NCERT SOLUTIONS FOR CLASS 6 SOCIAL SCIENCE

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History – Our Pasts Part I

Chapter 1 - What, Where, How and When?

Chapter 2 - On the Trial of the Earliest People

Chapter 3 - From Gathering to Growing Food

Chapter 4 - In the Earliest Cities

Chapter 5 - What Books and Burials Tell Us

Chapter 6 - Kingdoms, Kings and an Early Republic

Chapter 7 - New Questions and Ideas

Chapter 8 - Ashoka, The Emperor Who gave Up War

Chapter 9 - Vital Villages, Thriving Towns

Chapter 10 - Traders, Kings, and Pilgrims

Chapter 11 - New Empires and Kingdoms

Chapter 12 - Buildings, Paintings, and Books

Geography – The Earth Our Habitat Part I

Chapter 1: The Earth in the Solar System

Chapter 2: Globe: Latitudes and Longitudes

Chapter 3: Motions of the Earth

Chapter 4: Maps

Chapter 5: Major Domains of the Earth

Chapter 6: Major Landforms of the Earth

Chapter 7: Our Country – India

Chapter 8: India: Climate, Vegetation, and Wildlife

Political Science – Our social and political life Part I

Chapter 1: Understanding Diversity

Chapter 2: Diversity and Discrimination

Chapter 3: What is Government?

Chapter 4: Key Elements of a Democratic Government

Chapter 5: Panchayati Raj

Chapter 6: Rural Administration

Chapter 7: Urban Administration

Chapter 8: Rural Livelihoods

Chapter 9: Urban Livelihoods

Chapter 1 - What, Where, How and When?

Question 1

Match the following:

Narmada Valley

The first big kingdom

Magadha

Hunting and gathering

Garo hills

Cities about 2500 years ago

Indus and its tributaries

Early Agriculture

Ganga Valley

The first cities

Answer

Narmada Valley

Hunting and gathering

Magadha

The first big kingdom

Garo hills

Early Agriculture

Indus and its tributaries

The first cities

Ganga Valley

Cities about 2500 years ago

Question 2

List one major difference between manuscripts and inscriptions.

Answer

Manuscripts: They were written by hand (this comes from the Latin word 'manu', meaning hand). These were usually written on palm leaf, or on the specially prepared bark of a tree known as the birch, which grows in the Himalayas.

Inscriptions: These are writings on relatively hard surfaces such as stone or metal.

Question 3

Return to Rasheeda's question. Can you think Of some answers to it?

Answer

Rasheeda's Question: How anyone can know what has happened One Hundred Years Ago.

Answer:

We can get the answers by:

Reading the books written in past.

By manuscripts By inscriptions By tools & weapons

Question 4

Make a list of all the objects that archaeologists may find. Which of these could be made of stone?

Answer

Archaeologists may find these things in their findings:

  • Potteries
  • Statues
  • Ornaments
  • Tools
  • Skeletons
  • Toys
  • Cloth

Out of these Potteries, statues and Ornaments can be made up of stones.

Question 5

Why do you think ordinary men and women did not generally keep records of what they did?

Answer

Ordinary Men and Women did not keep a record of what they did because Of two reasons: Their life was full of difficulties.

Question 6

Describe at least two ways in which you think the lives of kings would have been different from those of farmers.

Answer

S.No

Farmers

King

1

They have to work in the field

They do not have to work in the field

2

They have to produce their food grains

They have to protect their subjects

3

Life is full of difficulties

Life is comfortable

Chapter 2 - On the Trail of the Earliest People

Question 1

Complete the sentences:

(a) Hunter-gatherers chose to live in caves and rock shelters because of ______

(b) Grasslands developed around ______

(c) Early people painted on the ______

(d) In Hunsgi, tools were made of ______

Answer

(a) they provided shelter from rain, heat, and wind

(b) 12000 years ago

(c) Walls of caves

(d) Stones

Question 2

Look at the present-day political map of the subcontinent on page 136. Find out the states where Bhimbetka, Hunsgi, and Kurnool are located. Would Tushar’s train have passed near any of these sites?

Answer

  • Bhimbetka is in Madhya Pradesh
  • Hunsgi is in Karnataka
  • Kurnool is in Andhra Pradesh

Yes it passes through Bhimbetka in MP and Kurnool in AP

Question 3

Why did the hunter-gatherers travel from place to place? In what ways are these similar to/different from the reasons for which we travel today?

Answer

Hunter-gatherers travelled from one place to another in search of food. When food in one place is exhausted then they travel to another place where they can find the food.

Nowadays, people travel not for food but for other reasons such as:

  1. they like travelling
  2. they want to explore new places
  3. they travel to meet relatives and friends

Question 4

What tools would you use today for cutting fruit? What would they be made of?

Answer

The tool we use today for cutting fruit is a knife. The knife is made up of steel/iron.

Question 5

List three ways in which hunter-gatherers used fire (see page16). Would you use fire for any of these purposes today?

Answer

Earlier hunter-gatherers used fire for.

  1.  Cooking
  2.  Clearing of forests
  3.  Saving from wild animals

Yes, we do use fire for cooking

Chapter 3 - From Gathering to Growing Food

Question 1

Why do people who grow crops have to stay in the same place for a long time?

Answer

The people who grow crops have to stay in the same place for a long time as they have to take care of their crops and it takes so many months to bear fruits.

Question 2

Look at the table on page 25. If Neinuo wanted to eat rice, which are the places she should have visited?

Answer

Neinuo should have to visit Mehrgara and Koldihwa to eat rice.

Question 3

Why do archaeologists think that many people who lived in Mehrgarh were hunters to start with and that herding became more important later?

Answer

Archeologists have found bones of wild aals form a lower level of Mehrgarh and bones of domestic animals from the upper level. This proves that people in Mehrgarh earlier were hunters, later on, they turned into herders.

Question 4

State whether true or false:

(a) Millets have been found at Hallur.

(b) People in Burzahom lived in rectangular houses.

(c) Chirand is a site in Kashmir.

(d) Jadeite, found in Daojali Hading, may have been

brought from China.

Answer

 (a) True

 (b) False

 (c) False

 (d) True

Question 5

List three ways in which the lives of farmers and herders would have been different from that of hunter-gatherers.

Answer

Ways

Herders

Hunter-Gatherers

Life

Nomadic

Settled

Dependency on meat

On wild animals

On domestic animals

Food Supply

Not Secure

More secure

Question 6

Make a list of all the animals mentioned in the table (page 25). For each one, describe what they may have been used for.

Answer

Animals

Used for

Goat

Milk

Sheep

Wool

Buffalo

Milk

Dog

Guarding

Ox

Farm work

Pig

Meat

Chapter 4 - In the Earliest Cities

Question 1

How do archaeologists know that cloth was used in the Harappan civilisation?

Answer

Archeologists found actual pieces of cloth attached to the lid of a silver vase and some copper objects at Mohenjodaro. They have also found spindle whorls which were used in spindle threads. This shows Harappan civilization was using cloth.

Question 2

Match the columns

Copper

Gujarat

Gold

Afghanistan

Tin

Rajasthan

Precious Stones

Karnataka

Answer

Copper

Rajasthan

Gold

Karnataka

Tin

Afghanistan

Precious Stones

Gujarat

Question 3

Why were metals, writing, the wheel, and the plough important for the Harappans?

