious tolerance is the most sensitive issue in this sense. Note: Students are suggested to design their own posters on religious tolerance.

 

 

Chapter 3 - Why Do We Need a Parliament

 

Question 1

Why do you think the nationalist movement supported the idea that all adults have a right to vote?

Answer

The British government did not allow all adults to vote nor could people participate in decision making, so the nationalist movement supported the idea that all adults have a right to vote.

 

Question 2

In this 2004 map of Parliamentary constituencies alongside, roughly identify the constituencies in your State. What is the name of the MP from your constituency? How many MPs does your state have? Why are certain constituencies coloured green while others are coloured blue?

Add Image

Answer

Activity for Student

 

Question 3

You have read in Chapter 1 that the ‘Parliamentary form of government’ that exists in India has three tiers. This includes the Parliament (central government) and the various State Legislatures (state governments). Fill in the following table with information on the various representatives

from your area:

 

Add Image

Answer

Activity for Student

 

Chapter 4 - Understanding Laws

 

Question 1

Write in your own words what you understand by the term the ‘rule of law’. In your response include a fictitious or real example of a violation of the rule of law.

Answer

Law is a system of rules, usually imposed through a Government or Institution and is applied to govern a group people. It shapes politics, economics and society in numerous ways.

The most common example of a violation of the rule of law can be seen on the roads. Motorists and pedestrians do not follow the traffic rules.

 

Motorists do not adhere to speed limits nor do they stop behind the line at traffic signals. Pedestrians rarely use the zebra crossing and cross the road at will causing harm not only to themselves but also to other road users.

 

Question 2

State two reasons why historians refute the claim that the British introduced the rule of law in India.

Answer

Historians refute the claim that the British introduced the rule of law in India because colonial law was arbitrary, and the Indian nationalists played a prominent role in the development of the legal sphere in British India.

 

Question 3

Re-read the storyboard on how a new law on domestic violence got passed. Describe in your own words the different ways in which women’s groups worked to make this happen.

Answer

Domestic violence against women was very common in India in the early 1990s. Throughout the 1990s, the need for a new law was raised in different forums like Public Meeting and women’s organisations. In 1999, Lawyers Collective, a group of lawyers, law students and activists, after nation-wide consultations took the lead in drafting the Domestic Violence (Prevention and Protection) Bill. This draft bill was widely circulated. Meetings were held all over the country supporting the introduction of this Act.

 

The Bill was first introduced in Parliament in 2002, but it was not to the satisfaction of all. Several women’s organisations, like the National Commission for Women made submissions to the Parliamentary Standing Committee requesting changes in the Bill. In December 2002, after reviewing the request made by the National Commission for Women, the Parliamentary Standing Committee submitted its recommendations to the Rajya Sabha and these were also tabled in the Lok Sabha. The Committee’s report accepted most of the demands of the women’s groups.

 

Finally a new Bill was reintroduced in Parliament in 2005. After being passed in both houses of Parliament, it was sent to the President for his assent. The Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act came into effect in 2006.

 

Question 4

Write in your own words what you understand by the following sentence on page 44-45: They also began fighting for greater equality and wanted to change the idea of law from a set of rules that they were forced to obey, to law as including ideas of justice.

Answer

The Sedition Act of 1870 was a turning point in the struggle for freedom in India. According to the Sedition Act any person protesting or criticising the British government could be arrested without due trial.

 

Indian nationalists began protesting and criticising this arbitrary use of authority by the British. They also began fighting for greater equality and wanted to change the idea of law from a set of rules that they were forced to obey, to law as including ideas of justice.

 

By the end of the nineteenth century, the Indians started asserting themselves in the colonial courts.

 

The Indian Legal profession began emerging as a force to reckon with and the Indians demanded respect in the courts. Indians started using law to defend their legal rights.

 

Indian judges began to play a greater role in making decisions.

Thus the Indians played a major role in the evolution of the rule of law during the colonial period.

 

Chapter 5 - Judiciary

 

Question 1

You read that one of the main functions of the judiciary is ‘upholding the law and Enforcing Fundamental Rights’. Why do you think an independent judiciary is necessary to carry out this important function?

Answer

The independence of the judiciary allows the courts to play a central role in ‘upholding the law and Enforcing Fundamental Rights’ as it ensures that there is no misuse of power by the legislature and the executive. Anyone can approach the courts if they believe that their rights have been violated and Politicians or other socially powerful people cannot use their power to change any judgement.

 

Question 2

Re-read the list of Fundamental Rights provided in Chapter 1. How do you think the Right to Constitutional Remedies connects to the idea of judicial review?

Answer

Right to Constitutional Remedies declares that citizens can go to court for justice if they believe that any of their Fundamental Rights have been violated by the State. Hence the independence of the judiciary is necessary to uphold the rights of the citizens.

 

Question 3

In the following illustration, fill in each tier with the judgment given by the various courts in the Sudha Goel case. Check our responses with others in class.

Answer

Lower court: The Lower Court convicted Sudha’s husband, his mother and his brother-in-law and sentenced all three of them to death.

High Court: The High Court passed the judgement stating that Sudha’s husband and the others were innocent and set them free.

Supreme Court: The Supreme Court passed a judgement stating that Sudha’s husband and his mother were guilty and sentenced them to prison for life. The court freed the brother-in-law.

 

Question 4

If they do not like the Supreme Court verdict, the accused can go back again to the Trial Court.

Answer

(a) True

(b) False: They went to the Supreme court after the High court had given its decision

(c) False: The verdict of the Supreme Court is final.

