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NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics 2021
The candidates who are studying under the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) and in search of NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics 2021 can refer to this article. In this article, and we have noted down the NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics 2021 for all Class 8. Candidates can go through this article and get the NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics 2021 by chapter-wise. The NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics 2021 are provided in this article which is free of cost. Candidates can refer to the NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics 2021 when preparing for their NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Examination.
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NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics 2021
Chapter 1 - The Indian Constitution
1. Why does a democratic country need a Constitution?
A democratic country needs a Constitution because of the following reasons:
2. Look at the wordings of the two documents given below. The first column is from the 1990 Nepal Constitution. The second column is from the more recent Constitution of Nepal.
What is the difference in who exercises ‘Executive Power’ in the above two Constitutions of Nepal?
Article 35 of the 1990 Constitution of Nepal states that the whole powers to rule the country is vested in the king of the country and the ministers appointed under him.
On the other hand, article 75 of the 2015 Constitution of Nepal states that the rules and management of the country will be based on the laws mentioned in the Constitution of the country under the supervision of the council of ministers.
3. What would happen if there were no restrictions on the power of elected representatives?
If there are no restrictions on the power of the elected representatives then the leaders might misuse their powers and authority. This would have resulted in gross injustice against the people of the country. Hence, the Indian constitution has provided measures to safeguard the country against such misuse of power by our political leaders.
4. In each of the following situations, identify the minority. Write one reason why you think it is important to respect the views of the minority in each of these situations.
(a) In a school with 30 teachers, 20 of them are male.
Here, the 10 female teachers teaching in the school come under the minority category. It is important to respect the views of the minority so that they do not feel left out or underpowered by the majority. Moreover, no decision made keeping the majority's views in mind should cause any kind of discomfort to the female teachers.
(b) In a city, 5 percent of the population are Buddhists.
Here, the minority section is the Buddhist population in the city. Their views should be respected. Any decision taken for the interest of the majority should not hurt the religious feelings or beliefs of the Buddhist population.
(c) In a factory mess for all employees, 80 percent are vegetarians.
Here, 20 percent non-vegetarians fall under the minority category. It is important that the food prepared in the factory mess must be prepared to fulfill the diet requirements of both vegetarians and non-vegetarians.
(d) In a class of 50 students, 40 belong to more well-off families.
Here, the 10 students who do not belong to well-off families come under the minority category. It is important to respect their views and make sure that there is no kind of distinction or discrimination based on the financial backgrounds of students in the class. Various expenses required by the school should be adjusted in a way that the minority students do not feel left out or humiliated for not being able to pay the same.
5. The column on the left lists some of the key features of the Indian Constitution. In the other columns write two sentences, in your own words, on why you think this feature is important:
Chapter 2 Understanding Secularism
1. List the different types of religious practices that you find in your neighbourhood. This could be different forms of prayer, worship of different gods, sacred sites, different kinds of religious music and singing, etc. Does this indicate freedom of religious practice?
Answer: The different types of religious practices that we can see in our neighbourhood are as follows:
This shows that the people in India have the freedom to practise the religion of their choice and yet live together in peace and harmony.
2. Will the government intervene if some religious group says that their religion allows them to practise infanticide? Give reasons for your answer.
Answer: Yes, the Government can intervene if some religious group says that their religion allows them to practise infanticide. This is because the Indian Constitution clearly states that the Government has the right to intervene if there is a threat to social harmony. Also, killing an infant is a crime and the judiciary is the only authority that can punish a person to death and no other religion or person can commit the crime of killing someone.
3. Complete the following table:
4. Look up the annual calendar of holidays of your school. How many of them pertain to different religions? What does this indicate?
Answer: The annual calendar of our school marks holidays like Eid, which is celebrated by Muslims. Diwali, which is a Hindu festival, Christmas, which is celebrated by Christians and Guru Nanak Jayanti which is a Sikh festival. This proves that India is a secular country and every individual has the right to religious freedom.
