NCERT SOLUTIONS FOR CLASS 7 SOCIAL SCIENCE

NCERT Solutions for Class 7 Social Science is provided here. Students can read the complete NCERT Solutions for Class 7 Social Science for history, civics, and Geography. This page provides the complete solution for all Chapters of Class 7 Social Science. Download the NCERT Solutions for Class 7 Social Science PDF here. Get the solutions for all chapters of Class 7 Social Science in this page.

Last modified:2019-08-19

Chapter 1 - Tracing Changes Through a Thousand Years

 

Question 1:

Who was considered a "foreigner" in the past?

Answer:

In the past a foreigner was someone who was not part of a certain society or culture. A city dweller might have regarded a forest dweller as a foreigner.

 

Question 2:

State whether true or false:

(a) We do not find inscriptions for the period after 700.

(b) The Marathas asserted their political importance during this period. (c) Forest-dwellers were sometimes pushed out of their lands with the spread of agricultural settlements.

(d) Sultan Ghiyasuddin Balban controlled Assam, Manipur and Kashmir.

Answer:

(a) False

(b) True

(c) True

(d) False

 

Question 3:

Fill in the blanks:

(a) Archives are places where are kept.

(b)_________was a fourteenth-century chronicler.

(c) ______, _________, ________, __________ and were some of the new crops introduced into the subcontinent during this period.

Answer:

(a) Archives are places where manuscripts are kept.

(b) Amir Khusro was a fourteenth-century chronicler.

(c) Potatoes, corn, chillies, tea and coffee were some of the new crops introduced into the subcontinent during this period.

 

Question 4:

List some of the technological changes associated with this period.

Answer:

Some of the technological changes associated with this period are the Persian wheel, the spinning wheel and firearms in combat.

 

Question 5:

What were some of the major religious developments during this period?

Answer:

Major religious developments of this period are the inclusion of new deities in Hinduism, emergence of bhakti and the introduction of Islam.

 

Question 6:

In what ways has the meaning of the term "Hindustan" changed over the centuries?

Answer:

Over the centuries there has been a vast change in the meaning of the term "Hindustan". Today it is understood as India, the modern nation state. In the thirteenth century the term stood for the lands under the Delhi Sultanate. Babur used the term to describe the geography, culture and fauna of the subcontinent.

 

Question 7:

How were the affairs of jatis regulated?

Answer:

The affairs of the Jatis were regulated by an assembly of elders, known in some areas as the jati panchayat.

 

Question 8:

What does the term pan-regional empire mean?

Answer:

The term pan-regional empire is applied to an empire which stretches over many regions. The Mughal empire is a good example of such an empire.

 

Question 9:

What are the difficulties historians face in using manuscripts?

Answer:

While using manuscripts, the historians face a number of difficulties. Manuscripts were written with hand and as a result there were small but significant difference between any two copies. The scribes who copied them introduced changes. As a result historians have to read different manuscript versions of the same text to guess what the authors had originally written.

 

Question 10:

How do historians divide the past into periods? Do they face any problems in doing so?

Answer:

Historians divide the past into periods based on the economic and social factors which characterize them. In doing so they are faced with two problems. First, economic and social changes keep taking place hence definite boundaries cannot be drawn. Second, these periods are compared with modernity. Modernity gives a sense of progress. This implies that there was no progress before, which is not true.

 

Chapter 2 - New Kings and Kingdoms

 

Question 1:

Match the following:

 

Gurjara-Pratiharas

Western Deccan

Rashtrakutas

Bengal

Palas

Gujarat and Rajasthan

Cholas

Tamil Nadu

 

Answer

Gurjara-Pratiharas

Gujarat and Rajasthan

Rashtrakutas

Western Deccan

Palas

Bengal

Cholas

Tamil Nadu

 

Question 2:

Who were the parties involved in the "tripartite struggle"?

Answer:

The parties involved in the "tripartite struggle" were the Gurjara-Pratiharas, Rashtrakutas and Palas.

 

Question 3:

What were the qualifications necessary to become a member of a committee of the sabha in the Chola empire?

Answer:

To become a member of a committee of the sabha in the Chola empire the following qualifications were necessary -

  1. The member had to be a revenue-paying landowner.
  2. He had to possess his own home.
  3. He had to be between the age of 30 -70 years.
  4. He had to have knowledge of the Vedas.
  5. He should have been honest and well versed in administrative matters.

 

Question 4:

What were the two major cities under the control of the Chahamanas?

Answer:

Two major cities in control of the Chahamanas were Delhi and Ajmer.

 

Question 5:

How did the Rashtrakutas become powerful?

Answer:

Rashtrakutas were initially subordinate to the Chalukyas of Karnataka. In the mid-eighteenth century, Dantidurga, a Rashtrakuta chief, overthrew his Chalukya overlord and established his right to rule by performing the hiranya-garbha ritual.

 

Question 6:

What did the new dynasties do to gain acceptance?

Answer:

To gain acceptance, the new dynasties took on new titles, performed religious rituals which would make them part of the kshatriyas and engaged in warfare to assert their power and carve kingdoms for themselves.

 

Question 7:

What kind of irrigation works were developed in the Tamil region?

Answer:

The irrigation works developed in the Tamil region were — wells, tanks to collect rainwater and river channels.

 

Question 8:

What were the activities associated with Chola temples?

Answer:

A Chola temple was not only a place of worship but also the hub of economic, social and cultural life. Thus apart from the priests we find a number of people, who engaged in various activities, were associated with a Chola temple. They were — garland makers, cooks, sweepers, musicians, dancers, crafts people etc.

 

Chapter 3 - The Delhi Sultans

Question 1:

Which ruler first established his or her capital at Delhi?

Answer:

Ananga Pala of the Tomara dynasty first established his capital at Delhi.

 

Question 2:

What was the language of administration under the Delhi Sultans?

Answer:

Persian was the language of administration under the Delhi Sultans.

 

Question 3:

In whose reign did the Sultanate reach its farthest extent?

Answer:

In Muhammad Tughluq's reign the Sultanate reached its farthest end.

 

Question 4:

From which country did Ibn Battuta travel to India?

Answer:

Ibn Battuta travelled to India from Morocco.

 

Question 5:

According to the "circle of justice", why was it important for military commanders to keep the interests of the peasantry in mind?

Answer:

According to the Circle of Justice, it was important for the military commanders to keep the interests of the peasants in mind because the salaries of the soldiers came from the revenue collected from the peasants and peasants could pay the revenue only when they were prosperous and happy.

 

Question 6:

What is meant by the "internal" and "external" frontiers of the Sultanate?

Answer:

'Internal' frontiers of the sultanate consisted of the 'hinterland' of the garrison towns. The 'external' frontiers refer to the unconquered territories especially in the southern parts of the subcontinent.

 

Question 7:

What were the steps taken to ensure that muqtis performed their duties? Why do you think they may have wanted to defy the orders of the Sultans?

Answer:

To ensure that the muqtis performed their duties their office was made non inheritable, and they kept getting shifted from one iqta to another.

 

Question 8:

What was the impact of the Mongol invasions on the Delhi Sultanate?

Answer:

Mongol attacks on the Delhi Sultanate increased during the reign of Alauddin Khalji and in the early years of Muhammad Tughluq's rule. Hence, a vast standing army was established under these two rulers to confront Mongol invasions. Alauddin constructed a new garrison town named Siri for his soldiers. He also started paying them salaries in cash rather than iqtas. He controlled the prices of goods in Delhi. Muhammad Tughluq also paid his soldiers cash salaries. But instead of controlling prices, he used a token currency, made out of cheap metals. He did so in order- to mobilise resources to fight Mongol army. Alauddin also made his administrative system very effective. Hence, he successfully withstood the threat of Mongol invasions. But Muhammad's administrative measures were a failure. He planned to attack the Mongol capital named Transoxiana. But soon he gave up it. His administrative measures created complications. The shifting of people to Daulatabad was resented. 

 

Question 9:

Do you think the authors of tawarikh would provide information about the lives of ordinary men and women?

Answer:

No. The authors of tawarikh did not provide information about ordinary men and women. This was because they wrote in expectation of rewards by the sultan.

 

Question 10:

Raziyya Sultan was unique in the history of the Delhi Sultanate. Do you think women leaders are accepted more readily today?

Answer:

Make a list of the current women leaders in our country and compare them and their careers with that of the women leaders of the past. Once you have reached the conclusion, discuss your answer with your teacher.

 

Question 11:

Why were the Delhi Sultans interested in cutting down forests? Does deforestation occur for the same reasons today?

Answer:

Delhi Sultans were interested in cutting down forests because they wanted to encourage agriculture on the land.

 

Chapter 4 - The Mughal Empire

Question 1:

Match the following:

 

Mansab

Marwar

Mongol

Governor

Sisodia Rajput

Uzbeg

Rathore Rajput

Mewar

Nur Jahan

Rank

Subadar

Jahangir

 

Answer:

Mansab

Rank

Mongol

Uzbeg

Sisodia Rajput

Mewar

Rathore Rajput

Marwar

Nur Jahan

Jahangir

Subadar

Governor

 

Question 2:

Fill in the blanks:

(a) The capital of Mirza Hakim, Akbar’s half-brother, was ____________.

(b) The five Deccan Sultanates were Berar, Khandesh, Ahmadnagar, ____________ and _________________.

(c) If zat determined a mansabdar’s rank and salary, sawar indicated his ____________ .

(d) Abul Fazl, Akbar’s friend and counsellor, helped him frame the idea of ____________ so that he could govern a society composed of many religions, cultures and castes.

 

Answer:

(a) Kabul

(b) Bijapur, Golconda

(c) Military responsibility

(d) sulh-i kul

 

Question 3:

What were the central provinces under the control of the Mughals?

Answer:

The central provinces under the control of the Mughals were Delhi, Sindh, Kabul, Mewar, Marwar, Gujarat, Bihar, Bengal, Orissa and Deccan.