 

Question 5

Why do you think the introduction of Public Interest Litigation (PIL) in the 1980s is a significant step in ensuring access to justice for all?

Answer

Access to courts has always been difficult for a vast majority of the poor in India. Legal procedures involve a lot of money and time. The poor who are illiterate and financially weak find it difficult going to court to get justice.

In the 1980s the Supreme Court devised a mechanism of Public Interest Litigation or PIL to increase access to justice for the poor and illiterate. Any individual or organisation can file a PIL in the High Court or the Supreme Court on behalf of those whose rights are being violated. It is not necessary, that the person filing a case should have a direct interest in the case.

 

Question 6

Re-read excerpts from the judgment on the Olga Tellis vs Bombay Municipal Corporation case. Now write in your own words what the judges meant when they said that the Right to Livelihood was part of the Right to Life.

Answer

Olga Tellis vs Bombay Municipal Corporation case portrays the plight of lakhs of persons who live on pavements and in slums in the city of Bombay. They constitute nearly half the population of the city.

 

These men and women came to Court to ask for a judgment that they cannot be evicted from their shelters without being offered alternative accommodation. They rely for their rights on Article 21 of the Constitution which guarantees that no person shall be deprived of his life except according to procedure established by law.

 

They do not contend that they have a right to live on the pavements. Their contention is that they have a right to live, a right which cannot be exercised without the means of livelihood. They have no option but to flock to big cities like Bombay, which provide the means of bare subsistence. They only choose a pavement or a slum which is nearest to their place of work.

 

Their plea is that the right to life is misleading without a right to the protection of the means by which alone life can be lived.

 

 

Chapter 6 - Understanding Our Criminal Justice System

 

Question 1

Define the term “Criminal Justice System’.

Answer

Criminal justice system is the ‘body of law’ or ‘Court’ regulating the inquiry into whether a person has violated criminal law or not.

 

Question 2

Write a brief note on the criminal procedure in the Criminal Justice System in India.

Answer

A crime is first reported by the victim to the Police and the police file a FIR or First Information Report. Then the police begin the investigation and arrest the suspected person or persons. The police then file a charge sheet in the Magistrate’s Court. The trial begins in court. The Public Prosecutor represents the victim and the accused can defend themselves with the help of a lawyer.

Once the trial is over the accused is either convicted or acquitted. If convicted, the accused can appeal to the higher court.

 

Question 3

What is the role of the police in the Criminal Justice System?

Answer

In the Criminal Justice System the police play the role of investigating the case and arresting the accused.

 

Question 4

What are the guidelines that the police have to follow during investigation?

Answer

Police investigations have to be conducted in accordance with law and with full respect for human rights. The police are not allowed to torture or beat or shoot anyone during investigation. They cannot inflict any form of punishment on a person even for petty offences.

 

Question 5

What are D.K. Basu Guidelines?

Answer

D.K. Basu Guidelines are as follows

  • The police officials who carry out the arrest or interrogation should wear clear, accurate and visible identification and name tags with their designations.
  • A memo of arrest should be prepared at the time of arrest and should include the time and date of arrest. It should also be attested by at least one witness who could include a family member of the person arrested. The arrest memo should be countersigned by the person arrested.
  • The person arrested, detained or being interrogated has a right to inform a relative, friend or well wisher.
  • When a friend or relative lives outside the district, the time, place of arrest and venue of custody must be notified by police within 8 to 12 hours after arrest.

 

Question 6

What is a FIR?

Answer

FIR stands for First Information Report. The police have to file a FIR whenever a person gives information about a known offence. This information can be given to the police either orally or in writing. A FIR is necessary for the police to begin their investigations into a crime.

The FIR should mention the date, time and place of the offence, details about the offence, including a description of the events. The FIR should also state the name and address of the complainant.

There is a prescribed form in which the police register an FIR and it is signed by the complainant. The complainant also has a legal right to get a free copy of the FIR from the police.

 

Question 7

Who is a Prosecutor?

Answer

‘The Prosecutor’ is a lawyer representing the state or the people of the state in a criminal trial.

 

Question 8

Why is the Prosecutor called a Public Prosecutor?

Answer

The Prosecutor who represents the State is called a Public Prosecutor as a criminal offence is regarded as a public wrong, which has been committed not only against the victim, but also against the society as a whole.

 

Question 9

What is the role of the judge in the Criminal Justice System?

Answer

The judge conducts the trial impartially and in an open court. The judge hears all the witnesses and any other evidence presented by the prosecution and the defence.

The judge decides whether the accused person is guilty or innocent on the basis of the evidence presented and in accordance with the law.

If the accused is convicted, then the judge pronounces the sentence. He may send the person to jail or impose a fine or both, depending on what the law prescribes.

 

Question 10

What are the procedures that have to be followed if the criminal trial has to be a Fair Trial?

Answer

A copy of the charge sheet and all other evidence has to be given to the accused.

The trial has to be held in an open court, in public view and should be in the presence of the accused. The accused has to be given a lawyer to defend himself in case he cannot afford to employ a lawyer.

The Prosecution has to prove beyond doubt the guilt of the accused and the Judge has to pass the judgement only on the basis of the evidence before the court.

 

Chapter 7 - Understanding Marginalisation

 

Question 1

Write in your own words two or more sentences of what you understand by the word ‘marginalisation’.

Answer

Marginalization is the social process of being confined to a lower social standing. Marginalization involves people being denied their fundamental rights which results in lowering their economic and social status.

 

Question 2

List two reasons why Adivasis are becoming increasingly marginalised.