Answer

Metals: They were used for making vessels, ornaments, weapons, and tools.

Writing: It was important for communication

Wheel: It was important for carts and pottery.

Plough: It was used to dig them to turn the soil and planting seeds

Question 4

Make a list of all the terracotta toys shown in the lesson. Which do you think children would have enjoyed playing with the most?

Answer

  • Toy Cart
  • Toy Plough
  • Terracotta Toys

Question 5

Make a list of what the Harappans ate and put a tick mark against the things you eat today.

Answer

1) Wheat

2) Rice

3) Fruits

4) Pulses

5) Barley

6) Peas

7) Sesame

8) Mustard

9) Linseed

Question 6

Do you think that the life of farmers and herders who supplied food to the Harappan cities was different from that of the farmers and herders you read about in Chapter 3? Give reasons for your answer.

Answer

Term

Farmers & Herders of Harappan

Earlier Farmers & Herders

Tools

They were using wooden tools called plough for turning the soil

They were using mortar and pestle for grinding grain

Irrigation

Using

Not using

Storage

Well-built Granaries

Clay pots and baskets

Residence

Lived in outskirts of cities

No settled cities

Chapter 5 - What Books and Burials Tell Us

Question 1

Match the columns

Sukta

Stone boulder

Chariots

Sacrifice

Yajna

Well-said

Dasa

Used in Battles

Megalith

Slave

Answer

Sukta

Well-said

Chariots

Used in Battles

Yajna

Sacrifice

Dasa

Slave

Megalith

Stone boulder

Question 2

Complete the sentences:

(a) Slaves were used for _____

(b) Megaliths are found in _____

(c) Stone circles or boulders on the surface were used to _____

(d) Port-holes were used for _____

(e) People at Inamgaon ate _____

Answer

(a) Work

(b) South India, North East, and Kashmir

(c) indicate the exact place for burial

(d) burying the other member of the same family in the same place

(e) wheat, rice, pulses, barley, sesame, peas etc.

Question 3

In what ways are the books we read today different from the Rigveda?

Answer

The main difference between the two is nowadays books are written and read instead Rigveda was memorized by the students.

Question 4

What kind of evidence from burials do archaeologists use to find out whether there were social differences amongst those who were buried?

Answer

Archaeologists found that in some burials the skeletons found were buried with lots of pots and some with fewer pots. They concluded that people were buried according to their status. 

Question 5

In what ways do you think that the life of a raja was different from that of a dasa or dasi?

Answer

The Raja was in the highest position while Dasa/dasi was in the lowest position. Dasa was used as slaves for work. They were treated as the property of owners. Actually, they were captured during wars and made slaves.

Chapter 6 - Kingdoms, Kings And an Early Republic

Question 1

State whether true or false:

(a) Rajas who let the ashvamedha horse pass through their lands were invited to the sacrifice.

(b) The charioteer sprinkled sacred water on the king.

(c) Archaeologists have found palaces in the settlements of the janapadas.

(d) Pots to store grain were made out of Painted Grey Ware.

(e) Many cities in mahajanapadas were fortified.

Answer

(a) True

(b) False

(c) False

(d) False

(e) True

Question 2

Fill in the chart given below with the terms: hunter-gatherers, farmers, traders, craftspersons, herders.

Answer

Question 3

Who were the groups who could not participate in the assemblies of the ganas?

Answer

The groups who cannot participate in the  assemblies of the ganas were:

  1. Women
  2. Shudras
  3. Kammakaras

Question 4

Why did the rajas of mahajanapadas build forts?

Answer

The Rajas of mahajanapadas build forts for:

  • Their security
  • Their show off
  • Fortified city was easy to manage

Question 5

In what ways are present-day elections different from the ways in which rulers were chosen in janapadas?

Answer

Earlier rulers were chosen after showing his supremacy, for that they had to perform Ashwamedha Yajna so that other rajas in mahajanapadas accept his supremacy and in this way rulers were chosen. Nowadays rulers are chosen by popular Elections.

Chapter 7 - New Questions and Ideas

Question 1

Describe the ways in which the Buddha tried to spread his message to the people.

Answer

Buddha tried two basic ways to spread his message to the people:

He used prakrit since it was a language of the common people so he could spread his message to a large number of people.

He gave the message to think proactively instead of following him blindly.

Question 2

Write whether true or false:

(a) The Buddha encouraged animal sacrifices.

(b) Sarnath is important because it was the place where the Buddha taught for the first time.

(c) The Buddha taught that karma has no effect on our lives.

(d) The Buddha attained enlightenment at Bodh Gaya.

(e) Upanishadic thinkers believed that the atman and brahman were ultimately one.

Answer

(a) False

(b) True

(c) False

(d) True

(e) True

Question 3

What were the questions that Upanishadic thinkers wanted to answer?

Answer

They wanted to answer the following questions:

  1. What is the true meaning of life?
  2. What happens in the afterlife?

Question 4

What were the main teachings of the Mahavira?

Answer

Main teachings of Mahavira are:

People who wish to know the truth must leave their home.

The truth seeker must follow the rule Of ahimsa. It means not hurting or killing any living being.

Question 5

Why do you think Anagha’s mother wanted her to know the story of the Buddha?

Answer

Anagha's mother wanted her to know the story of Buddha so that she could take some lessons from the life of Buddha and we all know that he was a great thinker and his teachings are very important for our lives.

Question 6

Do you think it would have been easy for slaves to join the sangha? Give reasons for your answer.

Answer

It was very difficult for slaves to join sangha as he has to take permission from his master for that. But he was not able to do so as he was always at the mercy of his master. They were not at all treated as human beings.

Chapter 8 - Ashoka, The Emperor Who gave Up War

Question 1

Make a list of the occupations of the people who lived within the Mauryan empire.

Answer

List of the occupations within Mauryan empire are:

  • Farming
  • Herding
  • Hunting-gathering
  • Trading
  • Handicrafts

Question 2

Complete the following sentences:

(a) Officials collected_____ from the area under the direct control of the ruler.

(b) Royal princes often went to the provinces as _____

(c) The Mauryan rulers tried to control _____ and ———————— which were important for transport.

(d) People in forested regions provided the Mauryan officials with _____

Answer

(a) tax

(b) governor

(c) roads and rivers

(d) elephants, timber, honey, and wax

Question 3

State whether true or false:

(a) Ujjain was the gateway to the north-west.

(c) Chandragupta’s ideas were written down in the Arthashastra.

(d) Kalinga was the ancient name of Bengal.

(e) Most Ashokan inscriptions are in the Brahmi script.

Answer

(a) False

(b) False

(c) True

(d) True

Question 4

What were the problems that Ashoka wanted to solve by introducing dhamma?

Answer

There were a number of problems that troubled Ashoka and he wanted to solve those problems.

These were:

  1. People in the empire followed different religions, and this sometimes led to conflict.
  2. Animals were sacrificed.
  3. Slaves and servants were ill-treated.
  4. There were quarrels in families and amongst neighbours.

Question 5

What were the means adopted by Ashoka to spread the message of dhamma?