 

Question 4:

What was the relationship between the mansabdar and the jagir?

Answer:

A jagir was a revenue assignment for the mansabdars. The mansabdars had the right to collect revenue from a jagir but they could not reside in or administer the jaglr.

 

Question 5:

What was the role of the zamindar in Mughal administration?

Answer:

The Zamindars in the Mughal administration collected revenue from the peasants. They acted as intermediaries between the rulers and the peasants.

 

Question 6:

How were the debates with religious scholars important in the formation of Akbar's ideas on governance?

Answer:

Debates with religious scholars helped Akbar in framing the idea of sulh-i kul of 'universal peace'. By using such a policy of tolerance Akbar was able to formulate governance guidelines which were based on a system of ethics.

 

Question 7:

Why did the Mughals emphasise their Timurid and not their Mongol descent?

Answer:

The Mughals emphasized their Timurid and not their Mongol descent because Ghengiz Khan's memory was associated with the massacre of innumerable people. They prided themselves on the fact that Timur had captured Delhi in 1398.

 

Question 8:

How important was the income from land revenue to the stability of the Mughal Empire?

Answer:

The income from land revenue was the main source of income for the mughal rulers and hence it was very important.

 

Question 9:

Why was it important for the Mughals to recruit mansabdars from diverse backgrounds and not just Turanis and Iranis?

Answer:

It was important for the Mughals to recruit mansabdars from diverse backgrounds and not just Turanis and Iranis because the empire had expanded to encompass different regions and provinces.

 

Chapter 5 - Rulers and Buildings

Question 1:

How is the "trabeate" principle of architecture different from the "arcuate"?

Answer:

In the 'trabeate' style of architecture a horizontal beam was placed across two vertical columns. In the 'arcuate' style arches are utilized.

 

Question 2:

What is a shikhara?

Answer:

A shikhara is a tower-like structure on top of a temple.

 

Question 3:

What is pietra-dura?

Answer:

Pietra-Dura is a technique where coloured, hard stones were placed in depressions carved into marble or sandstone, thereby creating beautiful and ornate patterns.

 

Question 4:

What are the elements of a Mughal chahar bagh garden?

Answer:

The major element of a Mughal Chahar-Bagh garden was the symmetric division of the garden into quarters.

 

Question 5:

How did a temple communicate the importance of a king?

Answer:

Construction of a temple emphasized the king's moral right to rule. Constructing places of worship provided rulers with a chance to proclaim their close relationship with god.

 

Question 6:

An inscription is Shah Jahan's diwan-l khas in Delhi stated: "If there is Paradise on Earth, it is here, it is here, it is here." How was this image created?

Answer:

The image of Paradise on Earth was created through the construction of audience halls, which were modelled like a mosque. The pedestal of Shah Jahan's throne was frequently described as the Quibla, the direction which Muslims face while praying. These architectural features communicated a sense of divine justice and the idea that the king was the representative of God on earth.

 

Question 7:

How did the Mughal court suggest that everyone — the rich and the poor, the powerful and the weak — received justice equally from the emperor?

Answer:

The construction of the royal court in Red Fort emphasized the connection between the imperial court and royal justice. Behind the emperor's throne were a series of inlays which pictured Orpheus playing the lute. It was believed that Orpheus' music calmed ferocious beasts and made them co-exist in harmony. All this gave the impression that the king's justice would treat the high and the low as equals, creating a world in which all could live in harmony.

 

Question 8:

What role did the Yamuna play in the layout of the new Mughal city at Shahjahanabad?

Answer:

In the new Mughal city of Shahjahanabad, the king's palace commanded the river front view of the Yamuna. Only special nobles like the emperor's oldest son were given access to the river.

 

Chapter 6 - Towns Traders and Craftpersons

 

Question 1:

Fill in the blanks:

(a) The Rajarajeshvara temple was built in _____

(b) Ajmer is associated with the Sufi saint _____

(c) Hampi was the capital of the _____ Empire

(d) The Dutch established a settlement at _____ in Andhra Pradesh.

Answer:

(a) The Rajarajeshvara temple was built in 1010 A.D.

(b) Ajmer is associated with the Sufi saint Khwaja Muinuddin Chishti.

(c) Hampi was the capital of the Vijayanagara Empire.

(d) The Dutch established a settlement at Masulipatnam in Andhra Pradesh.

 

Question 2:

State whether true or false:

(a) We know the name of the architect of the Rajarajeshvara temple from an inscription.

(b) Merchants preferred to travel individually rather than in caravans.

(c) Kabul was a major centre for trade in elephants.

(d) Surat was an important trading port on the Bay of Bengal.

Answer:

(a) True

(b) False

(c) False

(d) False

 

Question 3:

How was water supplied to the city of Thanjavur? temple from

Answer:

Water was supplied to the city of Thanjavur from tanks and wells.

 

Question 4:

Who lived in the "Black Towns" in cities such as Madras?

Answer:

Merchants and artisans lived in "Black Towns" in cities such as Madras.

 

Question 5:

Why do you think towns grew around temples?

Answer:

Towns grew around temples because temples were central to economy and society. Temple authorities used their wealth to finance trade and banking. Also, the large number of pilgrims provided ample opportunities for traders and artisans to conduct business.

 

Question 6:

How important were craftspersons for the building and maintenance of temples?

Answer:

Craftspersons played a crucial role in the building and adorning of temples with gold, silver, alloy-work, and textile and wood products. They also catered to the needs of pilgrims, thereby forming an important part of the ongoing trade.

 

Question 7:

Why did people from distant lands visit Surat?

Answer:

People from distant lands visited Surat because it was the gateway of trade with west Asia. It was also famous for its Zari textiles which had a huge market in west Asia, Africa and Europe.

 

Question 8:

In what ways was craft production in cities like Calcutta different from that in cities like Thanjavur?

Answer:

Craft production in cities like Calcutta was formally organized and planned by the European companies. In Thanjavur, the production focused on the needs of the temple and the pilgrims.

Chapter 7 - Tribes Nomads and Settled Communities

 

Question 1:

Match the following.

Garh

Khel

Tanda

Chaurasi

Labourer

Caravan

Clan

Garha Katanga

Sib Singh

Ahom State

Durgawati

Paik

 

Answer:

Garh

Chaurasi

Tanda

Caravan

Labourer

Paik

Clan

Khel

Sib Singh

Ahom State

Durgawati

Garha Katanga

 

Question 2:

Fill in the blanks:

(a) The new castes emerging within varnas were called _____

(b) _____ were historical works written by the Ahoms.

(c) The _____ mentions that Garha Katanga had 70,000 villages.

(d) As tribal states became bigger and stronger, they gave land and to _____

Answer:

(a) The new castes emerging within varnas were called jatis.

(b) Buranjls were historical works written by the Ahoms.

(c) The Akbar Nama mentions that Garha Katanga had 70,000 villages. Grants

(d) As tribal states became bigger and stronger, they gave land grants to poets and scholars.

 

Question 3:

State whether true or false:

(a) Tribal societies had rich oral traditions.

(b) There were no tribal communities in the north-western part of the subcontinent.

(c) The chaurasi in Gond states contained several cities.

(d) The Bhils lived in the north-eastern part of the subcontinent.

Answer:

(a) True

(b) False

(c) False

(d) False

 

Question 4:

What kinds of exchanges took place between nomadic pastoralists and settled agriculturists?

Answer:

Nomadic pastoralists exchanged wool, ghee, etc. with settled agriculturalists for grain, cloth, utensils and other products.

 

Question 5:

How was the administration of the Ahom state organized?

Answer:

Ahom society was divided into clans called khels. A khel controlled several villages. All adult males served in the army during war. People from heavily populated areas were shifted to less populated places. Peasants were assigned land by the village community.

 

Question 6:

What changes took place in varna-based society?

Answer:

Within the varna-based society, smaller castes called jatis emerged. Jatis, rather than varna, became the basis for organizing society.

Question 7:

How did tribal societies change after being organized into a state?

Answer:

After being organized into a state, tribal societies gradually got divided into unequal social classes. The leading families joined the ruling class, while the others joined the lower jatis.

 

Question 8:

Were the Banjaras important for the economy?

Answer:

The banjaras were very important for the economy. They helped traders by working as carriers. At the same time they carried on their own trade and also transported food grains for the Mughal army during their campaigns.

 

Question 9:

In what ways was the history of the Gonds different from that of the Ahoms? Were there any similarities?

Answer:

The histories of Ahoms and Gonds were different in that while the Gonds were completely annexed by the Mughals, the Ahoms managed to reclaim their independence soon after their annexation. They were similar in the fact that both had risen from being small tribal communities to becoming powerful tribal states that modeled themselves on other centralized kingdoms.

 

Chapter 8 - Devotional Paths to the Divine

 

Question 1:

Match the following.

The Buddha

Namghar

Sankaradeva

Worship of Vishnu

Nizamuddin Auliya

Questioned Social Differences

Nayanars

Sufi Saint

Alvars

Worship of Shiva

 

Answer:

The Buddha

Questioned Social Differences

Sankaradeva

Namghar

Nizamuddin Auliya

Sufi Saint

Nayanars

Worship of Shiva

Alvars

Worship of Vishnu

 

Question 2:

(a) Shankara was an advocate of _____

(b) Ramanuja was influenced by the _____

(c) _____, _____ and _____ were advocates of Virashaivism.

(d) _____ was an important centre of the Bhakti tradition in Maharashtra.

Answer:

(a) Shankara was an advocate of advaita.

(b) Ramanuja was influenced by the Alvars.

(c) Basavanna, Allama Prabhu and Akkamahadevi were advocates of Virashaivism.

(d) Vitthala temple was an important centre of the Bhakti tradition in Maharashtra.