Answer

The development of forests robbed the Adivasis of their natural territory and livelihood and turned them into marginal and powerless communities.

The Adivasis are portrayed negatively as exotic, primitive and backward people and are represented through colourful costumes and headgears. This has led to the marginalization of this community in modern India.

 

Question 3

Write one reason why you think the Constitution’s safeguards to protect minority communities are very important?

Answer

Safeguards are needed to protect minority communities against the possibility of being culturally dominated by the majority and being marginalized.

 

Question 4

Re-read the section on Minorities and Marginalisation. What do you understand by the term minority?

Answer

The term minority is most commonly used to refer to communities that are numerically small in relation to the rest of the population.

 

The Indian Constitution provides safeguards to religious and linguistic minorities as part of its Fundamental Rights. It ensures that the minorities are not discriminated and that they do not face any disadvantage.

 

Question 5

You are participating in a debate where you have to provide reasons to support the following statement: ‘Muslims are a marginalised community’. Using the data provided in this chapter, list two reasons that you would give.

Answer

The literacy rate of the Muslim population in India is the lowest. It is only 59%.

43.2% of Hindus have access to electricity while only 30% of Muslims have access to electricity.

The above statistics support the statement that Muslims are a marginalised community in India.

 

Question 6

Imagine that you are watching the Republic Day parade on TV with a friend and she remarks, “Look at these tribals. They look so exotic. And they seem to be dancing all the time”. List three things that you would tell her about the lives of Adivasis in India.

Answer

Adivasis had a deep knowledge of the forests. They were traditionally hunter-gatherers and nomads and lived by shifting agriculture and also cultivating in one place. This knowledge of forests made the Adivasis indispensable to the Rulers of the various Empires in India during the pre-colonial days.

Adivasis have their own languages which may be as old as Sanskrit. The Adivasi language has influenced the formation of Indian languages, like Bengali.

 

Question 7

In the storyboard you read about how Helen hopes to make a movie on the Adivasi story. Can you help her by developing a short story on Adivasis?

Answer

Attempt yourself

 

Question 8

Would you agree with the statement that economic and social marginalisation are interlinked? Why?

Answer

Yes, economic and social marginalisation is interlinked. When Adivasis were displaced from their lands, they lost much more than a source of income. They lost their traditions and customs – a way of living and being. Destruction in one sphere impacts the other.

 

Chapter 8 - Confronting Marginalisation

 

Question 1

List two Fundamental Rights in the Constitution that Dalits can draw upon to insist that they be treated with dignity and as equals. Re-read the Fundamental Rights listed on page 14 to help you answer this question.

Answer

Two Fundamental Rights that Dalits can draw upon to insist that they be treated with dignity and as equals are: Right to Equality and the Right to Freedom.

 

Question 2

Re-read the story on Rathnam as well as the provisions of the 1989 Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act. Now list one reason why you think he used this law to file a complaint.

Answer

Rathnam used the 1989 Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act to file a complaint because on his refusal to perform a degrading ritual, the Dalit man was ostracized from his community, his hut set on fire and he was forced to move out of his village. These were all atrocities committed on a caste bias and humiliation forced down upon the Dalits. The 1989 Act lists modes of humiliation, actions dispossessing Dalits and Adivasis of their meagre resources and crimes against Dalit and tribal women as crimes.

 

Question 3

Why do Adivasi activists, including C.K. Janu, believe that Adivasis can also use this 1989 Act to fight against dispossession? Is there anything specific in the provisions of the Act that allows her to

believe this?

Answer

Adivasi activists including C.K. Janu believe that Adivasis can also use this 1989 Act to fight against dispossession because there is a specific provision in the Act for stating “actions that dispossess Dalits and Adivasis” of their modest resources or forcing them into performing slave labour, are criminal offences. Thus, the Act bears provisions to punish those who wrongfully occupy or cultivate any land allotted to or owned by a member of the Scheduled Castes or Scheduled Tribes.

 

Question 4

The poems and the song in this Unit allow you to see the range of ways in which individuals and communities express their opinions, their anger and their sorrow. In class, do the following two exercises:

(a) Bring to class a poem that discusses a social issue. Share this with your classmates. Work in small groups with two or more poems to discuss their meaning as well as what the poet is trying to communicate.

(b) Identify a marginalised community in your locality. Write a poem, or song, or draw a poster etc to express your feelings as a member of this community.

Answer

Attempt yourself.

 

Chapter 9 - Public Facilities

Question 1

Why do you think there are so few cases of private water supply in the world?

Answer

Private companies work for a profit. Providing public facilities like water supply is not a profitable business. More over the capital needed to provide water supply to the entire population is very high which very few private companies will be able to bear.

 

Question 2

Do you think water in Chennai is available and affordable by all? Discuss.

Answer

Water is not equally available to all citizens in Chennai. Certain areas like Anna Nagar get copious water while areas like Saidapet receive very little water.

Municipal supply meets only about half the needs of the people of the city, on an average. Areas that are close to the storage points get more water whereas colonies further away receive less water. The burden of shortfalls in water supply falls mostly on the poor.

The middle class, when faced with water shortages, are able to cope through a variety of private means such as digging bore wells, buying water from tankers and using bottled water for drinking. The wealthy have safe drinking water, whereas the poor are again left out. In reality, universal access to ‘sufficient and safe’ water, in Chennai, is still a dream.

 

Question 3

How is the sale of water by farmers to water dealers in Chennai affecting the local people? Do you think local people can object to such exploitation of groundwater? Can the government do anything in this regard?