Answer

The methods adopted to spread the message of dhamma were:

  1. Ashoka appointed officials, known as the dhamma mahamatta who went from place to place teaching people about dhamma.
  2. Ashoka got his messages to inscribe on rocks and pillars, instructing his officials to read his message to those who could not read it themselves.
  3. Ashoka also sent messengers to spread ideas about dhamma to other lands, such as Syria, Egypt, Greece, and Sri Lanka.

Question 6

Why do you think slaves and servants were ill-treated? Do you think the orders of the emperor would have improved their condition? Give reasons for your answer.

Answer

Mostly the slaves and servants were prisoners that is why they were ill-treated. Yes, orders of the emperor would have improved the condition as he was the head of the state. He could issue law of punishment regarding this.

Chapter 9 - Vital Villages, Thriving Towns

Question 1

Fill in the blanks:

(a) _____ was a word used for large landowners in Tamil.

(b) The gramabhojaka often got his land cultivated by the _____

(c) Ploughmen were known as _____ in Tamil.

(d) Most grihapatis were_____ landowners.

Answer

(a) Vellalar

(b) dasa karmakara

(c) Uzhavar

(d) Small

Question 2

Describe the functions of the gramabhojaka. Why do you think he was powerful?

Answer

Gramabhojaka was the biggest landowner and his some of the functions were:

  • Collection of taxes from the farmers
  • As judge
  • As policeman

Question 3

List the craftspersons who would have been present in both villages and cities.

Answer

Some of the craftspersons were:

  • Potter
  • Blacksmith
  • Carpenter
  • Ironsmith
  • Weaver

Question 4

Choose the correct answer:

(a) Ring wells were used for:

1. bathing

2. washing clothes

3. irrigation

4. Drainage

(b) Punch marked coins were made of:

1. silver

2. gold

3. tin

4. Ivory

(c) Mathura was important:

1. village

2. port

3. religious centre

4. forested area

(d) Shrenis were associations of:

1. rulers

2. craftspersons

3. farmers

4. Herders

Answer

(a) 4. drainage

(b) 1. Silver

(c) 3. religious centre

(d) 2. crafts persons

Question 5

Which of the iron tools shown on page 87 would have been important for agriculture? What would the other tools have been used for?

Answer

  • Sickle was used in agriculture.
  • Axe was used for chopping wood.
  • Tongs were used in Kitchen or by ironsmith.

Question 6

Compare the drainage system in your locality with that of the cities mentioned in the lesson. What similarities and differences do you notice?

Answer

The modern drainage system is made up of pipes. Pipes were made up of plastic, metal or ceramic. While the drainage system in this chapter was made up of rings and those rings were stacked together to make a tube-like structure.

Similarity: Use of ceramic and tubes.

Difference: Use of rings in those cities.

Chapter 10 - Traders, Kings, and Pilgrims

Question 1

Match the following:

Muvendar

Mahayana Buddhism

Lords of the dakshinapatha

Buddhacharita

Ashvaghosha

Satavahana rulers

Bodhisattvas

Chinese pilgrim

Xuan Zang

Cholas, Cheras and Pandyas

Answer

Muvendar

Cholas, Cheras and Pandyas

Lords of the dakshinapatha

Satavahana rulers

Ashvaghosha

Buddhacharita

Bodhisattvas

Mahayana Buddhism

Xuan Zang

Chinese pilgrim

Question 2

Why did kings want to control the Silk Route?

Answer

Some kings tried to control large portiåns of the route. This was because they could benefit from taxes, tributes, and gifts that were brought by traders travelling along the route. In return, they often protected the traders who passed through their kingdoms from attacks by robbers.

Question 3

What kinds of evidence do historians use to find out about trade and trade routes?

Answer

Historians look basically for coins that tells a lot about the trade. They also look upon the particular items comes from which part of the world that tells about their trade relationship with the other countries. Historians look into accounts of the traders and pilgrims.

Question 4

What were the main features of Bhakti?

Answer

Bhakti emphasized on devotion for a God or Goddess. If a devotee worships a deity with a pure heart, the deity will appear in such a way that a devotee wants.

Question 5

Discuss the reasons why the Chinese pilgrims came to India.

Answer

Chinese pilgrims came to India to visit the places associated with the teachings of Buddha and famous monasteries.

Question 6

Why do you think ordinary people were attracted to Bhakti?

Answer

The Bhakti movement gave freedom of choice to ordinary people. The temple was not only the place of worship. They could worship any God of their choice. Easier rules attracted people to Bhakti.

Chapter 11 - New Empires and Kingdoms

Question 1

State whether true or false:

(a) Harishena composed a prashasti in praise of Gautamiputra Shri Satakarni.

(b) The rulers of Aryavarta brought tribute for Samudragupta.

(c) There were twelve rulers in Dakshinapatha.

(d) Taxila and Madurai were important centres under the control of the Gupta rulers.

(e) Aihole was the capital of the Pallavas.

(f) Local assemblies functioned for several centuries in south India.

Answer

(a) False

(b) False

(c) True

(d) False

(e) False

(f) True

Question 2

Mention three authors who wrote about Harshavardhana.

Answer

  1. Banabhatta 
  2. Ravikirti
  3. Xuan Zang

Question 3

What changes do you find in the army at this time?

Answer

Like earlier rulers, some of these kings maintained a well-organised army, with elephants, chariots, cavalry and foot soldiers. Besides, there were military leaders who provided the king with troops whenever he needed them. They were not paid regular salaries. Instead, some of them received grants of land. They collected revenue from the land and used this to maintain soldiers and horses, and provide equipment for warfare. These men were known as samantas. Whenever the ruler was weak, samantas tried to become independent.

Question 4

What were the new administrative arrangements during this period?

Answer

  • Some important administrative posts were now hereditary.
  • Sometimes, one person held many offices.
  • Important men probably had a say in local administration.

Question 5

What do you think Arvind would have to do if he was acting as Samudragupta?

Answer

If Arvind would have to do acting as Samudragupta he needs to be brave and should start taking interest in music and painting.

Question 6

Do you think ordinary people would have read and understood the prashastis? Give reasons for your answer.

Answer

No, the ordinary people would not have read and understood the prashastis as these were written in Sanskrit, the language of learning.

Chapter 12 - Buildings, Paintings, and Books

Question 1

Match the following

Stupa

Place where the image of the deity is installed

Shikhara

Mound

Mandapa

Circular path around the stupa

Garbhagriha

Place in temples where people could assemble

Pradakshina patha

Tower

Answer

Stupa

Mound

Shikhara

Tower

Mandapa

Place in temples where people could assemble

Garbhagriha

Place where the image of the deity is installed

Pradakshina patha

Circular path around the stupa

Question 2

Fill in the blanks:

(a) _____ was a great astronomer.

(b) Stories about gods and goddesses are found in the _____

(c) _____ is recognised as the author of the Sanskrit Ramayana.

(d) _____ and _____ are two Tamil epics.

Answer

(a) Aryabhata

(b) Purana

(c) Valmiki

(d) Silappadikaram and Manimekalai

Question 3

Make a list of the chapters in which you find mention of metal working. What are the metals objects mentioned or shown in those chapters?

Answer

Chapters 4, 7, 8 mentioned metal working. Various metal objects mentioned in those chapters were axe, ploughshare, sickle, and sword. These metal objects were used for different purposes.