 

Question 3:

Describe the beliefs and practices of the Nathpanthis, Siddhas and Yogis.

Answer:

The Nathpanthis, Siddhas and Yogis believed in the renunciation of the world. For them, the path of salvation lay in meditating on the formless ultimate reality. They stressed on intense training of the mind and body through yogasanas, breathing exercises and meditation.

 

Question 4:

What were the major ideas expressed by Kabir? How did he express these?

Answer:

The major ideas expressed by Kabir were a rejection of the major religious traditions and belief in a formless Supreme God. For Kabir, the path of salvation was through bhakti or devotion. He expressed his ideas through verses called sakhis and pads.

 

Question 5:

What were the major beliefs and practices of the Sufis?

Answer:

The Sufis believed in union with God as a lover seeking his beloved. They also believed that the heart could be trained to look at the world in a different way. They rejected the elaborate rituals and codes of behavior demanded by Muslim religious scholars. The Sufis developed various methods of raining using Zikr (chanting of a name or sacred formula), contemplation, singing and dancing.

 

Question 6:

Why do you think many teachers rejected prevalent religious beliefs and practices?

Answer:

Many teachers rejected prevalent religious beliefs and practices because such beliefs advocated social differences and practicing them was difficult and cumbersome.

 

Question 7:

What were the major teachings of Baba Guru Nanak?

Answer:

Baba Guru Nanak emphasized on the worship of one God. According to him, caste, creed or gender was irrelevant for attaining liberation. Liberation for him was the pursuit of an active life with social commitment. He gave the motto of nam, dan and isnan, which meant right worship, welfare of others and purity of conduct.

 

Question 8:

For either the Virashaivas or the saints of Maharashtra, discuss their attitude towards caste.

Answer:

Both Virashaivas and the saints of Maharashtra rejected social inequality and caste differences.

 

Question 9:

Why do you think ordinary people preserved the memory of Mirabai?

Answer:

Ordinary people have preserved the memory of Mirabai because her songs openly challenge the norms of the upper castes.

 

Chapter 9 - The Making of Regional Cultures

 

Question 1:

Match the following.

Anantavarman

Kerala

Jagannatha

Bengal

Mahodayapuram

Orissa

Lilatilakam

Kangara

Mangalakavya

Puri

Miniature

Kerala

 

Answer:

Anantavarman

Orissa

Jagannatha

Puri

Mahodayapuram

Kerala

Lilatilakam

Kerala

Mangalakavya

Bengal

Miniature

Kangara

 

Question 2:

What is Manipravalam? Name a book written in that language.

Answer:

Manipravalam was a language consisting of Sanskrit and the regional language (Malayalam). Lilatilakam is a text in Manipravalam.

 

Question 3:

Who were the major patrons of Kathak?

Answer:

Major patrons of Kathak were the Mughal emperors and the Nawabs of Lucknow, especially Wajid Ali Shah.

 

Question 4:

What are the important architectural features of the temples of Bengal?

Answer:

Thye important architectural features of the temples in Bengal were the double-roof (dochala) and the four-roof (chauchala).

 

Question 5:

Why did minstrels proclaim the achievements of heroes?

Answer:

Minstrels proclaimed the achievements of the heroes to preserve their memory and inspire others to follow their example.

 

Question 6:

Why do we know much more about the cultural practices of rulers than about those of ordinary people?

Answer:

We know more about the cultural practices of rulers than about those of ordinary people because only rulers could afford historians for the purpose of documentation.

 

Question 7:

Why did conquerors try to control the temple of Jagannatha at Puri?

Answer:

Conquers tried to gain control over the Jagannatha temple at Puri because it would make their rule acceptable to the local people since the temple was important as a place of pilgrimage and was a center of authority in social and political matters.

 

Question 8:

Why were temples built in Bengal?

Answer:

Temples were built in Bengal to house the local deities who had gained the recognition of the Brahmanas.

 

Chapter 10 - Eighteenth - Century Political Formations

 

Question 1:

Subadar a revenue farmer Faujdar a high noble Ijaradar provincial governor Misl Maratha peasant warriors Chauth a Mughal military commander Kunbis a band of Sikh warriors Umara tax levied by the Marathas

Answer:

Subadar Provincial governor Faujdar A Mughal military commander Ijaradar A revenue farmer Misl A band of Sikh warriors Chauth Tax levied by the Marathas Kunbis Maratha peasant warrior Umara A high noble

 

Question 2:

Fill in the blanks:

(a) Aurangzeb fought a protracted war in the _____

(b) Umara and jagirdars constituted powerful sections of the Mughal _____

(c) Asaf Jah founded the Hyderabad state in _____

(d) The founder of the Awadh state was _____

Answer:

(a) Aurangzeb fought a protracted war in the deccan.

(b) Umara and jagirdars constituted powerful sections of the Mughal administration.

(c) Asaf Jah founded the Hyderabad state in 1724.

(d) The founder of the Awadh state was Burhan-ul-Mulk Sa'adat Khan.

 

Question 3:

State whether true or false:

(a) Nadir Shah invaded Bengal.

(b) Sawai Raja Jai Singh was the ruler of Indore.

(c) Guru Gobind Singh was the tenth Guru of the Sikhs.

(d) Poona became the capital of the Marathas in the eighteenth century.

Answer:

(a) False

(b) False

(c) True

(d) True

 

Question 4:

What were the offices held by Sa'adat Khan?

Answer:

The offices held by Sa'adat Khan included subadari, diwani and faujdari.

 

Question 5:

Why did the Nawabs of Awadh and Bengal try to do away with the jagirdari system?

Answer:

The Nawabs of Awadh and Bengal tried to do away with the jagirdari system because they wanted to put a curb on cheating as well as the Mughal influence in their kingdoms.

 

Question 6:

How were the Sikhs organized in the eighteenth century?

Answer:

In the eighteenth century, the Sikhs organized themselves into a number of bands called jathas, and later misls. Their combined forces were known as the grand army (dal khalsa).

 

Question 7:

Why did the Marathas want to expand beyond the Deccan?

Answer:

The Marathas wanted to expand beyond the Deccan to receive tribute and control trade and agriculture.

 

Question 8:

What were the policies adopted by Asaf Jah to strengthen his position?

Answer:

To strengthen his position Asaf Jah brought skilled soldiers and administrators from northern India. He also appointed mansabdars and granted jaglrs.

 

Geography

 

Chapter 1 - Environment

 

Question 1:

Answer the following questions.

(i) What is an ecosystem?

(ii) What do you mean by natural environment?

(iii) Which are the major components of the environment?

(iv) Give four examples of human made environment.

(v) What is lithosphere?

(vi) Which are the two major components of biotic environment?

(vii) What is biosphere?

Answer:

1. All plants, animals and human beings depend on their immediate surroundings. They are also interdependent on each other. This relation between the living organisms as well as the relation between the organism and their surroundings form an ecosystem.

 

2. Natural environment consists of land, water, air, plants and animals. Thus, natural environment refers to both biotic (plants and animals) and abiotic (land) conditions that exist on the earth.

 

3. The major components of the environment are—natural (land, air, water, living things), human made (buildings, parks, bridges, roads, industries, monuments, etc.) and human (individual, family, community, religion, educational, economic, etc).

 

4. Four examples of human-made environment—buildings, parks, bridges and roads.

 

5. Lithosphere is the solid crust or the hard top layer of the earth. It is made up of rocks and minerals and covered by a thin layer of soil. It is an irregular surface with various land forms such as mountains, plateaus, plains, valleys, etc.

 

6. Plants and animals are the two major components of biotic environment.

 

7. Biosphere is a narrow zone of the earth where land, water and air interact with each other to support life. Thus, plant and animal kingdom together make biosphere, ie., the living world.

 

Question 2:

Tick the correct answer.

(i) Which is not a natural ecosystem?

(a) Desert (b) Aquarium (c) Forest

(ii) Which is not a component of human environment?

(a) Land (b) Religion (c) Community

(iii) Which is a human made environment?

(a) Mountain (b) Sea (c) Road

(iv) Which is a threat to environment?

(a) Growing plant

(b) Growing population

(c) Growing crops

Answer:

(i) (b)

(ii) (a)

(iii) (c)

(iv) (b)

 

Question 3:

Match the following.

Biosphere

(a) blanket of air which surrounds the earth

Atmosphere

(b) domain of water

Hydrosphere

(c) gravitational force of the earth

Environment

(d) our surroundings

 

(e) narrow zone where land water and air interact

 

(f) relation between the organisms and their surroundings

 

Answer:

Biosphere

(e) narrow zone where land water and air interact

Atmosphere

(a) blanket of air which surrounds the earth

Hydrosphere

(b) domain of water

Environment

(d) our surroundings

 

Question 4:

Give reasons.

(i) Man modifies his environment

(ii) Plants and animals depend on each other

Answer:

(a) Man modifies his environment to fulfil his needs and make his life comfortable. He also modified his environment to adopt himself to the natural surroundings.

(b) Plants and animals depend on each other for their own sake. Plants release oxygen that animals breathe and absorb carbon dioxide that animals release.

 

Question 5:

Activity.

Imagine an ideal environment where you would love to live. Draw the picture of your ideal environment.

Answer:

Do yourself

 

 

Chapter 2 - Inside Our Earth

Question 1:

Answer the following questions.

(i) What are the three layers of the earth?

(ii) What is a rock?

(iii) Name three types of rocks.

(iv) How are extrusive and intrusive rocks formed?

(v) What do you mean by a rock cycle?

(vi) What are the uses of rocks?

(vii) What are metamorphic rocks?

Answer:

(i) The three layers of the earth are:

  • Crust
  • Mantle
  • Core

 

(ii) A rock is a natural mass of mineral matter that makes up the earth’s crust. Rocks can be of different colour, size and texture.

 

(iii) Three types of rocks are:

  • Igneous rocks also known as primary rocks.
  • Sedimentary rocks.
  • Metamorphic rocks.