Answer

Many private companies are providing water to cities due to shortage of water supply by the government organization. These companies buy water from places around the city.

 

In Chennai, water is taken from nearby towns like Mamandur, Palur, Karungizhi and from villages to the north of the city using a fleet of over 13,000 water tankers. Every month the water dealers pay farmers an advance for the rights to exploit water sources on their land. The water that is taken away from the farms is creating a deficit for irrigation and for drinking water for the villagers. There is also a drastic drop in ground water levels in these areas.

 

The local people have a right to object to this exploitation and the government has the power to stop this.

 

Question 4

Why are most of the private hospitals and private schools located in major cities and not in towns or rural areas?

Answer

Private hospital and private schools are located only in major cities as the services they offer are very costly and only the affluent city dweller will be able to afford it.

 

Question 5

Do you think the distribution of public facilities in our country is adequate and fair? Give an example of your own to explain.

Answer

The distribution of public facilities in our country is neither adequate no fair. for example, the Delhiites avail all public facilities like water, healthcare and sanitation, electricity, public transport, schools and colleges. But if we go few kilometers away, for example, Mathura or Aligarh people face grave crises of public facilities. Electricity cut-off, water shortages are normal routine of life. Public transport is also not properly developed.

 

Question 6

Private educational institutions – schools, colleges, universities, technical and vocational training institutes are coming up in our country in a big way. On the other hand, educational institutes run by the government are becoming relatively less important. What do you think would be the impact of this? Discuss.

Answer

Private educational institutions levy very high fees, which only affluent people can afford. So quality education will be the right of only the rich. If educational institutions run by the government are not up to the mark, the weaker sections of the society are deprived of quality education.

 

The end result of this disparity will be that only the rich will get good education while the poor will be deprived of it.

 

Chapter 10 - Law and Social Justice

 

Question 1

What are the advantages to foreign companies in setting up production in India?

Answer

India provides cheap labour compared to some other countries. Wages paid to workers in foreign countries are much higher than in India. For lower pay, the foreign companies can get longer hours of work. Additional expenses such as housing facilities for workers are also fewer in India. Thus, foreign companies can save costs and earn higher profits.

 

Question 2

Do you think the victims of the Bhopal gas tragedy got justice? Discuss.

Answer

The victims of the Bhopal gas tragedy did not get justice. The disaster was caused due to gross neglect of safety measures by the management of the factory.

The government of India represented the people to legally claim compensation for the affected people. The government demanded $ 3 billion but had to accept a meagre $ 470 million from the Company.

Today, 24 years after the disaster, people of Bhopal are still fighting for justice.

 

Question 3

What do we mean when we speak of law enforcement? Who is responsible for enforcement? Why is enforcement so important?

Answer

Law enforcement means to compel obedience to a law. Laws passed by the government have to be enforced otherwise the benefit of the laws will not reach the citizens. It is the duty of the government to enforce the laws.

By enforcing and upholding these laws, the government can control the activities of individuals or private companies so as to ensure social justice.

Enforcement is even more important when the law seeks to protect the weak from the strong.

 

Question 4

How can laws ensure that markets work in a manner that is fair? Give two examples to support your answer.

Answer

The government has passed laws that ensure that essential products such as food grains, sugar and kerosene are not highly priced. It is necessary that such restrictions are placed on people who market these products; otherwise the poor will not be able to afford these goods.

The government has also passed the Consumers’ Protection Act which ensures that the consumers are not cheated by the sale of sub-standard products.

‘Hallmark’ certification helps the consumer to buy standard gold ornaments and ‘Agmark’ certification ensures that the food products on sale are of good quality.

 

Question 5

Write a paragraph on the various roles of the government that you have read about in this unit.

Answer

The common man is exploited in most societies. When this happens it is the duty of the government to ensure that social justice prevails and all the citizens can establish their rights.

The government has passed many laws to guarantee that workers are not exploited by unscrupulous employers. Payment of Wages Act, 1936; Minimum Wages Act, 1948; Payment of Bonus Act, 1965 are some of the Acts that ensure that workers are not underpaid and exploited.

The government has passed the Factories Act, 1948. This Act regulates health, safety, welfare and other working conditions of workers in factories. It is enforced by the State Governments through their factory inspectorates.

The Consumer Protection Act ensures that the consumer is not put to risk by the poor quality of products such as electrical appliances, food and medicines. The Bureau of Indian Standards is a government organization that oversees the quality of products sold.

The government has also passed laws that ensure that essential products such as food grains, sugar and kerosene are not highly priced.

The Environment (protection) Act, 1986, was passed to protect the environment and avert health hazards to human beings.

Prohibition of Employment of Young Children protects children from being exploited. No child who has not completed his fourteenth year shall be required or allowed to work in any factory

The Trade Unions Act, 1926 provides for registration of trade unions with a view to render lawful organisation of labour to enable collective bargaining.

 

Question 6

How was environment treated earlier? What has been the change in perception?

Answer

In 1984, there were very few laws to protect the environment in India. These few laws were not enforced strictly by the government. Industries discharged their waste into water bodies and made it unfit for consumption. The air was polluted with smoke that bellowed from the factories.

This pollution proved to be a health hazard for the people. The Bhopal disaster brought the issue of environmental pollution into focus.

The existing laws did not protect the common man from industrial disasters. Environmental activists insisted on new laws which will protect all the citizens from hazardous pollution of the environment. In response to the demand by the activists and the public, the government introduced new laws on the environmental safety.