  • Sickle                   Farming
  • Sword                   Wars
  • Axe                       Cutting wood
  • Ploughshare        Farming

Question 4

Read the story on page 130. In what ways is the monkey king similar to or different from the kings you read about in Chapters 6 and 11?

Answer

Similarity: Both other king and monkey king work for the welfare of their subjects.

Difference: Other kings hold some respectable title while monkey king does not. Monkey king did not try to capture the land Of others but other kings tried to do so.

Geography – The Earth Our Habitat Part I

Chapter 1 - The Earth in the Solar System

Question 1

Answer the following questions briefly.

(a) How does a planet differ from a star?

(b) What is meant by the ‘Solar System’?

(c) Name all the planets according to their distance from the sun.

(d) Why is the Earth called a unique planet?

(e) Why do we see only one side of the moon always?

(f) What is the Universe?

Answer

(a)

Star

Planet

Some celestial bodies are made up of gases. They have their own heat and light, which they emit in amounts. These celestial bodies are called stars.

Some celestial bodies do not have their own heat and light. They are lit by light of stars. Such bodies are called planets.

Example: Sun

Example: Earth, Jupiter, etc.

 

 

(b) The sun, eight planets, satellites and some other celestial bodies known as steroids and meteoroids form the solar system.

(c) Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.

(d) The earth is neither too hot nor too cold. It has water and air, which are very essential for our survival. The air has life-supporting gases like oxygen. Because of these reasons, the earth is a unique planet in the solar system.

(e) The moon moves around the earth in about 27 days. It takes exactly the same time to complete one spin. As a result, only one side of the moon is visible to us on the earth.

(f) Universe is the collection of millions of galaxies. 

Question 2

Tick the correct answer.

(a) The planet known as the “Earth’s Twin” is

(i) Jupiter          (ii) Saturn          (iii) Venus

(b) Which is the third nearest planet to the sun ?

(i) Venus           (ii) Earth             (iii) Mercury

(c) All the planets move around the sun in a

(i) Circular path    (ii) Rectangular path       (iii) Elongated path

(d) The Pole Star indicates the direction to the

(i) South        (ii) North            (iii) East

(e) Asteroids are found between the orbits of

(i) Saturn and Jupiter     (ii) Mars and Jupiter       (iii) The Earth and Mars

Answer

(a) (iii) Venus

(b) (ii) Earth

(c) (iii) Elongated path

(d) (ii) North

(e) (ii) Mars and Jupiter

Question 3

Fill in the blanks.

(a) A group of _____ forming various patterns is called a _____.

(b) A huge system of stars is called_____.

(c) _____ is the closest celestial body to our earth.

(d) _____ is the third nearest planet to the sun.

(e) Planets do not have their own _____ and _____.

Answer

(a) A group of star forming various patterns is called a constellation.

(b) A huge system of stars is called galaxy.

(c) Moon is the closest celestial body to our earth.

(d) Earth is the third nearest planet to the sun.

(e) Planets do not have their own heat and light.

Chapter 2: Globe:  Latitudes and Longitudes

Question 1

Answer the following questions briefly.

(a) What is the true shape of the earth?

(b) What is a globe?

(c) What is the latitudinal value of the Tropic of Cancer?

(d) What are the three heat zones of the Earth?

(e) What are parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude?

(f) Why does the torrid zone receive maximum amount of heat?

(g) Why is it 5.30 p.m. in India and 12.00 noon in London?

Answer

(a) The Earth is not a sphere. It is slightly flattened at the North and the South Poles and bulge in the middle.

(b) Globe is the true model of the Earth.

(c) Latitudinal value of Tropic of cancer is 23° N

(d) The three heat zones are:

  • Tonic Zone
  • Temperate Zone
  • Frigid Zone

(e) All parallel circles from the equator up to the poles are called parallels of latitudes. Lines of references running from North Pole to South Pole are called meridians of longitude.

(f) The Torrid Zone receives the maximum heat when the mid-day sun is exactly overhead at least once a year on all latitudes in between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn.

 

(g) India is located east of Greenwich at 82°30'E is 5 hours and 30 minutes ahead of GMT. So it will be 7:30 p.m. in India when it is 2:00 p.m. noon in London.

Question 2

Tick the correct answers.

(a) The value of the prime meridian is

(i) 90°     (ii) 0°         (iii) 60°

(b) The frigid zone lies near

(i) the Poles      (ii) the Equator           (iii) the Tropic of Cancer

(c) The total number of longitudes are

(i) 360        (ii) 180            (iii) 90

(d) The Antarctic circle is located in

(i) the Northern hemisphere

(ii) the Southern hemisphere

(iii) the Eastern hemisphere

(e) Grid is a network of

(i) parallels of latitudes and meridians of longitudes

(ii) the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn

(iii) the North Pole and the South Pole

Answer

(a) (ii) 0°

(b) (i) The poles

(c) (ii) 180

(d) (ii) the southern hemisphere

(e) (i) parallels of latitudes and meridians of longitudes

Question 3

Fill in the blanks.

(a) The Tropic of Capricorn is located at _____.

(b) The Standard Meridian of India is _____.

(c) The 0° Meridian is also known as _____.

(d) The distance between the longitudes decreases towards_____.

(e) The Arctic Circle is located in the _____ hemisphere.

Answer

(a) The Tropic of Capricorn is located at 23° N.

(b) The Standard Meridian of India is 82°30'E Longitude.

(c) The 0° Meridian is also known as prime meridian.

(d) The distance between the longitudes decreases towards poles.

(e) The Arctic Circle is located in the northern hemisphere.

Chapter 3: Motions of the Earth

Question 1

Answer the following questions briefly.

(a) What is the angle of inclination of the earth’s axis with its orbital plane?

(b) Define rotation and revolution.

(c) What is a leap year?

(d) Differentiate between the Summer and Winter Solstice.

(e) What is an equinox?

(f) Why does the Southern Hemisphere experience Winter and Summer Solstice in different times than that of the Northern Hemisphere?

(g) Why do the poles experience about six months day and six months night?

Answer

(a) The angle of inclination of the earth's axis with its orbital plane is 660°.

(b) Rotation: The movement of the earth is known as rotation. Revolution: The movement of the earth and the sun in a fixed path or orbit is called revolution.

(c) The year have 366 days is called a leap year.

(d) Summer Solstice: The position of the earth on 21st June when there is summer in Northern hemisphere regions and reverse conditions i.e. winter in Southern hemisphere. This position of the earth is called the Summer Solstice.

Winter Solstice: The position Of the earth on 22nd December when there is summer in Southern hemisphere regions and reverse conditions i.e. winter season in Northern hemisphere. This position Of the earth is called the Winter Solstice.

(e) When the whole earth experiences equal days and nights, it is called equinox. There are two such days i.e. 21st March and 23rd September.

(f) The earth is spherical in shape and it keeps on revolving and it is divided into two hemispheres. When Southern hemisphere gets in front of the sun, the portion facing the sun experiences summer while the other half away from the sun experiences winter and vice versa.

(g) The poles experience 6 months of days and 6 months of nights due to the tilt of the earth on its own axis. Because of this tilt, each pole is tilted towards and away from the sun for about 6 months each. When the North Pole is tilted towards the sun, it experiences continuous daylight for six months.

Question 2

Tick the correct answers.