 

(iv) When the molten lava comes on the earth’s surface, it rapidly cools down and becomes solid. Rocks formed in this way on the crust are extrusive igneous rocks.

Sometimes the molten magma cools down deep inside the earth’s crust. Solid rocks so formed are actually intrusive igneous rocks.

 

(v) One type of rock changes to another type under certain conditions in a cyclic manner. This process of transformation of the rock from one to another is known as the rock cycle. Let’s understand it through example—Igneous rocks change into sedimentary rocks. When the igneous and sedimentary rocks are subjected to heat and pressure, they change into metamorphic rocks. The metamorphic rocks which are still under great heat and pressure meet down to form molten magma. This molten magma again can cool down and solidify into igneous rocks.

 

(vi)  Hard rocks are used for making roads, houses and buildings. Stones are used in many games, such as seven stones (pitthoo), hopscotch (stapu/kitkit), Five stones (gitti).

 

(vii) When the igneous and sedimentary rocks are subjected to heat and pressure they change into metamorphic rocks. For example, clay changes into slate and limestone into marble

 

Question 2:

Tick the correct answer.

(i) The rock which is made up of molten magma is

(a) Igneous (b) Sedimentary (c) Metamorphic

(ii) The innermost layer of the earth is

(a) Crust (b) Core (c) Mantle

(iii) Gold, petroleum and coal are examples of

(a) Rocks (b) Minerals (c) Fossils

(iv) Rocks which contain fossils are

(a) Sedimentary rocks

(b) Metamorphic rocks

(c) Igneous rocks

(v) The thinnest layer of the earth is

(a) Crust (b) Mantle (c) Core

Answer:

(i) Igneous

(ii) Core

(iii) Minerals

(iv) Sedimentary Rocks

(v) Crust

 

Question 3:

Match the following.

 

(i) Core

(a) Earth’s Surface

(ii) Minerals

(b) used for roads and buildings

(iii) Rocks

(c) Made of Silicon and Alumina

(iv) Clay

(d) has definite chemical composition

(v) Sial

(e) Innermost layer

 

(f) Changes into Slate

 

(g) Process of transformation of the rock

 

Answer:

(i) Core

(a) Earth’s Surface

(ii) Minerals

(b) used for roads and buildings

(iii) Rocks

(c) Made of Silicon and Alumina

(iv) Clay

(d) has definite chemical composition

(v) Sial

(e) Innermost layer

 

(f) Changes into Slate

 

(g) Process of transformation of the rock

 

Question 4:

Give reasons.

(i) We cannot go to the centre of the earth.

(ii) Sedimentary rocks are formed from sediments.

(iii) Limestone is changed into marble.

Answer:

(i) To reach the centre of the earth one will have to dig a hole 6000 km. deep on the ocean floor. This is quite impossible and therefore we cannot go to the centre of the earth.

(ii) Rocks break down into small fragments known as sediments. These sediments are transported and deposited by wind, water, etc. These loose sediments are compressed and hardened to form layers of rocks known as sedimentary rocks.

(iii) Limestone is changed into marble because igneous and sedimentary rocks change into metamorphic rocks under a great heat and pressure.

 

Question 5:

For fun.

(i) What are the minerals most commonly used in the following objects?

(ii) Identify some more objects made up of different minerals.

Answer:

Do yourself

 

Chapter 3 - Our Changing Earth

Question 1:

Answer the following questions.

(i) Why do the plates move?

(ii) What are exogenic and endogenic forces?

(iii) What is erosion?

(iv) How are flood plains formed?

(v) What are sand dunes?

(vi) How are beaches formed?

(vii) What are ox bow lakes?

Answer:

(i) The plates move because of the movement of the molten magma inside the earth.

(ii) Exogenic forces. The forces that work on the surface of the earth are called as exogenic forces.

Endogenic forces. The forces that act in the interior of the earth are called as endogenic forces.

(iii) Erosion is the wearing away of the landscape by different agents like water, wind and ice.

(iv) During floods, layers of fine soil and other material called sediments are deposited on the river bank. This leads to the formation of a flat fertile floodplains.

(v) Sand dunes are low hill-like structures formed by the deposition of sand in the deserts.

(vi) Beaches are formed when the sea waves deposit sediments along the shores of the sea.

(vii) When the meander loop is cut off from the main river, it forms a cut-off lake. As its shape is like an ox bow, it is also known as ox-bow lake.

 

 

Question 2:

Tick the correct answer.

(i) Which is not an erosional feature of sea waves?

(a) Cliff (b) Beach (c) Sea cave

(ii) The depositional feature of a glacier is:

(a) Flood plain (b) Beach (c) Moraine

(iii) Which is caused by the sudden movements of the earth?

(a) Volcano (b) Folding (c) Flood plain

(iv) Mushroom rocks are found in:

(a) Deserts (b) River valleys (c) Glaciers

(v) Ox bow lakes are found in:

(a) Glaciers (b) River valleys (c) Deserts

Answer:

(i) Cliff

(ii) Moraine

(iii) Volcano

(iv) Deserts

(v) River Valleys

 

Question 3:

Match the following.

(i) Glacier (a) Sea shore

(ii) Meanders (b) Mushroom rock

(iii) Beach (c) River of ice

(iv) Sand dunes (d) Rivers

(v) Waterfall (e) Vibrations of earth

(vi) Earthquake (f) Sea cliff

(g) Hard bedrock

(h) Deserts

Answer:

(i) c

(ii) g

(iii) a

(iv) h

(v) d

(vi) e

 

Question 4:

Give reasons.

(i) Some rocks have a shape of a mushroom.

(ii) Flood plains are very fertile.

(iii) Sea caves are turned into stacks.

(iv) Buildings collapse due to earthquakes.

Answer:

(i) In deserts, winds usually erode the lower section of the rock more than the upper part. Therefore, such rocks have narrower base and wider top, which take the shape of a mushroom.

(ii) Flood plains are formed by the deposition of fine soil and other material called sediments on the river banks. As the soil and sediments are brought by flood water, they are very fertile.

(iii) Sea waves strike at the rocks. As a result cracks develop which become bigger over time and hollow like caves are formed on the rocks. They are called sea caves. These cavities become bigger and bigger and a time comes when only the roof of the caves remain to form sea arches. Further erosion breaks the roof and only walls are left. These wall like features are called stacks. In this way, sea caves are turned into stacks.

(iv) Most of the buildings are not safe enough to resist the vibrations of the earthquakes. They are not made earthquake-proof. They collapse tearing apart due to shallow foundation and lack of adequate steel in the interior design.

 

Question 5:

Activity.

Observe the photographs given below. These are various features made by a river. Identify them and also tell whether they are erosional or depositional or landforms formed by both.

Answer:

 

Chapter 4 - Air

Question 1:

Answer the following questions.

(i) What is atmosphere?

(ii) Which two gases make the bulk of the atmosphere?

(iii) Which gas creates greenhouse effect in the atmosphere?

(iv) What is weather?

(v) Name three types of rainfall?

(vi) What is air pressure?

Answer:

(i) Atmosphere is a thin blanket of air that surrounds the earth. It protects us from the harmful rays of the sun. It consists of several gases in which nitrogen and oxygen occupy the major portion.

(ii) Nitrogen (78%) and oxygen (21%) make the bulk of the atmosphere.

(iii) Carbon dioxide creates greenhouse effect in the atmosphere.

(iv) Weather is hour-to-hour, day-to-day condition of the atmosphere.

(v)

  • Convectional rainfall
  • Orographic rainfall
  • Cyclonic rainfall.

(vi) The pressure exerted by the weight of air on the earth’s surface is known as air pressure.

 

Question 2:

Tick the correct answer.

(i) Which of the following gases protects us from harmful sun rays?

(a) Carbon dioxide (b) Nitrogen (c) Ozone

(ii) The most important layer of the atmosphere is

(a) Troposphere (b) Thermosphere (c) Mesosphere

(iii) Which of the following layers of the atmosphere is free from clouds?

(a) Troposphere (b) Stratosphere (c) Mesosphere

(iv) As we go up the layers of the atmosphere, the pressure

(a) Increases (b) Decreases (c) Remains the same

(v) When precipitation comes down to the earth in the liquid form, it is called _____

(a) Cloud (b) Rain (c) Snow

Answer:

(i) Ozone

(ii) Troposphere

(iii) Stratosphere

(iv) Decreases

(v) Rain

 

Question 3:

Match the following.

(i) Trade Winds

(a) Incoming Solar energy

(ii) Loo

(b) Seasonal wind

(iii) Monsoon

(c) Horizontal movement of Air

(iv) Wind

(d) Layer of ozone gas

 

(e) Permanent wind

 

(f) Local wind

 

Answer:

(i) Trade Winds

(e) Permanent wind

(ii) Loo

(f) Local wind

(iii) Monsoon

(b) Seasonal wind

(iv) Wind

(c) Horizontal movement of Air

 

Question 4:

Give reasons.

(i) Wet clothes take longer time to dry on a humid day?

(ii) Amount of insolation decreases from equator towards poles?

Answer:

(i)  On a humid day the air is full of water vapour. Hence, evaporation is very slow. This is the reason why wet clothes take longer time to dry on a humid day.

(ii) Insolation comes through vertical rays on equator. Thus, it covers up less space but we feel more heat there when it goes up from equator towards poles, the sun rays become slanting. Needless to say that slanting rays come on the earth covering longer distance. Although these slanting rays heat up more space, the degree of hotness is felt less. This is the reason why amount of insolation decreases from equator towards poles.

 

Question 5:

For fun.

(i) Solve this Crossword puzzle with the help of given clues:

 

 

Answer:

Chapter 5 - Water

Question 1:

Answer the following questions.

(i) What is precipitation?

(ii) What is water cycle?

(iii) What are the factors affecting the height of the waves?