5. Find out some examples of different views within the same religion.
Answer: Some examples of different views within the same religion are as follows:
6. The Indian State both keeps away from religion as well as intervenes in religion. This idea can be quite confusing. Discuss this once again in class using examples from the chapter as well as those that you might have come up with.
Answer: The Indian state both keeps away from religion, as well as intervenes in religion. If a person with a majority religious group gets the state power, he may use the power to discriminate and persecute the people of other religions. The majority may even deprive the minority of practising their religion. For example, untouchability still exists in the Hindu community. If the state power is handed over to a person belonging to an upper-caste Hindu majority, he may use it as a weapon against the lower-class people of the society or that state.
Chapter 3 Why Do We Need A Parliament
Exercises Page No 41
1. Why do you think our national movement supported the idea that all adults have a right to vote?
Answer: The freedom struggle was fought by people belonging to different backgrounds and they were inspired by the ideas of freedom, equality and participation in decision making. The reason to fight for the freedom of the nation was to live in a country governed by the leaders who were sensitive to people’s needs and demands and who could completely abolish the inequalities that existed under the British rule. The dreams and aspirations of people to live a free and respectful life laid down the principle of Universal Adult Franchise, i.e. the right to vote.
Why do you think our national movement supported the idea that all adults have a right to vote discussed in Chapter 3 of NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics?
The freedom struggle was fought by people belonging to different backgrounds and they were inspired by the ideas of freedom, equality and participation in decision making. The reason to fight for the freedom of the nation was to live in a country governed by leaders who were sensitive to people’s needs and demands and who could completely abolish the inequalities that existed under the British rule. The dreams and aspirations of people to live a free and respectful life laid down the principle of Universal Adult Franchise, i.e. the right to vote.
Chapter 4 Understanding Laws
1. Write in your own words what you understand by the term the ‘rule of law’. In your response include a fictitious or real example of a violation of the rule of law.
Answer: The rule of law is a provision of the Indian Constitution that states that all people in independent India are equal before the law. Every law is equal for every citizen in the country. Neither the President or any other high official is above the law. The punishment for any crime committed will be the same for every person, irrespective of post or power. For example if a Clerk is punished for corruption, the same punishment needs to be given to a higher Official or Minister for committing the same crime of corruption.
2. State two reasons why historians refute the claim that the British introduced the rule of law in India.
Answer: Two reasons why historians refute to claim that the British introduced the rule of law in India are:
3. Re-read the storyboard on how a new law on domestic violence got passed. Describe in your own words the different ways in which women’s groups worked to make this happen.
Answer: The Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act 2005 was passed with an aim to protect women against any kind of violence, be it physical or verbal. Various women’s groups worked to make this happen by reporting multiple cases of domestic violence to the to various forums. A group of lawyers, law students and activists worked together for drafting the Domestic Violence (Prevention and Protection Bill). Other than this, various Women organisations, National Commission for Women made submissions to the Parliamentary Standing Committee. All these actions taken by women, together made the Government pass the bill against domestic violence.
4. Write in your own words what you understand by the following sentence on page 44-45: They also began fighting for greater equality and wanted to change the idea of law from a set of rules that they were forced to obey, to the law as including ideas of justice.
Answer: India before independence was forced to follow the rules set by the British Government. These set of rules were arbitrary and not were not authorised by the Indian nationalists. Hence the freedom struggle against the Britishers also aimed at making a set of rules that were fair and just for all and were not just imposed on the Indians to follow. The Indian Nationalists began to fight for their rights and wanted a set of rules that were equal for all.
Chapter 5 Judiciary
1. You read that one of the main functions of the judiciary is ‘upholding the law and Enforcing Fundamental Rights’. Why do you think an independent judiciary is necessary to carry out this important function?
Answer An independent judiciary is necessary to carry out the function of ‘upholding the law and enforcing Fundamental Rights’. It intends to shield the judicial process from external influences and provide full legal protection to all individuals going to court for whatever reason.
Anyone can approach the courts if they believe that their rights have been violated. If any law passed by the Parliament violates anyone’s Fundamental Rights, the judiciary has power to declare such a law as null and void.