(a) The movement of the earth around the sun is known as

(i) Rotation             (ii) Revolution           (iii) Inclination

(b) Direct rays of the sun fall on the equator on

(i) 21 March           (ii) 21 June                  (iii) 22 December

(c) Christmas is celebrated in summer in

(i) Japan                  (ii) India                      (iii) Australia

(d) Cycle of the seasons is caused due to

(i) Rotation            (ii) Revolution            (iii) Gravitation

Answer

(a) (ii) Revolution

(b) (i) 21 March

(c) (iii) Australia

(d) (ii) Revolution

Question 3

Fill in the blanks.

(a) A leap year has _____ number of days.

(b) The daily motion of the earth is _____.

(c) The earth travels around the sun in _____ orbit.

(d) The sun’s rays fall vertically on the Tropic of _____ on 21st June.

(e) Days are shorter during _____ season.

Answer

(a) A leap year has 366 number of days.

(b) The daily motion of the earth is rotation.

(c) The earth travels around the sun in elliptical orbit.

(d) The sun’s rays fall vertically on the Tropic of cancer on 21st June.

(e) Days are shorter during winter season.

Chapter 4: Maps

Question 1

Answer the following questions briefly.

(a) What are the three components of a map?

(b) What are the four cardinal directions?

(c) What do you mean by the term ‘the scale of the map’?

(d) How are maps more helpful than a globe?

(e) Distinguish between a map and a plan.

(f) Which map provides detailed information?

(g) How do symbols help in reading maps?

Answer

(a) There are 3 components of a map Distance Direction Symbol

(b) The four cardinal directions or cardinal points are the directions of north, east, south and west, commonly denoted by their initials: N, E, S, W.

Besides these, other four intermediate directions are north-east (NE), southeast (SE), south- west (SW) and north-west (NW).

(c) Scale of a Map is the ratio between the actual distance on the ground and the distance shown on the map. These are of two types Small scale map and Large scale map.

(d) Maps are more helpful than a globe:

  • Map is more useful than a globe because it is more convenient to find a place in.
  • Flat maps are more easily transported.
  • They are also easier to use when calculating distances.
  • A flat world map will allow you to look at the whole earth at one time.
  • It helps people to understand where each country lies in relation to the others

(e) Map: Map is a representation or a drawing of the earth's surface or a part of it drawn on a flat surface according to a scale.

Plan: A plan is a drawing of a small area on a large scale.

(f) Large scale map provides detailed information.

(g) Symbols are very useful in reading maps. They give lot of information in a little space. Symbols are especially useful in a situation when you do not know the local language. In spite of that, you can easily locate a particular landmark with the help of symbols.

Question 2

Tick the correct answers.

(a) Maps showing distribution of forests are

(i) Physical map       (ii) Thematic Map          (iii) Political map

(b) The blue colour is used for showing

(i) Water bodies       (ii) Mountains             (iii) Plains

(c) A compass is used –

(i) To show symbols

(ii) To find the main direction

(iii) To measure distance

(d) A scale is necessary

(i) For a map (ii) For a sketch (iii) For symbols

Answer

(a) (ii) Thematic Map

(b) (i) Water bodies

(c) (ii) To find the main direction

(d) (i) For a map

Chapter 5: Major Domains of the Earth

Question 1

Answer the following questions briefly.

(a) What are the four major domains of the earth?

(b) Name the major continents of the earth.

(c) Name the two continents that lie entirely in the Southern Hemisphere.

(d) Name the different layers of atmosphere.

(e) Why is the earth called the ‘blue planet’?

(f) Why is the Northern Hemisphere called the Land Hemisphere?

(g) Why is the Biosphere important for living organisms?

Answer

(a) The major domains of the Earth are

  • Lithosphere
  • Atmosphere
  • Hydrosphere
  • Biosphere

(b) There are 7 major continents of the Earth

  • Asia
  • Europe
  • Africa
  • North America
  • South America
  • Australia
  • Antarctica

(c) The 2 continents that lie entirely in the southern Hemisphere are

  • Australia
  • Antarctica

(d) The different layers of atmosphere are:

  • Troposphere
  • Stratosphere
  • Mesosphere
  • Thermosphere
  • Exosphere

(e) The Earth is called a blue planet as Earth's 71 % is covered with water.

(f) The Northern Hemisphere is called the Land Hemisphere as greater part of landmass lies in it.

(g) The Biosphere is important for living organism as it contains 3 major elements important for life.

  • Land
  • Water
  • Air

Question 2

Tick the correct answers.

(a) The mountain range that separates Europe from Asia is

(i) the Andes (ii) the Himalayas (iii) the Urals

(b) The continent of North America is linked to South America by

(i) an Isthmus (ii) a Strait (iii) a Canal

(c) The major constituent of atmosphere by percent is

(i) Nitrogen (ii) Oxygen (iii) Carbon dioxide

(d) The domain of the earth consisting of solid rocks is

(i) the Atmosphere (ii) the Hydrosphere (iii) the Lithosphere

(e) Which is the largest continent?

(i) Africa (ii) Asia (iii) Australia

Answer

(a) (iii) the Urals

(b) (i) an Isthmus

(c) (i) Nitrogen

(d) (iii) the Lithosphere

(e) (ii) Asia

3. Fill in the blanks.

(a) The deepest point on the earth is _____ in the Pacific Ocean.

(b) The _____ Ocean is named after a country.

(c) The _____ is a narrow contact zone of land, water and air that

supports life.

(d) The continents of Europe and Asia together are known as _____.

(e) The highest mountain peak on the earth is _____.

Answer

(a) The deepest point on the earth is Mariana Trench in the Pacific Ocean.

(b) The Indian Ocean is named after a country.

(c) The Biosphere is a narrow contact zone of land, water and air that

supports life.

(d) The continents of Europe and Asia together are known as Eurasia.

(e) The highest mountain peak on the earth is Everest.

Chapter 6: Major Landforms of the Earth

Question 1

Answer the following questions briefly.

(a) What are the major landforms?

(b) What is the difference between a mountain and a plateau?

(c) What are the different types of mountains?

(d) How are mountains useful to man?

(e) How are plains formed?

(f) Why are the river plains thickly populated?

(g) Why are mountains thinly populated?

Answer

(a) The major landforms are

  • Mountains
  • Plateaus
  • Plains

(b) Mountain:

  • A mountain is any natural elevation the earth surface.
  • It is considerably higher than the surrounding area.
  • Mountains have peaks

Plateau:

  • A plateau is an elevated flat land.
  • It is a flat-topped tableland standing above the surrounding area
  • Plateaus are flattened highlands.

(c) The different types of mountains are

  • Fold
  • Block
  • Volcanic

(d) Mountains are very useful to man in the following ways:

  • The mountains are a storehouse of water. Many rivers have their source in the glaciers in the mountains.
  • Mountains have a rich variety of flora and fauna. 
  • Mountains provide an idyllic site for tourists.
  • Several sports like paragliding, hang gliding, river rafting and skiing are popular in the mountains.
  • The forests provide fuel, fodder, shelter and other products like gum, raisins, etc.

(e) Plains are formed by rivers and their tributaries. The rivers flow down the slopes of mountains and erode them. They carry forward the eroded material. Then they deposit their load consisting of stones, sand and silt along their courses and in their valleys. It is from these deposits that plains are formed.