(iv) Which factors affect the movement of ocean water?

(v) What are tides and how are they caused?

(vi) What are ocean currents?

Answer:

(a) Falling of moisture in the form of rainfall, snow, fog, sleet and hailstone is termed as precipitation.

(b) The water cycle is the process by which water continually changes its form and circulates between oceans, atmosphere and land.

(c) Winds, earthquakes, volcanic eruption or underwater landslides are the factors affecting the height of the waves. The stronger the wind blows, the bigger the wave becomes.

(d) Temperature, winds, gravitational pull of the sun, the earth and the moon; warm and cold currents are the factors that affect the movement of ocean water.

(e) Tides are the rhythmic rise and fall of ocean water that occur twice in a day. The strong gravitational pull exerted by the sun and the moon on the earth’s surface causes the tides.

(f) Ocean currents are streams of water flowing constantly on the ocean surface in definite directions.

 

Question 2:

Give reasons.

(i) Ocean water is salty.

(ii) The quality of water is deteriorating.

Answer:

(a) The water of the oceans is salty as it contains large amount of dissolved salts.

(b) Water is being used injudiciously. Whatever potable water is available, its quality is not good. It is because industrial effluents and untreated water of industries get mixed into streams and rivers. Sewage water also gets mixed into these water bodies. As a result, the quality of water is deteriorating day by day.

 

Question 3:

Tick the correct answer.

(i) The process by which water continually changes its form and circulates

between oceans, atmosphere and land

(a) Water cycle (b) Tides (c) Ocean currents

(ii) Generally the warm ocean currents originate near

(a) Poles (b) Equator (c) None of these

(iii) The rhythmic rise and fall of ocean water twice in a day is called

(a) Tide (b) Ocean current (c) Wave

Answer:

(a) Water Cycle

(b) Equator

(c) Tide

 

Question 4:

Match the following.

(i) Caspian Sea

(a) Largest lake

(ii) Tide

(b) Periodic rise and fall of water

(iii) Tsunami

(c) Strong seismic waves

(iv) Ocean currents

(d) Streams of water moving along definite paths

 

(e) Water cycle

 

Answer:

(i) Caspian Sea

(a) Largest lake

(ii) Tide

(b) Periodic rise and fall of water

(iii) Tsunami

(c) Strong seismic waves

(iv) Ocean currents

(d) Streams of water moving along definite paths

 

Chapter 6 - Natural Vegetation and Wildlife

Question 1:

Answer the following questions briefly.

(a) Which are the two factors on which the growth of vegetation mostly depends?

(b) Which are the three broad categories of natural vegetation?

(c) Name the two hardwood trees commonly found in tropical evergreen forest

(d) In which part of the world are tropical deciduous forests found?

(e) In which climatic conditions are citrus fruits cultivated?

(f) Mention the uses of coniferous forest.

(g) In which part of the world is seasonal grassland found?

Answer:

(a) The two factors on which the growth of vegetation mostly depends are— temperature and moisture.

(b) The three broad categories of natural vegetation are—forests, grasslands and shrubs.

(c) Rosewood and mahogany.

(d) Tropical deciduous forests are found in the large part of India, northern Australia and in central America.

(e) Citrus fruits are cultivated in the regions marked for hot dry summers and mild rainy winters.

(f) The woods of coniferous forests are tall and soft. Chir, pine and cedar are the important variety of trees in these forests. The woods of these trees are very useful for making pulp, which is used for manufacturing paper and newsprint. Match boxes and packing boxes are also made from softwood.

(g) Seasonal grasslands are found in the mid-latitudinal zones and in the interior part of the continents.

 

Question 2:

Tick the correct answer.

(a) Mosses and Lichens are found in

(i) Desertic vegetation

(ii) Tropical vegetation (iii) Tundra vegetation.

(b) Thorny bushes are found in

(i) Hot and humid tropical climate

(ii) Hot and dry desertic climate

(iii) Cold polar climate.

(c) In tropical evergreen forest, one of the common animals is

(i) Monkey                         (ii)    Giraffe

(iii) Camel.

(d) One important variety of coniferous forest is

(i) Rosewood                       (ii)    Pine

(iii) Teak.

(e) Steppe grassland is found in

(i) S. Africa                        (ii)    Australia

(iii) Central Asia.

Answer:

(a) Tundra vegetation

(b) Giraffe

(c) Monkey

(d) Pine

(e) Central Asia

 

Question 3:

Match the following.

(i) Walrus                  (a) Soft wood tree

(ii) Cedar                   (b) An animal of tropical deciduous forest

(iii) Olives                 (c) A polar animal

(iv) Elephants          (d) Temperate grassland in Australia

(v) Campos               (e) Thorny shrubs

(vi) Downs                (f) A citrus fruit

                                    (g) Tropical grassland of Brazil

Answer:

(i) Walrus                  (c) A polar animal

(ii) Cedar                   (a) Soft wood tree

(iii) Olives                 (f) A citrus fruit

(iv) Elephants          (b) An animal of tropical deciduous forest

(v) Campos               (g) Tropical grassland of Brazil

(vi) Downs                (d) Temperate grassland in Australia

 

 

 

Question 4:

Give reasons:

(a) The animals in polar region have thick fur and thick skin.

(b) Tropical deciduous trees shed their leaves in the dry season.

(c) The type and thickness of vegetation changes from place to place.

Answer:

(a) The animals in polar region have thick fur and thick skin to protect themselves from the cold climatic conditions.

(b) Tropical deciduous trees shed their leaves in the dry season to conserve water.

(c) The type and thickness of vegetation changes from place to place because of the variation in temperature and moisture.

 

Chapter 7 - Human Environment–Settlement, Transport and Communication

Question 1:

Answer the following questions briefly.

(a) What are the four means of transport?

(b) What do you understand by the term ‘settlement’?

(c) Which are the activities practised by the rural people?

(d) Mention any two merits of railways.

(e) What do you understand by communication?

(f) What is mass media?

Answer:

(a)The four means of transport are:

  • Roadways
  • Railways
  • Waterways
  • Airways

(b) The term ‘settlement’ refers to a place where people build their homes to live in.

(c) The activities practised by the rural people are farming, fishing, forestry, trading and craftwork, etc.

(d) Two merits of railways are:

 

They carry people over long distances quickly and cheaply.

They carry heavy goods in bulk.

(e) Communication is a process by which we convey our messages to other.

(f) Newspapers, radio and television are called mass media because we can communicate with a large number of people through them.

 

Question 2:

Tick the correct answer:

(a) Which is not a means of communication?

(i) telephone                       (ii)   books                               (iii)    table.

(b) Which type of road is constructed under the ground?

(i) flyover                          (ii)    expressways                     (iii)    subways.

(c) Which mode of transport is most suitable to reach an island?

(i) ship                              (ii)   train                                 (iii)   car.

(d) Which vehicle does not pollute the environment?

(i) cycle                             (ii)    bus                                  (iii)    aeroplane.

Answer:

(a)—(iii)

(b)—(iii)

(c)—(i)

(d)—(i)

 

Question 3:

Match the following:

(i) Internet            (a) areas where people are engaged in manufacturing,                                                                         trade and services

(ii) Canal route                                    (b) closely built area of houses

(iii) Urban areas                                 (c) houses on stilts

(iv) Compact settlement                   (d) inland waterways

                                                               (e)a means of communication

Answer:

(i)—(e), (ii)—(d), (iii)—(a), (iv)—(b)

 

Question 4:

Give reasons:

(a) Today’s world is shrinking.

Answer:

(a) Modern technology has traped the whole world in its fist. With the advancement of communication and information technology the world has contracted. We can get the news of a far off land just with a blink of our eyes. England or America or even Moon or Mars are not now far from us. Newspapers, radio and television have brought a revolution in communication. The satellites have made them even faster. Wireless telephonic communications through cellular phones have become more popular today. The use of internet has made everything available in our plates. So, it is not exaggerating to say that today’s world is shrinking.

 

Question 5:

For Fun:

(i) Conduct a survey in your locality and find out how people commute to their respective workplaces using:

(a) more than two modes of transport

(b) more than three modes of transport

(c) stay within walking distance.

(ii) Mention which mode of communication you will prefer most in the following situations:

(a) your grandfather has suddenly fallen ill How will you inform the doctor?

(b) your mother wants to sell the old house. How will she spread this news?

(c) you are going to attend the marriage of your cousin for which you will be absent from the school for the next two days. How will you inform the teacher?

(d) your friend has moved out with his/her family to New York. How will you keep in touch on a daily basis?

Answer:

(i) (a)on foot, metro and auto-rickshaw

(b) on foot, bus, metro and rickshaw

(c) on foot.

 

(ii) (a) I will inform the doctor through telephone.

(b) She will spread this news through newspapers.

(c) I will send a leave application to the teacher.

(d) I will keep in touch through telephone or internet.

 

Chapter 8 - Human Environment Interactions (The Tropical and the Subtropical Region)

 

Question 1:

Answer the following questions briefly:

(a) Name the continent in which the Amazon Basin in located.

(b) What are the crops grown by the people of the Amazon Basin?

(c) Name the birds that you are likely to find in the rain forests of the Amazon.

(d) What are the major cities located on the river Ganga?

(e) Where is the one-homed rhinoceros found?

Answer:

(a) South America.

(b) The people of the Amazon Basin grow tapioca, pine apple and sweet potato. Cash crops such as coffee, maize and cocoa are also grown.

(c) Name the birds that you are likely to find in the rain forests of the Amazon.

(d) The major cities located on the river Ganga are Allahabad, Kanpur, Varanasi, Lucknow, Patna and Kolkata.

(e) The one-homed rhinoceros is found in the Brahmaputra plain.

 

Question 2:

Tick the correct answer:

(a) Toucans are a type of

(i) birds                              (ii) animals     (iii) crops.