2. Re-read the list of Fundamental Rights provided in Chapter 1. How do you think the Right to Constitutional Remedies connects to the idea of judicial review?
Answer The Right to Constitutional Remedies connects to the idea of judicial review in its capacity of protecting the rights of an individual against the working of the State legislature or executive. It allows citizens to move the court if they think that their fundamental rights are being violated by the State administration. Judicial review implies invalidation of legislative or executive action if it is seen to violate fundamental rights. Hence, judicial review and the Right to Constitutional Remedies are inter-connected because the judicial review is practiced when any fundamental Right is violated by the State. In this case, a higher court can repeal the judgments of a lower court based on its own investigation.
3. In the following illustration, fill in each tier with the judgments given by the various courts in the Sudha Goel case. Check your responses with others in class.
4. Keeping the Sudha Goel case in mind, tick the sentences that are true and correct the ones that are false.
(a) The accused took the case to the High Court because they were unhappy with the decision of the Trial Court.
(b) They went to the High Court after the Supreme Court had given its decision.
(c) If they do not like the Supreme Court verdict, the accused can go back again to the Trial Court.
(b) False. They went to the High Court after the Trial Court had given its decision.
(c) False. If they do not like the Supreme Court verdict, the accused cannot go back again to the Trial Court, because the Supreme Court is the highest court in the judiciary pyramid.
5. Why do you think the introduction of Public Interest Litigation (PIL) in the 1980s is a significant step in ensuring access to justice for all?
Answer The Supreme Court in the early 1980s devised a mechanism of Public Interest Litigation or PIL to increase access to justice. It allowed any individual or organisation to file a PIL in the High Court or the Supreme Court on behalf of those whose rights were being violated. The legal process was greatly simplified and even a letter or telegram addressed to the Supreme Court or the High Court could be treated as a PIL. In the early years, PIL was used to secure justice on a large number of issues such as rescuing bonded labourers from inhuman work conditions; and securing the release of prisoners in Bihar who had been kept in jail, even after their punishment term was complete.
Thus, the introduction of Public Interest Litigation is a significant step in ensuring access to justice for all.
6. Re-read excerpts from the judgment on the Olga Tellis vs Bombay Municipal Corporation case. Now write in your own words what the judges meant when they said that the Right to Livelihood was part of the Right to Life.
Answer In the Olga Tellis vs. Bombay Municipal Corporation case, the judges stated that the Right to Livelihood was part of the Right to Life. They stated that life does not merely mean an animal existence, it cannot be lived without the means of livelihood. In the above mentioned case, people were poor and lived in slums they had small jobs and no other place to live. For them, the eviction of their slum means deprivation of their livelihood which consequently means deprivation of life. This is how judges connected right to life to the basic requirements of any livelihood i.e. Food, Clothes and shelter.
7. Write a story around the theme, ‘Justice delayed is justice denied’.
Answer Students have to do this by themselves.
8. Make sentences with each of the glossary words given on the next page.
Acquit, To appeal, Compensation, Eviction, Violation.
Chapter 6 Understanding Our Criminal Justice System
1. In a town called Peace Land, the supporters of the Fiesta football team learn that the supporters of the Jubilee football team in the nearby city about 40 km away have damaged the ground on which the Final between both teams is to be held the following day. A crowd of Fiesta fans armed with deadly weapons attacks the homes of the supporters of the Jubilee football team in the town. In the attack, 10 men are killed, 5 women are gravely hurt, many homes are destroyed and over 50 people injured.
Imagine that you and your classmates are now part of the criminal justice system. First divide the class into the following four groups of persons:
1. Police 2. Public Prosecutor 3. Defence lawyer 4. Judge
The column on the right provides a list of functions. Match these with the roles that are listed on the left. Have each group pick the functions that it needs to perform to bring justice to those who were affected by the violence of the Fiesta fans. In what order, will these functions be performed?
Now take the same situation but ask one student who is a supporter of the Fiesta Club to perform all the functions listed above. Do you think the victims would get justice if only one person performed all of the functions of the criminal justice system? Why not?