According to the new laws imposed by the government the polluter will be held accountable for the damage done to the environment.

The Right to Life is a Fundamental Right under Article 21 of the Constitution and it includes the right to the enjoyment of pollution-free water and air for full enjoyment of life.

 

Question 7

What do you think the famous cartoonist R.K. Laxman is trying to convey in this cartoon? How does it relate to the 2006 law that you read about on page 125?

Answer

The cartoon shows a young under privileged boy carrying the books of a well-to- do boy who is off to school. This reveals that the boy who is less than 14 years of age has been employed by the woman seen in the picture.

The cartoon emphasises that young children are being exploited at work places. They are made to work for long hours for very little wages. These children are being denied basic education which is very essential for them.

This is a violation of the Child Labour Prevention Act that was passed by the government in 2006. No child who has not completed his fourteenth year shall be required or allowed to work in any factory. The government has passed certain laws that will protect these children from being exploited.

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1 - Resources

 

Question 1

Answer the following questions.

(i) Why are resources distributed unequally over the earth?

(ii) What is resource development?

(iii) Why are human resources important?

(iv) What is sustainable development?

Answer

(i) The distribution of resources depends on various factors such as physical nature of the place. The physical factors include terrain, climate, height above sea level, etc. Since these factors vary in different parts of the world, resources are pot distributed over the earth.

(ii) Resource development is the method of utilising our intelligence in order to improve the quality, usability and utility of a resource.

(iii) Human resources are important

because they have an intelligent mind which can make best use of nature to create more resources. Had humans not been there, different substances would not have been resources. Their utility can only be realised by human beings.

(iv) We should use resources in such a balanced way that we satisfy our needs as well as conserve them for future. This concept is called sustainable development.

 

Question 2

Tick the correct answer.

(i) Which one of the following does not make a substance a resource?

(a) utility (b) value (c) quantity

(ii) Which one of the following is a human-made resource?

(a) medicines to treat cancer

(b) spring water

(c) tropical forests

(iii) Complete the statement. Biotic resources are

(a) derived from living beings.

(b) made by human beings.

(c) derived from non-living things.

 

Answer

(i) (c)

(ii) (a)

(iii) (a)

 

Question 3

Differentiate between the followings.

(a) Potential and actual resources (b) Ubiquitous and localised resources

Answer

 

(a) Potential and actual resources

 

Potential Resources

Actual Resources

A potential resource is not being used currently

An Actual resource is one which we use currently

A Potential resource can prove useful and become an actual resource in the future

An actual resource might have been a potential resource in the past. It may end up in the future.

Examples: Uranium deposits in Ladakh.

Examples: Coal deposits

The entire quantity of a potential resource may not be known.

The actual quantity of an actual resource is known

 

(b) Ubiquitous and localised resources

 

Ubiquitous Resources

Localised Resources

A ubiquitous resource is one which is found all over the world.

A localised resource is one which is found in a particular region or physical condition.

Its presence is not governed by physical conditions.

The presence of a localised resource is governed by physical conditions.

Examples: air

Examples: minerals

 

Question 4

Activity

“Rahiman paani raakhiye,

Bin paani sab soon.

Paani gaye na ubere Mod, manus, choon…”

[Says Rahim, keep water, as without water there is nothing. Without water pearl, swan and dough cannot exist.] These lines were written by the poet Abdur Rahim Khankhanam, one of the nine gems of Akbar’s court. What kind of resource is the poet referring to? Write in 100 words what would happen if this resource disappeared?

Answer

The resource referred to by the poet is the water. It is one of the most indispensable resources of life. It can be said to be one of the preconditions of life, like air. Firstly, water serves the most basic purpose of drinking, without which life is not possible. In the absence of water, one would be unable to clean clothes, utensils, or even take a bath. Farmers depend on water for irrigation. Rainwater is so important for proper agriculture. Water is also used in cooking food. Nowadays water has proved to be a useful source of electricity. Besides human beings, plants require water for their growth. Water is also required for various industrial purposes in factories. In short, no form of life can go on without water.

Chapter 2 - Land, Soil, Water, Natural Vegetation and Wildlife Resources

 

Question 1

Answer the following questions.

(i) Which are the two main climatic factors responsible for soil formation?

(ii) Write any two reasons for land degradation today.

(iii) Why is land considered an important resource?

(iv) Name any two steps that government has taken to conserve plants and animals.

(v) Suggest three ways to conserve water.

Answer

(i) Temperature and rainfall are two main climatic factors responsible for soil formation. Rainfall contributes in breaking the rocks by applying pressure. Temperature fluctuations between hot and cold also form cracks in the rocks.

(it) Reasons for land degradation are:

(a) Ever growing demand of the growing population

(b) Destruction of forest cover

(iii) Land is an important resource because it provides surface for agriculture, living, forestry, industries, construction, etc. Most activities take place on land.

(iv) Steps taken by the government include establishment of natural parks and wildlife sanctuaries in different parts of India. Their purpose is conservation of vegetation and wildlife, respectively.

(v) Three ways to conserve water are as under:

(a) Rainwater harvesting: It is a method of collecting water while it rains so that it may come of use in the future.

(b) The canals used for irrigation should be properly built so that loss of water does not take place while the water is transported to the field.

(c) In dry regions, drip or trickle irrigation is suggested.

 

Question 2

Tick the correct answer.

(i) Which one of the following is NOT a factor of soil formation?

(a) time (b) soil texture (c) organic matter

(ii) Which one of the following methods is most appropriate to check soil erosion on steep slopes?