(b) Manioc is the staple food of

(i)  Ganga Basin                 (ii) Africa   (iii) Amazon.

(c) Kolkata is located on the river

(i)  Orange                          (ii) Hooghly   (iii) Bhagirathi.

(d) Deodars and firs are a type of

(i)  Coniferous trees            (ii) Deciduous trees   (iii) Shrubs.

(e) Bengal tiger is found in

(i)   Mountains                     (ii) Delta area   (iii) Amazon.

Answer:

(a)-(i), (b)—(iii), (c)-(ii), (d)—(i), (e)—(ii).

 

Question 3:

Match the following:

(i) Cotton textile   (a) Assam

(ii) Maloca             (b) Terrace farming

(iii) Piranha           (c) Sericulture

(iv) Silk worm        (d) Slanting roof

(v) Kaziranga         (e) Ganga plain     (f) Varanasi  (g)Fish

Answer:

(i)—(f), (ii)—(d), (iii)—(g), (iv)—(c),(v)—(a)

 

Question 4:

Give reasons:

(i) The rainforests are depleting.

(ii) Paddy is grown in the Ganga-Brahmaputra plains.

Answer:

(i) The rainforests are depleting because of the developmental activities that are going on at fast speed. The biologically diverse rainforests are being destroyed day by day. It is estimated that a large area of the rainforest has been disappearing annually in the Amazon basin. As a result the topsoil is washed away when the rains fall and the lush green forest turns into a barren landscape.

(ii)The cultivation of paddy requires sufficient water. The Ganga-Brahmaputra plains fulfil this condition because they receive high rainfall.

 

Chapter 9 - Life in the Temperate Grasslands

 

Question 1:

Answer the following questions briefly.

(a) What are the Temperate Grasslands of North America called?

(b) What are the cattle farms in the North American Grasslands known as?

(c) Name the rivers that drain the velds.

(d) When is the rainy season in the Velds.

(e) What is the major occupation of the people of the South African grasslands?

Answer:

(a)The temperate Grasslands of North America are called Prairies.

(b) The cattle farms in the North American Grasslands are called ranches.

(c) The tributaries of rivers Orange and Limpopo.

(d) The velds enjoy rainy season mainly in the summer months from November to February.

(e) The major occupation of the people of the South African grasslands in sheep rearing.

 

Question 2:

Tick the correct answer:

(a) River Mississippi drains

(i) Canada(ii) Africa(iii) USA.

(b) Drakensberg Mountains are to the west of

(i) Prairies(ii) Velds(iii) Pampas.

(c) Merino is a species of

(i) Fish(ii) Elephant(iii) Sheep.

(d) Kimberley is famous for

(i) diamonds     (ii)silver  (iii) platinum.

Answer:

(a)—(iii), (b)—(ii), (c)—(iii),(d)—(i)

 

Question 3:

Match the following:

(i) Comboys     (a)Iron and Steel

(ii) Gold            (b)Prairies

(iii) Kudu         (c)Hot wind

(iv) Chinook    (d)Velds

(v) Coal            (e)Johannesberg  

                          (f)Animal

Answer:

(i)—(b), (ii)—(e), (iii)—(f), (iv)—(c), (v)—a

 

Question 4:

Give reasons:

(i) The Prairies are known as the ‘Granaries of the world’.

(ii) Rise of wool industry in the Velds.

Answer:

(i) The Prairies are known as the ‘Granaries of the World’ because of the huge surplus of wheat production.

(ii) Sheep rearing is the most important occupation in the Velds. Merino Sheep is a popular spaces and their wool is very warm. People of this region are mostly engaged in this activity. This has given rise to wood industry there.

 

Chapter 10 - Life in the Deserts

 

Question 1:

Answer the following questions briefly:                                                  

(a) What are the two types of deserts found in the world?

(b) In which continent is the Sahara desert located?

(c) What are the climatic conditions of the Ladakh desert?

(d) What mainly attracts tourists to Ladakh?

(e) What type of clothes the people of the Sahara desert wear?

(f) Name the trees that grow in Ladakh

Answer:

(a) The two types of deserts found in the world are hot deserts and cold deserts.

(b) The Sahara desert is located in Africa.

(c) The climate of the Ladakh desert is extremely cold and dry due to its high attitude which varies from about 3,000 m in Kargil to more than 8,000 m in the Karakoram. The air at this attitude is so then that the heat of the sun can be felt intensely. The day temperatures in summer are just above zero degree and the night temperatures are below -30°C. Winters are extremely cold with temperatures below -40°C for most of the time. There is very little rainfall in this region. It is as low as 10 cm every year. The area experiences freezing winds and burning hot sunlight. There is always a chance of sunstroke and frost bite at the same time.

(d) Ladakh is a famous tourist place. The tourists from within the country and abroad enjoy visiting Buddhist monasteries that dot the Ladakhi landscape with their traditional gompas.

The meadows and glaciers in Ladakh also attract these tourists. The ceremonies and festivities in which the local people keep themselves engaged during winter months are great attractions to the tourists.

(e) The people of the Sahara desert wear heavy clothes.

(f) Scanty patches of grasses and shrubs, groves of willows and poplars, fruit trees such as apples, apricots and walnuts.

 

Question 2:

Tick the correct answer:

(i) Sahara is located in which part of Africa?

(a) eastern                          (b)   northern                               (c) western.

(ii) Sahara is what type of desert?

(a) cold                              (b)   hot                                      (c) mild.

(iii) The Ladakh desert is mainly          inhabited   by ………..

(a) Christians and Muslims

(b) Buddhists and Muslims

(c) Christians and Buddhists.

(iv) Deserts are characterised by ……………..

(a) Scanty vegetation        (b)heavy precipitation              (iii) low evaporation.

(v) Hemis is Ladakh is a famous ………………

(a) temple                           (b)   church                                 (c) monastery.

(vi) Egypt is famous for growing

(a) wheat    (b) maize                                    (c) cotton.

Answer:

(i)-(b), (ii)-(b), (iii)-(b), (iv)-(a), (v)-(c), (vi)—(c).

 

Question 3:

Match the following: 

 

(i) Oasis

(a) Libya

(ii) Bedouins

(b) Monastery

(iii) Oil

(c) glacier

(iv) Gangri

(d) depressions with water

(v) Lamayura

(e) cold desert

 

(f) sahara

Answer:

(i) - d

(ii) - f

(iii) - a

(iv) - c

(v) - b

 

Question 4:

Give reasons:

(i) There is scanty vegetation in the deserts.

(ii) People of the Sahara desert wear heavy robes.

Answer:

(i) The Climate of the deserts is either very hot and dry or very cold and dry. Both the conditions are not favourable for the growth of vegetation. Besides this, there is poor rainfall in the deserts. Due to lack of sufficient water, deserts usually have scanty vegetation.

(ii) People of the Sahara deserts wear heavy robes in order to protect themselves from the dust storms and hot winds.

 

Question 5:

Map skills:

(i) On the outline map of Africa, mark the Sahara desert and any four countries around it.

(ii) On the outline map of India, mark the Karakoram Range, Zanskar Range, Ladakh and zojila pass.

Answer:

Do yourself

 

Civics Solutions – Social & Political Life – II

Chapter 1 - On Equality

 

Question 1:

In a democracy why is Universal Adult Franchise important?

Answer:

In a democracy every citizen is equal. The concept of Universal Adult Franchise is based on equality. Therefore, it is important in a democracy. Under Universal Adult Franchise every adult irrespective of caste, creed, religion, sex etc. is allowed to vote.

 

Question 2:

Re-read the box on Article 15 and state two ways in which this Article addresses inequality?

Answer:

This Article addresses inequality in terms of access to shops, public restaurants, hotels and places of public entertainment, or [b] the use of wells, tanks, bathing ghats, roads and places of public resort maintained wholly or partly out of state funds or dedicated to the use of the general public.

 

Question 3:

In what ways was Omprakash Valmiki's experience similar to that of the Ansaris?

Answer:

Both Omprakash Valmiki and Ansaris were subjected to discrimination. Omprakash was not allowed to sit with other students in the classroom and was made to sweep the school and the playground only because he was a dalit. Similarly, the Ansaris were not given a flat in a locality where lived the people belonging to religion other than theirs. The moment the landlady came to know about their names, she declined to rent the house. In both the cases the dignity of a person is violated.

 

Question 4:

What do you understand by the term“all persons are equal before the law”? Why do you think it is important in a democracy?

Answer:

It means that every person, from the President of the country to a domestic help like Kanta has to obey the same laws. No person can be discriminated against on the basis of their religion, race, caste etc. Every person has access to all public places including playgrounds, hotels, shops and markets. All persons can use publicly available wells, roads and bathing ghats.

Equality is the soul of democracy. We know that democracy is a form of government which gives equal importance and recognition to all. If inequalities on the basis of race, religion, caste, etc. continue to exist, democracy would never flourish. Instead, it would perish very soon.

Question 5:

The Government of India passed the Disabilities Act in 1995. This law states that persons with disabilities have equal rights, and that the government should make possible their full participation in society. The government has to provide free education and integrate children with disabilities into mainstream schools. This law also states that all public places including buildings, school etc., should be accessible and provided with ramps.

Look at the photograph and think about the boy who is being carried down the stairs. Do you think the above law is being implemented in his case? What needs to be done to make the building and accessible for him?

How would his being carried down the stairs affect his dignity as well as his safety?

Answer:

The boy in the photograph is disabled. As per the law this building should have been accessible for him. But we see the law is not being implemented in his case. He is being carried down by security personnels through stairs. This building does not provide ramps. The boy’s dignity is overlooked here. He may morally feel inferior. The way he is carried down the stars may prove dangerous. Law should take this case to the court.

 

Chapter 2 - Role of the Government in Health

 

Question 1:

In this chapter you have read that health is a wider concept than illness. Look at this quote from the Constitution and explain the terms ‘living standard’ and ‘public health’ in your own words.