State two reasons why you believe that different persons need to play different roles as part of the criminal justice system.
The victim would not get justice if only one person performs all the functions of the criminal justice system, because he could get influenced by various prejudices. Separation of power is necessary within a judicial system too, since absolute power can lead to unfairness.
Two reasons why different people need to play different roles as part of the criminal justice system are:
A single ideology may not be the right one, as it can affect the trial and the result of the case.
Chapter 7 – Understanding Marginalisation
1. Write in your own words two or more sentences of what you understand by the word ‘marginalisation’ .
Answer A social process of being confined to lower social standing is marginalisation. It involves people being denied their fundamental rights that results in lowering their social and economical status. It is a situation when a particular social group is forced to live on the fringes rather than in the mainstream. A marginalised section of the society does not get proper opportunity of socio-economic development.
2. List two reasons why Adivasis are becoming increasingly marginalised.
Answer Adivasis are being increasingly marginalised for the following two reasons:
3. Write one reason why you think the Constitution’s safeguards to protect minority communities are very important.
Answer The safeguards to protect minority communities are necessary, because the majority community may culturally dominate the minority communities and the minority communities might become marginalised.
4. Re-read the section on Minorities and Marginalisation. What do you understand by the term minority?
Answer Minority is the community that is numerically small in relation to the rest of the population. A particular religious section, which has a low percentage in population compared to the major religious community is called a minority.
The Constitution of India provides safeguards to linguistical and religious minorities, as a part of its fundamental rights and ensures that minorities do not face any disadvantage or discrimination. In India; Christians, Sikhs, Muslims, etc. are included in minorities.
5. You are participating in a debate where you have to provide reasons to support the following statement: ‘Muslims are a marginalised community’. Using the data provided in this chapter, list two reasons that you would give.
Answer As per the data provided in the chapter, the literacy rate of muslim population in India is only 59%, which is the lowest compared to 65% among Hindus, 70% among Sikhs, 73% among Buddhists, 80% among Christians, and 94% among Jains.
Also, only 3% of muslims represent the esteemed Indian Administrative Service Cadre. The above stats support that Muslims are a marginalised community in India.
6. Imagine that you are watching the Republic Day parade on TV with a friend and she remarks, “Look at these tribal people. They look so exotic. And they seem to be dancing all the time”. List three things that you would tell her about the lives of Adivasis in India.
Answer Adivasis have a deep knowledge of forests. They were hunters and gatherers and lived like nomads. They practised shifting agriculture and have also cultivated at a single place. Their deep knowledge of forests made them indispensable to the rulers of various empires during the pre-colonial period in india. They have their own language and have influenced the formation of various Indian languages, Bengali being one of them.
7. In the storyboard you read about how Helen hopes to make a movie on the Adivasi story. Can you help her by developing a short story on Adivasis?
Answer Students have to do this by themselves.
8. Would you agree with the statement that economic marginalisation and social marginalisation are interlinked? Why?
Answer Social marginalisation and economic marginalisation are interlinked. Social marginalisation forces a social group out of the mainstream, resulting in lack of opportunities for skill development and education. This means that the people from marginalized sections will not have proper access to quality healthcare, which in turn means that a child from the marginalized section does not develop into a financially stable adult, who otherwise is capable enough to ensure a better income. Thus, the individual who is left behind in socio-economic development, also become economically marginalised.
Chapter 9 Public Facilities
1. Why do you think there are so few cases of private water supply in the world?
Answer: Water is a basic necessity. Hence, universal access to safe drinking water is necessary for a standard quality of life. It needs to be provided to everyone – either free of charge or at affordable rates. But, as private companies work towards the singular goal of maximising profits, there was a steep rise in the price of water in cases where the responsibility for water supply was handed over to private companies. This made water unaffordable for many. Cities saw huge protests with riots breaking out at various places. This forced the government to take back the service from private hands. Therefore, only a few cases of private water supply exists in the world.