(a) shelterbelts (b) mulching (c) terrace cultivation

(iii) Which one of the following is NOT in favour of the conservation of nature?

(a) switch off the bulb when not in use

(b) close the tap immediately after using

(c) dispose polypacks after shopping

Answer

(i) (b)

(ii) (c)

(iii) (c)

 

Question 3

Match the followings:

 

(i) Land use

(a) Prevent Soil erosion

(ii) Humus

(b) land suitable for agriculture

(iii) Rock Dams

(c) productive use of land

(iv) Arable land

(d) organic matter deposited on top soil

 

(e) Contour ploughing

Answer

 

 

(i) Land use

(c) productive use of land

(ii) Humus

(d) organic matter deposited on top soil

(iii) Rock Dams

(a) Prevent Soil erosion

(iv) Arable land

(b) land suitable for agriculture

 

Question 4

State whether the given statement is true or false. If true, write the reasons.

(i) Ganga-Brahmaputra plain of India is an overpopulated region.

(ii) Water availability per person in India is declining.

(iii) Rows of trees planted in the coastal areas to check the wind movement is called intercropping.

(iv) Human interference and changes of climate can maintain the ecosystem.

Answer

(i) True

(ii) True

(iii) False

(iv) True

 

 

Chapter 3 - Mineral and Power Resources

 

Question 1

Answer the following questions.

(i) Name any three common minerals used by you every day.

(ii) What is an ore? Where are the ores of metallic minerals generally located?

(iii) Name two regions rich in natural gas resources.

(iv) Which sources of energy would you suggest for

(a) rural areas (b) coastal areas (c) arid regions

(v) Give five ways in which you can save energy at home.

Answer

(i) Three common minerals used by us in day-to-day life are copper, iron and salt.

(ii) An ore is a rock from which minerals are mined. Ores of metallic minerals are found usually in igneous and metamorphic rock formations.

(iii) Two regions in India rich in natural gas resources are: Jaisalmer and Krishna-Godavari delta.

(iv) (a) For rural areas, solar energy and wind energy are feasible options. There aren’t many high-rise buildings to act as obstacle for sunlight or to break the momentum of wind. ”

(b) For coastal areas, wind energy and tidal energy are good choices.

(c) For arid regions, wind energy and solar energy are feasible, for reasons similar to rural areas.

(v) Five ways in which one can save energy at home:

(a) Promoting the use of solar energy as much as possible.

(b) Using biogas as cooking fuel.

(c) Drying clothes in sunlight instead of electric dryers to prevent emissions and unnecessary use of electricity.

(d) Avoiding misuse of electricity; switching off fans and lights when not required.

(e) Using pressure cookers for cooking.

 

Question 2

Tick the correct answer.

(i) Which one of the following is not a characteristic of minerals?

(a) They are created by natural processes.

(b) They have a definite chemical composition.

(c) They are inexhaustible.

(d) Their distribution is uneven.

(ii) Which one of the following is not a producer of mica?

(a) Jharkhand (b) Karnataka

(c) Rajasthan (d) Andhra Pradesh

(iii) Which one of the following is a leading producer of copper in the world?

(a) Bolivia (b) Ghana

(c) Chile (d) Zimbabwe

(iv) Which one of the following practices will not conserve LPG in your kitchen?

(a) Soaking the dal for some time before cooking it.

(b) Cooking food in a pressure cooker.

(c) Keeping the vegetables chopped before lighting the gas for cooking.

(d) Cooking food in an open pan kept on low flame.

Answer

(i) (c)

(ii) (b)

(iii) (c)

(iv) (d)

 

Question 3

Give reasons.

(i) Environmental aspects must be carefully looked into before building huge dams.

(ii) Most industries are concentrated around coal mines.

(iii) Petroleum is referred to as “black gold”.

(iv) Quarrying can become a major environmental concern.

Answer

(i) Building huge dams causes destabilisation of the natural habitats of plants and wild animals living in the area. These environmental aspects should be looked into before building dams.

(ii) Presence of coal mines around industries reduces the costs of transportation and also ensures easy availability of fuel.

(iii) Petroleum is a very valuable fossil fuel. It is used for running all machineries, transport vehicles, from a bicycle to an aeroplane.

(iv) After quarrying, pits are not covered so they may cause environmental hazards.

 

Question 4

Distinguish between the followings.

(i) Conventional and non-conventional sources of energy.

(ii) Biogas and natural gas.

(iii) Ferrous and non-ferrous minerals

(iv) Metallic and non-metallic minerals.

Answer

(i) Conventional and non-conventional sources of energy

 

Conventional Sources of Energy

Non-conventional sources of Energy

Conventional power sources are those that have been in use for a long time

Non-conventional power sources are those power sources that have come into use recently due to the depleting conventional resources and growing awareness.

Examples: Fossil Fuels and Firewood

Examples: Solar energy, tidal energy

 

(ii) Biogas and natural gas.

 

Biogas

Natural gas

Biogas is obtained from the decomposition of organic waste

Natural gas is obtained as a by-product from the extraction of petroleum

It is a renewable source

It is a non-renewable source

It is a non-conventional source

It is a conventional source

 

(iii) Ferrous and non-ferrous minerals

 

Ferrous Minerals

Non-ferrous Minerals

Ferrous minerals are those containing iron

Non-ferrous minerals are those containing iron

They are magnetic

They are not magnetic

Example: Iron ore

Example: Limestone

 

(iv) Metallic and non-metallic minerals

 

Metallic Minerals

Non-metallic Minerals

Metallic minerals contain metals in raw form

Non-metallic minerals do not contain metals

Examples: Iron ore, bauxite

Example: Limestone, Gypsum

 

Chapter 4 - Agriculture

 

Question 1

Answer the following questions.