An important part of the Constitution says it is the “duty of the state to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. ”

Answer:

Living standard means the level of living of people at which they live. If they live in hygienic conditions enjoying all the comforts of life, it means their living standard is high. On the contrary, if they are bound to live in a filthy surroundings and drink polluted water and eat unhygienic foods, it means they lead a low standard of living.

Public health. It refers to the health of the general public.

 

Question 2:

What are the different ways through which the government can take steps to provide healthcare for all? Discuss.

Answer:

The government can take steps to provide healthcare for all by:

  • Increasing the number of hospitals, healthcare centres and family welfare centres.
  • Organising free camps for check up of general public.
  • Organising Pulse Polio campaigns.
  • Spreading health awareness among common people through different means. Workshops, seminars and training camps can also prove to be effective ways.

 

Question 3:

What differences do you find between private and public health services in your area? Use the following table to compare and contrast these.

Facility

Cost of Services

Availability of Service

Private

 

 

Public

 

 

 

Answer:

Facility

Cost of Services

Availability of Service

Private

High, Very Expensive

Everything is available but on high cost

Public

Either free or at very low cost

There is always rush at the public hospitals. Even though services are available there but it takes time.

 

 

 

Question 4:

‘Improvement in water and sanitation can control many diseases’. Explain with the help of examples.

Answer:

Water and sanitation are the basic necessities for the maintenance of our health. Poor quality of water causes a lot of health problems. Similarly poor sanitation causes many epidemics giving birth to dangerous insects and worms. Recently we saw the spread of Dengue caused by Aedes (a mosquito). Malaria is also caused by a mosquito called anopheles. Improvement in water and sanitation can control these happenings.

 

Chapter 3 - How the State Government Works

 

Question 1:

Use the terms ‘constituency’ and ‘represent’ to explain who an MLA is and how is the person elected?

Answer:

A state is divided into several constituencies on the basis of population. Every constituency elects one representative for the Legislative Assembly. The person elected as representative represents that particular constituency. He/She is called as a Member of Legislative Assembly Le. MLA. An MLA is elected through a general election. He/She may be a member of a recognised political party or independent. One who gets the maximum votes becomes the MLA of that constituency.

 

Question 2:

How did some MLAs become Ministers? Explain.

Answer:

The party which is elected in majority for the Legislative Assembly forms the government. As per constitutional provisions the ruling party elects its leader who is called the Chief Minister as the head of the government. The Chief Minister, in consultation with the Governor, constitutes a cabinet which includes members of his/her party as ministers. The MLAs who become ministers are allotted with a portfolio. Here the MLAs turned ministers become accountable for the entire state for that particular portfolio.

 

Question 3:

Why should decisions taken by the Chief Minister and other ministers be debated in the Legislative Assembly?

Answer:

The decisions taken by the Chief Minister and other ministers must be debated in the Legislative Assembly. It is because during debate it is discussed whether a particular decision is in interest of the people at large or net. It is also discussed whether it is urgent or not, how much would it cost the government, is there anything objectionable for any particular community, etc.

 

Question 4:

What was the problem in Patalpuram? What discussion/actions was taken by the following? Pill in the table.

Public Meeting

 

Legislative Assembly

 

Press Conference

 

Chief Minister

 

Answer:

Patalpuram was facing acute crisis of water

Public Meeting

Condemned the government and showed protest put their demand to Govt.

Legislative Assembly

Discussed the issue and decided the course of action

Press Conference

The health minister presented the plan of action initiated by Govt.

Chief Minister

Visited the village of patalpuram announced compensation to the affected families, also clarified the future action to solve the problem.

 

Question 5:

What is the difference between the work that MLAs do in the Assembly and the work done by government departments?

Answer: The difference between the work that MLAs do in the Assembly and the work done by government departments is that every department is headed by a minister who is also an MIA. The minister approves any work done or proposed by the department. The department is responsible for the projections and completion of the work whereas MLAs or ministers coordinate between the Assembly and the departments.

 

Chapter 4 - Growing up as Boys and Girls

 

Question 1:

Are the statements given below true or false? Support your answer with the use of an example :

(a) All societies do not think similarly about the roles that boys and girls play.

(b) Our society does not make distinctions between boys and girls when they are growing up.

(c) Women who stay at home do not work.

(d) The work that women do is less valued than that of men.

Answer:

(a) It is a true statement. In most societies, the work boys do is given more importance than the work girls do.

(b) It is a false statement. Our society makes distinctions between boys and girls even while they are in growing phase. From the very early age, boys are taught to be tough and serious, while girls are taught to be mild and soft. Boys are given toys like cars, guns to play with while girls are given dolls.

(c) It is a false statement. Women who stay at home, do a lot of household chores.

They cook food, wash clothes, sweep floor, and numerous other works; some of which are very strenuous.

(d) It is true statement. Women do a lot of work. The main responsibility for housework and caregiving tasks lies with women. Yet, the work that they do with the home is not recognised as work. It is assumed that this is something that comes naturally to women. It, therefore, does not have to be paid for. This is the main reason why our society devalues women’s work.

 

Question 2:

Housework is invisible and unpaid work.

Housework is physically demanding.

Housework is time consuming.

Write in your own words what is meant by the terms ‘invisible’, ‘physically demanding’ and ‘time consuming’? Give one example of each based on the household tasks undertaken by women in your home.

Answer:

Invisible. It means the work that is not seen from our eyes. For example, the main responsibility for housework and caregiving tasks, like looking after the family, especially children, the elderly and sick members, lies with women. There are such works or tasks which are often not recognised as works and therefore remain invisible.

Physically demanding. Very tough and difficult tasks. For example, women do a lot of work inside the home. Some of these works such as carrying heavy head loads of firewood, fetching water from a far-off place, washing clothes of the entire family members etc. are very tough and difficult. Still women do them regularly without making any complaints.

Time-consuming. Household works that take much time. For example, women’s routine begins from early morning and continues upto late night. During this period they are seen busy in fulfilling the needs and wishes of their family member. They often sit with their children and help them in completing their homework. This is a good example of time-consuming work.

 

Question 3:

Make a list of toys and games that boys typically play and another for girls. If there is a difference between the two lists, can you think of some reasons why this is so? Does this have any relationship to the roles children have to play as adults?

Answer:

List of toys and games that boys play with: cars, guns, swords, buses, railway trains, lions, etc. (toys), cricket, kabaddi, hockey, football etc. (games).

List of toys and games that girls play with: dolls, cooking items, etc. (toys)’, badminton, table-tennis, hide and seek, etc. (games).

These games are also played by the boys. From the above description we can infer that there is a difference between the toys with which boys play and the toys with which girls play.

The reason behind this is that our society makes clear distinctions between boys and girls. Boys are taught to be tough while girls are taught to be mild. Boys are expected to do works which highlight their manly features but girls are expected to remain in limit with all feminine virtues. All these are ways of telling children that they have specific roles to play when they grow up to be men and women. Later in life this affects even the subjects they can study or the careers they can choose.

 

Question 4:

If you have someone working as a domestic help in your house or locality talk to her and find out a little bit more about her life – Who are her family members? Where is her home? How many hours does she work? How much does she get paid? Write a small story based on these details.

Answer:

Sharda has been working in my house for several years as a domestic help. She hails from a small village in West Bengal. She lives here in Delhi with her husband and one daughter who is in her teens. She comes to my house in the early morning at 5.30 and gets retire from the days work in the night at 8 p.m. In between she goes to her house for tw hours. She does every work very efficiently and skilfully. She never gives a moment of complains. Due to this fact we have developed a very cordial relations with her and her family. We regard her as our family member. We also pay her handsome amount. She gets Rs. 3000/- per month with all other facilities like foods, clothes, medicines, etc. Her husband is a rickshaw puller who also manages to earn a good amount everyday. Thus, Sharda leads a very happy life with us and her family members.

 

Chapter 5 - Women Change the World

 

Question 1:

How do you think stereotypes, about what women can or cannot do, affect women’s right to equality?

Answer:

Women are considered inferior to men. There is a belief that women do not have technical mind and therefore they cannot be scientists. It is thought that women are good at only certain jobs such as teaching and nursing. These stereotypes about women’s capability or incapability of doing certain jobs badly affect women’s right to equality. It is due to this reason that women are not paid less wages than their male-counterparts.

 

Question 2:

List one reason why learning the alphabet was so important to women like Rassundari Devi, Ramabai and Rokeya.

Answer:

Learning the alphabet was so important to these woman because only after that they became able to write stories, letters and autobiographies which described their own experiences of inequality.

 

Question 3:

“Poor girls drop out of school because they are not interested in getting an education”. Re-read the last paragraph on page 62 and explain why this statement is not true.

Answer:

Poor girls do not leave school because they wish so but because they are compelled to do so, due to several reasons. In rural and poor areas of the country there are no proper schools. There is also dearth of teachers who can teach on a regular basis. If a school is not close to people’s homes, and there is no transport facility, parents do not show their willingness to send their girls to school.

 

Question 4:

Can you describe two methods of struggle that the women’s movement used to raise issues? If you had to organise a struggle against stereotypes, about what women can or cannot do, what method would you employ from the ones that you have read about? Why would you choose this particular method?

Answer:

The women’s movement used several methods of struggle in order to raise issues. Two out of them are:

(a) Campaigning. It is an important part of the women’s movement. It fights discrimination and violence against women.Campaigns have also led to new laws being passed. For example, in 2006, a law was passed to give women, who are prey to domestic violence, some legal protection.

The women’s movement also led the Supreme Court to formulate guidelines in 1997 to protect women against sexual harassment at the workplace. Women’s groups also raised voice against dowry deaths. They demanded immediate justice for cases of young brides being murdered by their in-laws or husbands for more dowry. They did so by coming on to the streets, approaching the courts and by sharing information. As a result of their efforts, the dowry laws were changed to punish families who seek dowry.