(f) The river plains are thickly populated as more flat land is available for building houses and cultivation.

(g) Mountains are thinly populated because

  • The climate is very harsh.
  • Farming land is very less due as the slopes are steep.

Question 2

Tick the correct answers.

(a) The mountains differ from the hills in terms of

(i) elevation (ii) slope (iii) aspect

(b) Glaciers are found in

(i) the mountains (ii) the plains (iii) the plateaus

(c) The Deccan Plateau is located in

(i) Kenya (ii) Australia (iii) India

(d) The river Yangtze flows in

(i) South America (ii) Australia (iii) China

(e) An important mountain range of Europe is

(i) the Andes (ii) the Alps (iii) the Rockies

Answer

(a) (i) elevation

(b) (i) the mountains

(c) (iii) India

(d) (iii) China

(e) (ii) the Alps

Question 3

Fill in the blanks.

1. A _____ is an unbroken flat or a low-level land.

2. The Himalayas and the Alps are examples of _____types of mountains.

3. _____ areas are rich in mineral deposits.

4. The _____ is a line of mountains.

5. The _____ areas are most productive for farming.

Answer

1. A plain is an unbroken flat or a low-level land.

2. The Himalayas and the Alps are examples of fold types of

mountains.

3. Plateau areas are rich in mineral deposits.

4. The range is a line of mountains.

5. The plain areas are most productive for farming.

Chapter 7: Our Country - India

Question 1

Answer the following questions briefly.

(a) Name the major physical divisions of India.

(b) India shares its land boundaries with seven countries. Name them.

(c) Which two major rivers fall into the Arabian Sea?

(d) Name the delta formed by the Ganga and the Brahmaputra.

(e) How many States and Union Territories are there in India? Which states have a common capital?

(f) Why do a large number of people live in the Northern plains?

(g) Why is Lakshadweep known as a coral island?

Answer

(a) The major physical divisions of India are:

  • Mountains
  • Plateaus
  • Plains
  • Coasts
  • Islands

(b) India shares its land boundaries with seven countries. Name them. The countries which India shares its boundaries are:

  • Pakistan
  • Afghanistan
  • Nepal
  • Bhutan
  • China
  • Myanmar
  • Bangladesh

(c) The 2 major rivers that fall into the Arabian Sea are:

  • Narmada
  • Tapi

(d) The delta formed by the Ganga and the Brahmaputra is Sunderban Delta. It is the World's largest delta.

(e) Number of states in India: 29

Number of Union territories: 7

Haryana and Punjab have a common capital i.e. Chandigarh.

(f) Large number of people live in the Northern plains as the land is very fertile.

(g) Lakshadweep is known as Coral island as this Island is made of corals. Corals are skeletons of tiny marine animals called polyps. When the living polyps die, their skeletons are left. Other polyps grow on top of the hard skeleton which grows higher and higher, thus forming the coral islands.

Question 2

Tick the correct answers.

(a) The southernmost Himalayas are known as

(i) Shiwaliks             (ii) Himadri              (iii) Himachal

(b) Sahyadris is also known as

(i) Aravali                 (ii) Western Ghats   (iii) Himadri

(c) The Palk Strait lies between the countries

(i) Sri Lanka and Maldives

(ii) India and Sri Lanka

(iii) India and Maldives

(d) The Indian islands in the Arabian Sea are known as

(i) Andaman and Nicobar Islands

(ii) Lakshadweep Islands

(iii) Maldives

(e) The oldest mountain range in India is the

(i) Aravali hills (ii) Western ghats (iii) Himalayas

Answer

(a) (i) Shiwaliks

(b) (ii) Western Ghats

(c) (ii) India and Sri Lanka

(d) (ii) Lakshadweep Islands

(e) (i) Aravali hills

Question 3

Fill in the blanks.

(a) India has an area of about _____.

(b) The Greater Himalayas are also known as_____.

(c) The largest state in India in terms of area is_____.

(d) The river Narmada falls into the _____ sea.

(e) The latitude that runs almost halfway through India is _____.

Answer

(a) India has an area of about 3.28 million square kilometer.

(b) The Greater Himalayas are also known as Himadri.

(c) The largest state in India in terms of area is Rajasthan.

(d) The river Narmada falls into the Arabian sea.

(e) The latitude that runs almost halfway through India is Tropic of Cancer.

Chapter 8: India: Climate, Vegetation and Wildlife

Question 1

Answer the following questions briefly.

(a) Which winds bring rainfall in India? Why is it so important?

(b) Name the different seasons in India.

(c) What is natural vegetation?

(d) Name the different types of vegetation found in India.

(e) What is the difference between evergreen forest and deciduous forest?

(f) Why is tropical rainforest also called evergreen forest?

Answer

(a) The Monsoon winds bring rainfall in India. The rainfall in India is important as agriculture is dependent on it.

(b) The different seasons in India are

  • Winter Season:  December to February
  • Summer Season: March to May
  • Rainy Season: June to September
  • Autumn Season: October to November

(c) The grasses, shrubs and trees, which grow on their own without interference or help from human beings are called natural vegetation.

(d) Vegetation of India can be divided into five types. They are:

  • Tropical evergreen forest
  • Tropical deciduous forest
  • Thorny bushes
  • Mountain vegetation
  • Mangrove forests

(e) Evergreen forest:

  • They always appear green that is why they are called Evergreen forest.
  • Important trees found in these forests are mahogany, ebony, and rosewood.
  • Andaman and Nicobar Islands, parts of North-Eastern states and a narrow strip Of the Western slope of the Western Ghats are home of these forests.
  • They are so dense that sunlight doesn't reach the ground.

Deciduous Forest:

  • These forests are less dense.
  • Important trees of these forests are Sal, Teak, Peepal, Neem, and Shisham.
  • They are found in Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, and in parts of Maharashtra.
  • These forests are called monsoon forest.

(f) The tropical rainforest is also called evergreen forest as they shed their leaves at different times of the year hence remain green throughout the year.

Question 2

Tick the correct answers.

(a) The world’s highest rainfall occurs in

(i) Mumbai (ii) Asansol (iii) Mawsynram

(b) Mangrove forests can thrive in

(i) saline water (ii) fresh water (iii) polluted water

(c) Mahogany and rosewood trees are found in

(i) mangrove forests

(ii) tropical deciduous forests

(iii) tropical evergreen forests

(d) Wild goats and snow leopards are found in

(i) Himalayan region

(ii) Peninsular region

(iii) Gir forests

(e) During the southwest monsoon period, the moisture-laden winds blow from

(i) land to sea (ii) sea to land (iii) plateau to plains

Answer

(a) (iii) Mawsynram

(b) (i) saline water

(c) (iii) tropical evergreen forests

(d) (i) Himalayan region

(e) (ii) sea to land

Question 3

Fill in the blanks.

(a) Hot and dry winds known as _____ blow during the day in the summers.

(b) The states of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu receive a great amount of rainfall during the season of_____.

(c) _____ forest in Gujarat is the home of _____.

(d) _____ is a well-known species of mangrove forests.

(e) _____ are also called monsoon forests.

Answer

(a) Hot and dry winds known as loo blow during the day in the summers.

(b) The states of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu receive a great amount of rainfall during the season of retreating monsoons.

(c) Gir forest in Gujarat is the home of Asiatic Lion.