2. Do you think water in Chennai is available to and affordable by all? Discuss.
Answer: Water is not equally available to all citizens in Chennai. Water in Chennai is supplied by the municipality, which fails to meet the demand 100%. Some areas get regular water supply, while many areas get erratic supply of water. People from the middle class and upper class buy packaged drinking water or water from tankers. The burden of water supply shortage falls mostly on the poor, as they cannot afford the expense of tankers or packaged water. Those who live close to the storage points get more water, while colonies further away receive less supply.
3. How is the sale of water by farmers to water dealers in Chennai affecting the local people? Do you think local people can object to such exploitation of groundwater? Can the government do anything in this regard?
Answer: Due to the shortage of water, private companies have got an opportunity and are selling water to cities by buying it from places around the city. In Chennai, water is taken from nearby towns like, Karungizhi Palur and Mamandur villages to the north of the city, using a fleet of over 13,000 water tankers. Every month, the water dealers pay an advance to farmers for the rights to exploit water sources on their land. This way, the water that is taken away is not just creating a deficit for agriculture purpose but also increasing the shortage of drinking water supplies in the villages. As a result, the level of ground water has dropped drastically in all these towns and villages.
4. Why are most of the private hospitals and private schools located in major cities and not in towns or rural areas?
Answer Most of the private schools and hospitals are located in the cities, rather than in towns or villages. Since their sole motive is maximum profit, the services they offer are costly and are affordable only by the affluent dwellers in the city.
5. Do you think the distribution of public facilities in our country is adequate and fair? Give an example of your own to explain.
Answer While there is no doubt that public facilities should be made available to all, in reality, we see that there is a great shortage of such facilities. The distribution of public facilities in our country is neither adequate nor fair. For example, the Delhites avail all public facilities like healthcare and sanitation, water, electricity, schools, colleges and public transport. But if we go to places a few kilometers away such as Mathura or Aligarh, people have to face grave crises for these facilities. Water shortages and electricity cut-offs are part of the normal routine of life in those places. Public transport is also not properly developed. Compared to the metros and large cities, towns and villages are under-provided. Compared to wealthy localities, the poorer localities are under-serviced. Handing over these facilities to private companies is not an answer. The important fact is that every citizen of the country has a right to these facilities, which should be provided to all in an equitable manner.
6. Take some of the public facilities in your area, such as water, electricity, etc. Is there scope to improve these? What in your opinion should be done? Complete the table.
7. Are the above public facilities shared equally by all the people in your area? Elaborate.
Answer No the above-mentioned facilities are not shared equally in the areas. Water supply is not shared equally by all the people. The slum dwellers have to manage with a single water tap, where each house in a middle-class locality has a separate connection for water. While people of middle-class homes buy water from tankers to meet their needs, those in slums cannot afford it. However, other facilities, like electricity, road and public transport are shared equally by all.
8. Data on some of the public facilities are collected as part of the Census. Discuss with your teacher when and how the Census is conducted.
Answer Students have to do this under the guidance of their teacher.
9. Private educational institutions – schools, colleges, universities, technical and vocational training institutes are coming up in our country in a big way. On the other hand, educational institutes run by the government are becoming relatively less important. What do you think would be the impact of this? Discuss.
Answer Education is a basic need and there should be universal access to education. But, as the main motive of private education institutes is earning profits, they charge high fees which are affordable only by the affluent section of the society. Thus, the right to quality education is only fulfilled for the rich class. Similarly, if government education institutes are not up to the mark, then weaker sections are again deprived of quality education. This, in turn, results in the disparity of quality education between the rich and the poor.
Chapter 10 Law & Social Justice
1. Talk to two workers (For example, construction workers, farm workers, factory workers, workers at any shop) to find out if they are receiving the minimum wages laid down by law.
Answer: Students have to do this by themselves.