(b) Protesting. The women’s movement raises its voice when violations against women take place. Public rallies and demonstrations are a very powerful way of drawing attention to injustices.

If I had to organise a struggle against stereotypes, about what women can or cannot do, I would like to employ the method of raising awareness among public. What pressure cannot do, awareness can do effectively. If we skilfully convince people for something it works excellently. We can brainwash the common mass through street plays, songs and public meetings. It is a permanent solution to a problem.

Chapter 6 - Understanding Media

 

Question 1:

In what ways does media play an important role in a democracy?

Answer: Media plays an important role in a democracy. It provides news and discusses events taking place in the country and the world. It is on the basis of this information that we learn how the government works.

Answer:

Media also criticises the unpopular policies and programmes that the government takes.

Media forms public opinion.

Media acknowledges us with several current issues.

Media provides awareness among masses.

 

Question 2:

Can you give this diagram a title? What do you understand about the link between media and big business from this diagram?

Answer:

A title to the above diagram may be given like this—Media and Big Business Houses. Big Business Houses attract people to promote their products through media. It is the best and the cheapest means to reach people at large.

 

Question 3:

You have read about the ways in which the media ‘sets the agenda’. What kind of effect does this have in a democracy? Provide two examples to support your point of view.

Answer:

Media creates public opinion on a democracy. It can build up public opinion in favour of or against any issue. Today, it has diverted from its real agenda. Instead of highlighting public issues, it is now concentrating upon cheap agendas like fashion shows, child falling in pit, etc.

 

Question 4:

As a class project, decide to focus on a particular news topic and cut out stories from different newspapers on this. Also watch the coverage of this topic on TV news, compare two newspapers and write down the similarity—and differences in their reports. It might help to ask the following questions:

(a) What information is this article providing?

(b) What information is it leaving out?

(c) From whose point of view is the article being written?

(d) Whose point of view is being left out and why?

Answer:

Students are suggested to do this project themselves.

 

Chapter 7 - Understanding Advertising

 

Question 1:

What do you understand by the word brand? List two reasons why building brands is central to advertising?

Answer:

Brand: It means stamping a product with a particular name or Sign in order to differentiate it from other products in the market.

Two reasons why building brand is central advertising:

(i) It creates a positive image of the product in the eyes of the consumer and compel them to buy it

(ii) It differentiates the product from the local or other competitive products in the market.

 

Question 2:

Choose two of your favourite print advertisements. Now, look at each of these and answer the following questions: a. What Visuals and text is being used in these advertisements to attract my attention? b. What values are being promoted in these advertisements? c. Who is this advertisement speaking to and who is it leaving out? d. If you could not afford the brand that is being advertised how would you feel?

Answer:

Advertisement 1: Filter your Life

a. It shows the tagline of "Filter your life" by using the plant grown in the filter of the cigarette.

b. It promotes the values of "Smoking is injurious to health"

c. This advertisement speak to all those who do smoking and leave out them who don't do.

d. I feel nothing if i could not afford the product but appreciate it as it spread social values.

Advertisement 2 Show your child you care

a. It shows the tagline of "Show your child you care" by using the soap, child and mother

b. It promotes the values of "Mothers love for their child"

c. This advertisement speak to all those women having small child and leaving out them who don't have

d. I feel nothing If could not afford the product as there are lot of other care soap for baby available in the market

 

3. Can you explain two ways in which you think advertising affects issues of equality in a democracy?

Answer:

Two ways in which advertising affects issues of equality in a democracy:

(i) It only focus on the lives of the rich and famous and forget about the issues of poverty, discrimination and dignity.

(ii) Advertising tends to promote a certain lack of respect for the poor as in a democracy, all people are equal and should be able to lead a life of dignity.

 

4. Making an advertisement requires a lot of creativity. Let us imagine a situation in which a manufacturer has just made a new watch She says that she wants to sell this watch to school children. She comes to your class and asks you all to create a brand name as well as an advertisement for the watch. Divide the class into small groups and each group create an advertisement for this watch. Share it With the class.

Answer:

This is a class activity and done or performed in the class itself.

 

Chapter 8 - Markets Around Us

 

Question 1:

In what ways is a hawker different from a shop owner?

Answer:

A hawker provides door to door service. He sells his goods by calling out the names of his items. He generally owns a thela which we may call a movable shop and keeps in it different items of our everyday use. He sells his goods at minimum profit.

A shop owner runs his shop at one fixed place. Whenever, we need anything we go there and purchase it. Here, we get things at somewhat costlier rate.

 

Question 2:

Compare and contrast a weekly market and a shopping complex on the following:

Market

Kinds of Goods Sold

Prices of Goods

Sellers

Buyers

Weekly Market

 

 

 

 

Shopping Complex

 

 

 

 

 

Answer:

Market

Kinds of Goods Sold

Prices of Goods

Sellers

Buyers

Weekly Market

Different items of our everyday use such as vegetables, groceries, cloth items, utensils, etc.

Prices of goods are not very high. Common people can easily afford them.

Small Traders and Hawkers

Local people belonging to low income group

Shopping Complex

Branded items such as readymade clothes, home appliances, footwear, leather items, etc. Here we also get eatables such as burger, Pizza, etc.

 

 

Prices of goods are usually high. Only rich people can afford to buy them.

Big businessmen and traders.

 

Wealthy city people.

 

Question 3:

Explain how a chain of markets is formed. What purpose does it serve?

Answer:

Goods are produced in factories, Goods are also produced in farms and in homes. But we are not required to go to factories or farms to buy goods of our need, because the producers are not interested in selling us small quantities. The wholesale traders do this job. They are the people who come in between the producer and the final consumer. They first buy goods in bulk. Then they sell these goods to the retailers, who finally sell this to the consumers.

From the above instance we come to the conclusion that from factories to final consumers a chain is formed, which we may call a chain of markets. We can better understand it through the flow chart given below:

It serves great purpose. It maintains flow of money. It makes easy availability of various items of our daily use. It also promotes coordination in society.

 

Question 4:

‘All persons have equal rights to visit any shop in a marketplace.’ Do you think this is true of shops with expensive products? Explain with examples.

Answer:

Yes, it is equally true of shops with expensive products. As consumers we can visit any shop. Even though we have no money in our pockets. The shop owner is bound to show the articles which the customer asks him to show. He cannot force the customer to buy any article. It totally depends upon him whether he buys any thing or not. We can understand it more clearly through an example. Kavita and Sujata went to Ansal Mall out of curiosity. While wandering here and there they enter a shop all of a sudden. They have no plan to buy anything. They look some branded dresses and move away,

 

Question 5:

‘Buying and selling can take place without going to a marketplace’. Explain this statement with the help of examples.

Answer:

This is the age of Internet. It has changed the mode of everything. We can now make on-line purchases with the help of credit cards. We can place orders through the Internet and the goods are delivered at our place.

In clinics and nursing homes we usually notice medical representatives waiting for doctors. These medical representatives are also engaged in selling goods. Thus, buying and selling takes place in different ways, without going to the market.

Chapter 9 - A Shirt in the Market

 

Question 1:

What made Swapna sell the cotton to the trader Instead of selling at the Kurnool cotton market?

Answer:

Swapna sold the cotton to the trader instead of selling at the Kurnool cotton market because:

(i) At the beginning of the cropping season, Swapna had borrowed Rs 2,500 from the trader at a very high interest rate to buy seeds, fertilisers, pesticides for cultivation.

(ii) So, she promised to sell all her cotton to him.

 

Question 2:

Describe the conditions of employment as well as the wages of workers in the garment exporting factory. Do you think the workers get a fair deal?

Answer:

Conditions of employment in the garment exporting factory:

(i) Workers are employed on a temporary basis means they can be asked to leave anytime when not needed.

(ii) They have pressure to produce quality products in limited time.

(iii) They have to do hard work for long hours. No, the workers don't get a fair deal as they are not even paid the minimal wages for their work. They are being exploited by their employer and their work IS also temporary. They also don't have respect for the work the do.

 

Question 3:

Think of something common that we use. It could be sugar, tea, milk, pen, paper, pencil, etc. Discuss through what chain of markets this reaches you Can you think of the people that help In the production or trade?

Answer:

Chain of markets to produce Milk is first produced in

(i) Dairy cooperatives first purchase milk at different locations.

(ii) After that, milk is transported to the milk factories by the dairy cooperatives.

(iii) Milk is pasteurised in the factories and are packed.

(iv) Packets are milk are then given to the traders which transport them to cities where wholesaler purchase these.

(v) Retailers purchase from the wholesalers then sell these packets of milk to the consumers in the open market in booths.

Note:- You can also use the example given in the question number

 

Question 4:

Arrange the statements given alongside in the correct order and then fill in the numbers in the cotton bolls accordingly. The first two have already been done for you.

1. Swapna sells the cotton to the trader

2 Customers buy these shifts in a supermarket

3 Trader sells cotton to the Ginning Mill.

4 Garment exporters buy the cloth from merchants for making shirts. 5. Yarn dealers or merchants give the yarn to the weavers

6. The exporter sells shirts to the businessperson from the LISA.

7. Spinning mill buys the cotton and sells yarn to the yarn dealers.

8. Weavers return with the cloth

9. Ginning mill cleans the cotton and makes it into bales.

Answer:

1. Swapna sells the cotton to the trader.

3. Trader sells cotton to the Ginning Mill.

9. Ginning mill cleans the cotton and makes it into bales

7 Spinning mill buys the cotton and sells yarn to the yarn dealers.

5 Yarn dealers or merchants give the yarn to the weavers.

8. Weavers return with the cloth.

4 Garment exporters buy the cloth from merchants for making shirts.

6. The exporter sells shirts to the businessperson from the LISA.

2 Customers buy these shifts in a supermarket


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