(d) Sundari is a well-known species of mangrove forests.

(e) Tropic deciduous forest are also called monsoon forests.

Political Science – Our social and political life Part I

Chapter 1 - Understanding Diversity

Question 1

Draw up a list of the different festivals celebrated in your locality.

Which of these celebrations are shared by members of different

regional and religious communities?

Answer

The festivals celebrated in our locality are: Diwali, Holi, Raksha Bandhan, Republic day, Independence Day, Gandhi Jayanti, Children's day etc. Out of these festivals National festivals like Republic day, Independence Day, Gandhi Jayanti and Children's day are celebrated by all castes and religions.

Question 2

What do you think living in India with its rich heritage of diversity

adds to your life?

Answer

India is a country of diversity of -

  • Caste
  • Food
  • Clothes
  • Celebrations
  • Ritualistic, etc.

 

Still a feeling of being Indian always remains in us. We all sing same National anthem. We all celebrate same National festivals, for us all religions are same and we respect all religions.

Question 3

Do you think the term "unity in diversity" is an appropriate term to

describe India? What do you think Nehru is trying to say about

Indian unity in the sentence quoted above from his book The

Discovery of India?

Answer

Yes I believe that "Unity in diversity" is an appropriate term to describe India. India is country of diversity in terms of religions, foods, clothes, festivals, rituals etc. But still in everybody we can see a unity. Being an Indian we proudly sing our National anthem, we collectively celebrate national festivals like Gandhi Jayanti etc.

In Nehru's book Diversity of India, Nehru ji also wants to say that we can see unity amongst people Of different caste and system. They can easily accept other customs and beliefs.

Question 4

Underline the line in the poem sung after the Jallianwala Bagh

massacre, which according to you, reflects India's essential unity.

Answer

Don't forget the days of blood, O friend

In the midst of your happiness remember to shed a tear for us

The hunter has torn away every single flower

Do plant a flower in the desert garden dear friend

Having fallen to bullets we slept in Jallianwala Bagh

Do light a lamp on this lonely grave O friend

The blood of Hindus and Muslims flows together today

Do soak your robe in this river of blood dear friend

Some rot in jails while others lie in their graves

Do shed a few tears for them O friend.

Question 5

Choose another region in India and do a similar study of the historical and geographical factors that influence the diversity found there. Are these historical and geographical factors connected to each other? How?

Answer

Region - Kerala

Geographical features - Situated between Lakshadweep and Western Ghats. It has a wet climate and seasonal heavy rains. The western coastal belt is relatively flat. This region is having many lakes and canals.

Geographical features - Due to coastal areas import and export were prevalent. This state has an equal population of Hindu, Muslim. Christians. Festivals like, Eid, Christmas, and Onam. The geographical features helped in the cultivation of species.

Chapter 2 - Diversity and Discrimination

Question 1

Match the following statements in a way that challenges stereotypes.

Answer

a. Two Surgeons were sitting to lunch when one of them made a call on the mobile phone

3. to speak with her daughter who had just returned from school

b. The boy who won the drawing competition went to the dias

4. on a wheelchair to collect his prize

c. One of the fastest athletes in the world

1. suffers from chronic asthma

d. She was not that well-off but had a dream

2. To become an astronaut which she did.

Question 2

How can the stereotype that girls are a burden on their parents affect the life of a daughter? Imagine this situation and list at least five different effects that this stereotype can have on the way daughters get treated in the house.

Answer

Yes the stereotype that girls are burden has a great effect on their life as the girls always feel that they are burden on their family this gives feeling of inferiority complex in them. The different effects of this type of thinking are:

  • The girls always get improper diet.
  • They are not being sent to school for study.
  • They have to remain in house and do only household work
  • They are not allowed to go out to enjoy with friends
  • They do not get proper love and care from their family.

Question 3

What does the Constitution say with regard to equality? Why do you think it is important for all people to be equal?

Answer

Our Constitution say with regard to Equality:

  • All are equal in choosing the Kind of work
  • All are equal to compete for Government jobs
  • Untouchability is crime and is legally abolished
  • Everyone has equal rights and opportunities

It is very important for people to be equal as this gives freedom to speak their language, to celebrate their festivals and express them freely.

Question 4

Sometimes people make prejudiced comments in our presence. We are often not in a position to do anything about this because it is difficult to say something right then and there. Divide the class into groups and each group discuss what they could do in one of the following situations:

a. A friend begins to tease a classmate because he is poor.

b. You are watching TV with your family and one of them makes a prejudicial comment about a particular religious community.

c. Children in your class refuse to share their food with a particular person because they think she is dirty.

d. Someone tells you a joke that makes fun of a community because of their accent.

e. Some boys make remarks about girls not being able to play games as well as them.

Answer

a) We should respect the background of others. We should not tease a person because of his appearance.

b) India is our country and is famous for diversity in religions. We should respect each and every religion and this will be our strength.

c) No one is superior and No one is inferior everyone is a child of God.

d) Our country is rich in different types of communities and every community is having its own language and accent. We should respect them.

Chapter 3 - What is Government?

Question 1

What do you understand by the word 'government'? List five ways in which you think the government affects your daily life.

Answer

Government: It is a mechanism or groups that govern and take decisions according to the rules already written.

Government affects in our daily life:

  • It protects our boundaries.
  • It runs our railway system
  • It provides health facilities
  • It solves our social issues
  • It provides us with water supply

Question 2

Why do you think the government needs to make rules for everyone

in the form of laws?

Answer

It is necessary to make rules in the form laws as:

  • It prevents the misuse of their power
  • It ensures the security of the nation
  • It helps the people to lead a normal life
  • It helps in proper functioning of the Government

Question 3

Name two essential features of a democratic government.

Answer

The two essential features of a democratic government are:

 

  • People elect their candidate themselves through elections
  • Government has to answer for its actions.

Question 4

What was the suffrage movement? What did it accomplish?

Answer

Suffrage means Right to Vote Earlier women and poor of USA and Europe did not have this right to vote. They fought for this and ultimately during First World War this movement got strengthened and known as suffrage movement. And women of USA got succeed in 1920 and Europe in 1928.

Question 5

Gandhiji strongly believed that every adult in India should be given

the right to vote. However, a few people don't share his views. They

feel that illiterate people, who are mainly poor, should not be given

the right to vote. What do you think? Do you think this would be a

form of discrimination? Give five points to support your view and

share these with the class.

Answer

Yes in my point of view this a kind of discrimination as

  • At the time of freedom everybody fought for it so why this discrimination now for electing a candidate.
  • They will feel neglected as they will not be able to participate in the Government.
  • It is totally a conflict to the idea of equality of democracy
  • Every adult is given right to vote
  • People are not illiterate or poor by their choice

Chapter 4 - Key Elements of a Democratic Government

Question 1

How would Maya's life be different in South Africa today?

Answer

South Africa is a free country today. Maya can enjoy her life there as there no discrimination now on the basis of colour. All have equal rights.

Question 2

What are the various ways in which people participate in the process of government?

Answer

People can participate in the process of government today in many ways:

  • By writing letters to editors
  • By writing on social media
  • By participating in elections
  • By participating in mass protests
  • By participating in debates on television

Question 3

Why do you think we need the government to find solutions to many disputes or conflicts?