(i) What is agriculture?

(ii) Name the factors influencing agriculture.

(iii) What is shifting cultivation? What are its disadvantages?

(iv) What is plantation agriculture?

(v) Name the fibre crops and name the climatic conditions required for their growth.

Answer

(i) Agriculture is the primary activity that involves cultivation of crops, fruits,vegetables, flowers and rearing of livestock.

(ii) Factors influencing agriculture include topography of soil and climate.

(iii) Shifting cultivation is the form of agriculture in which a plot of land is cleared by felling the trees and burning them. The ashes are then mixed with soil and crops are grown. After some time, the land is abandoned and the farmers move to a different place. It is disadvantageous because it involves deforestation and burning of trees. Thus it is not good for environment.

(iv) Plantation agriculture is a type of commercial farming where only a single crop (like tea, coffee, sugarcane, cashew, rubber, banana or cotton) is grown. Large amount of labour and capital are required. The produce is processed in the farm itself or nearby factories.

(v) Two major fibre crops are jute and cotton. Jute grows well on alluvial soil and requires high temperature, heavy rainfall and humid climate for its growth. Cotton needs high temperature, light rainfall and bright sunshine for its proper growth.

 

Question 2

Tick the correct answer.

(i) Horticulture means

(a) growing of fruits and vegetables (b) primitive farming (c) growing of wheat

(ii) Golden fibre refers to

(a) tea (b) cotton

(c) jute

(iii) Leading producers of coffee

(a) Brazil (b) India (c) Russiac

Answer

(i) (a)

(ii) (c)

(iii) (a)

 

Question 3

Give reasons.

(i) In India agriculture is a primary activity.

(ii) Different crops are grown in different regions.

Answer

(i) Agriculture is an activity of growing crops, fruits, vegetables, flowers and rearing of livestock. It is a primary activity since it directly involves in natural resources. In India, a huge number of people derive the activity from their ancestors. Due to lack of literacy in general, farmers prefer agriculture since they acquire the required skills from their ancestors, and so feel comfortable with it.

(ii) The growing of crops depends on a lot of factors. Climate, rainfall, humidity, etc are important factors. In absence of certain conditions, it may not be possible to grow a certain crop. So, different crops are grown in different regions.

 

Question 4

Distinguish between the followings.

(i) Primary activities and secondary activities.

(ii) Subsistence farming and intensive farming.

Answer.

(i) Primary activities and secondary activities

 

Primary Activities

Secondary Activities

Activities which involve direct extraction and production of natural resources are called primary activities.

Activities which are concerned with the processing of natural resources are called secondary activities.

Examples: agriculture, fishing and gathering

Examples: manufacturing activities in industry, baking bread.

 

 

(ii) Subsistence farming and intensive farming.

 

Subsistence Farming

Intensive Farming

Subsistence farming uses low levels of technology and household labour. The output produced is small.

In intensive farming a farmer uses simple tools and more labour to cultivate a small plot of land.

 

 

Question 5

Find out the difference between the lifestyle of farmers in the USA and India on the basis of pictures collected from magazines, books, newspapers and the internet.

Answer

The lifestyle of an Indian farmer is quite different from that of a farmer in the USA. An Indian farmer does not have much land whereas the average size of a farm in the USA is about 250 hectares. An Indian farmer lives in his house but an American farmer lives in his farm. A farmer in India applies his own experience, and advice of other farmers and elders regarding farming practices. But a farmer in the USA gets his soil tested in laboratories to assess the nutrients of the soil. An Indian farmer does not know of any technical advancements whereas a farmer in the USA has a computer which is linked to the satellite. In comparison to an Indian farmer, an American farmer is much more advanced in every aspect.

 

Chapter 5 - Industries

Question 1

Answer the following questions.

(i) What is meant by the term ‘industry’?

(ii) Which are the main factors which influence the location of an industry?

(iii) Which industry is often referred to as the backbone of modem industry and why?

(iv) Why cotton textile industry rapidly expanded in Mumbai?

(v) What are the similarities between information, technology industry in Bangalore and California?

Answer

(i) Industry refers to an economic activity that is concerned with production of goods, extraction of minerals or provision of services.

(ii) The location of industries is affected by the availability of raw material, land, water, labour, power, capital, transport and market.

(iii) The iron and steel industry is referred to as the backbone of modem industry. This is so because it is a “feeder” industry whose products are used as raw materials for other industries.

(iv) Cotton textile industry expanded rapidly in Mumbai initially because of the presence of a lot of favourable conditions. Warm and moist climate, a port situated nearby to import machinery, easy availability of raw material and skilled labour were factors behind this.

(v) Some of the points of similarity between information technology industry in Bangalore and Silicon Valley are:

(a) Educational and technological institutions: Bangalore has the largest number of educational institutions and IT colleges in India and Silicon Valley is also situated close to some reputed scientific and technological centres of the world.

(b) Environment: Both of Bangalore and Silicon Valley have low pollution levels and have a clean environment.

 

Question 2

Tick the correct answer.

(i) Silicon Valley is located in

(a) Bangalore (b) California (c) Ahmedabad

(ii) Which one of the following industries is known as sunrise industry?

(a) Iron and steel industry (b) Cotton textile

(c) Information Technology

(iii) Which one of the following is a natural fibre?