2. What are the advantages to foreign companies in setting up production in India?
Answer: The advantages to foreign companies in setting up their production in India is as follows:
3. Do you think the victims of the Bhopal gas tragedy got justice? Discuss.
Answer: The victims of the Bhopal gas tragedy got some monetary compensation, but not justice. It was caused due to gross neglect of safety measures by the factory management. The government represented the people to claim compensation for affected ones. The government demanded 3 billion dollar as a compensation, of which the company compensated only 470 million dollars. Today, after so many tears shed due to the tragedy, there are still people seeking justice. So many victims still fail to avail safe drinking water, healthcare facilities and jobs. Many people who were maimed for life, have no use for the compensation money. Hence, it can be said that the victims of the Bhopal gas tragedy did not get justice.
4. What do we mean when we speak of law enforcement? Who is responsible for enforcement? Why is enforcement so important?
Answer: Law enforcement means the implementation of law. Government is responsible for enforcement. Enforcement is important when the law seeks to protect the people belonging to the weaker sections from those who are strong and powerful. Enforcement is important to ensure that every worker gets fair wages. When workers are poor or powerless, the fear of losing future earnings or facing reprisals forces them to accept low wages. Employers use this as a tool to pay workers less than the fair wage. In such cases, it is crucial that the laws are enforced.
5. How can laws ensure that markets work in a manner that is fair? Give two examples to support your answer.
Answer: Laws ensure that markets work in a fair manner by protecting the people from unfair practices. The two examples are –
Child Labour Prevention Act: This law states that no child below the age of 14 years shall be employed to work in any factory or mine or engage in any other hazardous employment.
Right against Exploitation: This law states that no one can be forced to work for low wages or under bondage.
The government has also passed laws to make sure that essential products such as kerosene, food grain, sugar etc are not highly priced. It is imperative to impose such restrictions on people who are marketing these types of products, so that people of low economic strata can afford these goods.
6. Imagine yourself to be a worker working in a chemical factory, which has received orders from the government to move to a different site 100 kms away from the present location. Write about how your life would change? Read out your responses in the classroom.
Students should do this exercise with the help of the teacher
7. Write a paragraph on the various roles of the government that you have read about in this unit.
Answer: The government plays the following roles:
8. What are the sources of environmental pollution in your area? Discuss with respect to (a) air; (b) water and (c) soil. What are the steps being taken to reduce pollution? Can you suggest some other measures?
Answer: The various sources of environment pollution in our area are as follows:
(a) Smoke from factories and vehicles run by petrol or diesel are the main reasons behind air pollution.
(b) The main cause of water pollution is chemical fertilizers and garbage from factories, farms and houses.
(c) Soil is polluted by the pesticides and fertilisers that are used to grow crops or by garbage dumped by human or by factory waste.
Steps taken to reduce pollution are:
No rules or laws can help make our environment clean and free of pollution, until and unless every individual of the society takes the responsibility on his part to keep their environment clean. Only voluntary actions can make our environment pollution free.
9. How was environment treated earlier? What has been the change in perception? Discuss.
Answer: The environment was treated as a ‘free’ entity and any industry or individual could pollute the environment without any restrictions. There were very few laws to protect and conserve the environment in India. Government also paid no attention to safeguarding the environment.
Now, there has been a change in perception. Government has introduced various laws to protect and conserve the environment such as Swachh Bahrat Abhiyan. The courts have given out a number of judgments, upholding the right to a healthy environment as intrinsic to the fundamental right to life. Various laws and procedures to check pollution and clean rivers have been formed. The government can also impose a fine on those who pollute our precious environment.
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Exams 2023 - FAQ
NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics 2021 can be checked from the article.
10 Chapters are for NCERT 8 Civics Curriculum.
Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) conducts Class 8 Civics Exams
The NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics 2021 provides the students to know answerkey chapterwise which will be helpful when preparing for the exams.
Chapter 1: The Indian Constitution
Chapter 2: Understanding Secularism
Chapter 3: Why do we need a Parliament?
Chapter 4: Understanding Laws
Chapter 5: Judiciary
Chapter 6: Understanding Our Criminal Justice System
Chapter 7: Understanding Marginalisation
Chapter 8: Confronting Marginalisation
Chapter 9: Public Facilities
Chapter 10: Law and Social Justice