Answer

Government is equally important/required to find solutions to conflicts. If it would not be there the conflicts will never be resolved and these conflicts will take the shape of violence. So people should not be left over without government's interference.

Question 4

What actions does the government take to ensure that all people are treated equally?

Answer

The government takes the following actions to ensure that all people are treated equally:

  • All citizens are equal on the basis of caste, religion, gender and economic status.
  • People of backward classes are given reservation in Govt. jobs and colleges to make their Status equal to others.
  • Any act of discrimination against the Untouchables is punishable according to the law.

Question 5

Read through the chapter and discuss some of the key ideas of a

democratic government. Make a list. For example, all people are

equal.

Answer

  • All citizens are equal on the basis of caste, religion, gender and economic status.
  • People of backward classes are given reservation in Govt. jobs and colleges to make their status equal to others.
  • Any act of discrimination against the Untouchables is punishable according to the law.

Chapter 5 - Panchayati Raj

Question 1

What problem did the villagers in Hardas village face? What did they do to solve this problem?

Answer

The problems faced by the villagers of Hardas are:

  • Shortage of water
  • Women had to go to 3 Km away from the village to river Suru to get water
  • Hand pump water level has gone down regular level

The solutions they found are:

  • Piping water from the River Suru
  • Deepen the Handpumps
  • Final solution they found of conserving the water.

Question 2

What, in your opinion, is the importance of the Gram Sabha? Do you think all members should attend Gram Sabha meetings? Why?

Answer

Gram Sabha is a great importance as:

  • They elect the members of Gram Panchayat.
  • They can keep a check on Gram Panchayat.
  • Problems and solutions can be discussed in the meeting

Yes all members should attend Gram Sabha meetings as daily problems can be discussed and solutions can be found in the meetings. Moreover the welfare programs can be discussed.

Question 3

What is the link between a Gram Sabha and a Gram Panchayat?

Answer

  • Gram Sabha elect the members of Gram Panchayat.
  • Gram Panchayat is answerable to Gram Sabha.
  • Gram Sabha keep a check on the deeds of the members of Gram Panchayat.

Question 4

Take an example of any one task done by a Panchayat in your area/nearby rural area and find out the following:

a. Why it was taken up.

b. Where the money came from.

c. Whether or not the work has been completed.

Answer

Task done:

Permanent solution of shortage of water.

a. Acute shortage of water in village Rampur.

b. Major parts came from the funds from government and minor was given by taxes collected by Gram Panchayat.

c. The work was completed. Two ponds were deepened. Arrangements were made to flow rain water into the ponds.

Question 5

What is the difference between a Gram Sabha and a Gram Panchayat?

Answer

Gram Panchayat: Its members are elected by the people of the village. Gram Sabha: It is the meeting of Gram Panchayat. All adults are the members of Gram Sabha.

Question 6

Read the following news item.

Nimone is a village on the Chauphula-Shirur Road. Like many others, this village has also been facing a severe water shortage for the last few months and villagers depend on tankers for all their needs. Bhagvan Mahadeo Lad (35) of this village was beaten with sticks, iron rods and axes by a group of seven men. The incident came to light when some villagers brought a badly injured Lad to hospital for treatment. In the FIR recorded by the police Lad said that he was attacked when he insisted that the water in the tanker must be emptied into the storage tanks constructed as part of the water supply scheme by Nimone Gram Panchayat so that there would be equal distribution of water. However, he alleged that the upper caste men were against this and told him that the tanker water was not meant for the lower castes. Adapted from Indian Express, May 1, 2004

a. Why was Bhagvan beaten?

b. Do you think that the above is a case of discrimination? Why?

Answer

a. Bhagvan was beaten as he has told to empty the tanker in the storage tank.

b. Yes, it is the clear cut case of discrimination as the higher caste people do not want to give the comfort to the lower caste people. They do not want to give even the basic need i.e. water to the lower caste people.

Chapter 5 - Rural Administration

Question 1

What is the work of the police?

Answer

The works of a police are:

  • Listen to the public complaints
  • Maintenance of public safety
  • Investigation of the cases
  • Maintenance of law and order

Question 2

List two things that the work of a Patwari includes.

Answer

The works of a Patwari are:

  • Measuring land and keeping land records
  • Maintaining and updating the records of the village.
  • Organising the collection of land revenue from the farmers and providing information to the government a out the crops in this area.

Question 3

What is the work of a tehsildar?

Answer

Works of a Tehsildar are:

  • Ensuring a proper collection of land revenue
  • Provides caste certificates to the students
  • Ensuring that land records are kept safely
  • Supervising the works of Patwari

Question 4

What issue is the poem trying to raise? Do you think this is an important issue? Why?

Answer

Issue raised: Gender discrimination of daughters getting share in father's property. Yes, this is an important issue as sons do not take care of his mother and sister after getting the father's property.

Question 5

In what ways are the work of the Panchayat, that you read about in the previous chapter, and the work of the Patwari related to each other?

Answer

The difference between Panchayat and Patwari are:

  • Panchayat solve the land dispute but Patwari keeps the land records and land dispute record.
  • Panchayat imply the tax and revenue but Patwari organizes the collected revenue.

Question 6

Visit a police station and find out the work that the police have to do to prevent crime and maintain law and order in their area especially during festivals, public meetings etc.

Answer

To prevent crime and maintain law and order during festivals the police take the following steps:

  • Spread awareness among people in many ways.
  • Prepare for any emergency.
  • Enquire about the amount of crowd to be gathered in the local areas.
  • According to the crowd they prepare setup of the police on duty.

Question 7

Who is in charge of all the police stations in a district? Find out.

Answer

SP (Superintendent of Police) is the in charge of the police stations in a district.

Question 8

How do women benefit under the new law?

Answer

The new law has brought a good change in the life of women as:

  • Now they feel more secure and independent.
  • Now they can get the share in the ancestral property.
  • Now they can start their own business after getting the share in the property.
  • Now they are empowered and live peacefully in the society.

Question 9

In your neighbourhood are there women who own property? How did they acquire it?

Answer

Yes, in our neighborhood there are so many women having own property, some have got it from their father while some have purchased by own.

Chapter 7 - Urban Administration

Question 1

Why did the children go to Yasmin Khala's house?

Answer

Rehana's mother told them that Municipal Corporation takes care for replacement of the lights and Yasmin Khala recently retired from Municipal Corporation so can tell better about the person for the maintenance of the street lights.

Question 2

List four ways in which the work of the Municipal Corporation

affects the life of a city-dweller.

  • Disposal of garbage.
  • Supply of Electricity.
  • Supply of drinking water.
  • Maintenance of drainage system.
  • Construction and maintenance of parks, street lights etc.

Question 3

Who is a Municipal Councillor?

Answer

A Municipal Councillor is an elected member of committee of Municipal Corporation.

Question 4

What did Gangabai do and why?

Answer

Gangabai gathered some women and went to the Ward Councillor shouting some slogans describing the condition of the street. She did that as there was garbage here and there all over the street and this was attracting mosquitoes, flies, dogs and rats in the locality.

Question 5

How does the Municipal Corporation earn the money to do its work?

Answer

The Municipal Corporation earns money in the form of different taxes:

  • House tax
  • Education tax
  • Hotel or shop tax
  • Movie tax

Question 6