(a) nylon (b) jute (c) acrylic

Answer

(i) (b)

(ii) (c)

(iii) (b)

 

Question 3

Distinguish between the followings.

(i) Agro-based and mineral-based industry (ii) Public sector and joint sector industry

Answer

(i) Agro-based and mineral-based industry

 

Agro-based industry

Mineral-based industry

Agro-based industries use plant and animal based products as their raw material

Mineral-based industries use mineral ores as their raw material.

Examples of raw materials used: animal skin, crops

Examples of raw materials used: iron ore, limestone

Examples of industries: leather industry, food processing.

Examples of industries: iron and steel industry

 

(ii) Public sector and joint sector industry

 

Public Sector industry

Joint Sector industry

Public Sector industries are owned and run by the government

Joint Sector industries are owned and operated by the state as well as individuals.

Examples: Hindustan Aeronautics Limited

Examples: Maruti Udyog

 

Question 4

Give two examples of each the following.

(i) Raw materials (ii) End products

(iii) Tertiary activities (iv) Agro-based industries

(v) Cottage industries (vi) Co-operatives

Answer

(i) ores, plants

(ii) Clothes that we wear, a car

(iii) Trade, banking

(iv) Food processing, leather industry

(v) Basket weaving, pottery

(vi) AMUL, Sudha Dairy

 

Chapter 6 - Human Resources

Question 1

Answer the following questions.

(i) Why are people considered a resource?

(it) What are the causes for the uneven distribution of population in the world?

(Hi) The world population has grown very rapidly. Why?

(iv) Discuss the role of any two factors influencing population change.

(v) What is meant by population composition?

(vi) What are population pyramids ? How do they help in understanding about the population of a country?

Answer

(i) Human beings are the most important resource of a nation. They are significant because had they not utilised their brains, the other resources of nature would not have found any utility. In other words, human resource is the ultimate resource.

(ii) Population density depends on the climate conditions and topography of the place, like few people live in high latitude areas, tropical deserts, mountainous ‘terrains, and forest areas,whereas a large number of people reside in plains. Fertility of soils, availability of freshwater, minerals are other major geographical factors behind this. Some social factors that boost the density of population in a region are better housing, education and health facilities. Places with cultural or historical significance are usually populated. Employment opportunities are another attraction for large chunks of population.

(iii) The world population has grown very rapidly because of the development in medical science which has caused decrease in death rate. Since lesser people die now of diseases than before, whereas there was no way to decrease the birth rate, the population has increased at a fast rate.

(iv) Geographical factors: People prefer to live on plains more than mountains or plateaus and they live more in moderate climates than extreme hot or cold. From the agriculture point of view, fertile lands are preferred. Areas with mineral deposits are more populated.

Economic factors: People prefer to industrial areas since they provide more and better employment opportunities. Due to this, industrial cities are thickly populated.

(v) The structure of the population with various respects like age, sex, literacy, occupations, health facilities, economic condition, etc is called population composition.

(vi) A population pyramid is a pictorial way to describe the population composition. The shape of population pyramid of a country is indicative of a lot of information about the country. The size towards the bottom may be used to estimate the birth rate, while the size towards the top to estimate the death rate.

(vii) A population pyramid in which the base is broad and the top part is narrow means that although a large amount of births take place, not all grow up to be adults and old; it means many die before reaching these ages. This indicates a large death rate and Kenya shows such a pyramid. This means a high population growth rate.

In countries like India, the death rate is decreasing, so the pyramid is broad in the younger age groups, and the size of the pyramid decreases steadily.

 

Question 2

Tick the correct answer.

(i) Which does the term population distribution refer to?

(a) How population in a specified area changes over time.

(b) The number of people who die in relation to the number of people born in a specified area.

(c) The way in which people are spread across a given area.

(ii) Which are three main factors that cause population change?

(a) Births, deaths and marriages (b) Births, deaths and life expectancy (c) Births, deaths and life expectancy

(iii) In 1999, the world population reached

(a) 1 billion (b) 3 billion

(c) 6 billion

(iv) What is a population pyramid?

(a) A graphical presentation of the age, sex composition of a population.

(b) When the population density of an area is so high that people live in tall buildings.

(c) Pattern of population distribution in large urban areas.

Answer

(i) (c)

(ii) (b)

(iii) (c)

(iv) (a)

 

Question 3

Complete the sentences below using some of the following words. sparsely, favourably, fallow, artificial, fertile, natural, extreme, densely When people are attracted to an area it becomes populated.Factors that influence this include climate; good supplies of resources and land.

Answer

When people are attracted to an area it becomes densely populated. Factors that influence this include favourable climate; good supplies of natural resources and fertile land.

 

Question 4

Activity:

Discuss the characteristics of a society with “too many under 15s” and one with “too few under 15s”.

Answer

The society with too many under 15s need more schools to be able to educate them. There should be efficient and laborious teachers. There should be provisions for items necessary for a child’s amusement, like toys. Children are prone to diseases; facilities for hospitals should be improved in such a society.

In a society with too few under 15s will have more and more mature people. Pension schemes will work there fruitfully. There may be the need for wheelchairs. Labour supply will be easier. These people will also need hospitals.

 

Read CBSE Class 8 Social Science Notes for all Chapters

In this page, candidates can find the NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science for History, Geography, and Political life. By checking the NCERT Solutions for class 8 Social Science notes given here helps you to find answers for textbook questions so you complete your homework. Moreover, the NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science given here is useful for you to prepare for your monthly, quarterly, half-yearly, and Annual Exams. Find the complete NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science in this page.


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