NCERT SOLUTIONS FOR CLASS 12 ENGLISH

NCERT Solutions for Class 12th English is provided here. Students can download the complete NCERT solutions for class 12th English in the full PDF format. This page provides a complete solution for all Chapters of Class 12th English . Download the NCERT Solutions for Class 12th English PDF for free in this page. Get the solutions for all individual chapters and exercises of Class 12th English . Are you studying Class 12th? Looking for the NCERT Solutions for Class 12th English? If yes, you have come to the right place. CBSE students who are studying Class 12th English can get the NCERT Solutions for Class 12th English.

Last modified:2019-10-22

The various topics of Class 12th English are: 

Chapter wise NCERT Class 12 English Flamingo Poem Solutions

Chapter 1 - My Mother At Sixty-six

Chapter 2 - An Elementary School Classroom In a Slum

Chapter 3 - Keeping Quiet

Chapter 4 - A Thing Of Beauty

Chapter 5 - A Roadside Stand

Chapter 6 - Aunt Jennifer’s Tigers

 

Chapter wise NCERT Solutions for Class 12 English Flamingo

Chapter 1 - The Last Lesson

Chapter 2 - Lost Spring

Chapter 3 - Deep Water

Chapter 4 - The Rat trap

Chapter 5 - Indigo

Chapter 6 - Poets And Pancakes

Chapter 7 - The Interview

Chapter 8 - Going Places


 

Question : Ageing is a natural process; have you ever thought what our elderly parents expect from us?  

Answer : Aged people usually undergo pangs of loneliness and need companionship. The pessimistic approach they develop towards life can be shunned only if we provide them with abundant love, care, importance and empathy. They expect their children to sit calmly and talk to them about the happenings of their lives and to take their suggestions for making significant decisions. Their lost vitality can thus be easily rejuvenated. This happiness will encourage them to live life enthusiastically. (A model answer has been provided for students' reference. It is strongly recommended that students prepare the answer on their own.) 

 

Question : What is the kind of pain and ache that the poet feels? 

Answer : The poet, while leaving her parents' home, observes her mother's pallid face. For the poet, the 'ashen' face of her mother, lost of all vitality and colour, bears a resemblance to a corpse. She realises, with pain, that her mother has grown old and is nearing her death. Such thoughts make her recollect her childhood fear and anxiety of losing her mother. The idea of getting separated from her mother distresses her. Even her smiles are an expression of her helplessness in the face of what is inevitable. 

 

Question : Why are the young trees described as 'sprinting'? 

Answer : While driving to the airport, in an effort to distract herself from the thoughts of her ageing mother, the poet looks at the young trees 'sprinting'. The trees seem to be running past the moving car. The sprinting of the trees symbolises the rapidly passing years of human's life from childhood to old age. This image, which shows activity and strength, is contrasted with that of her old and weak mother who seems dormant, sleeping in the car. The 'young' trees represent life in contrast to her mother's approaching death.

 

Question : Why has the poet brought in the image of the merry children 'spilling out of their homes'? 

Answer : In the poem, the poet has shown contrasting images of life and death. She has incorporated the image of the merry children, running out of their houses to play, in order to signify liveliness, vigor, health, beauty and happiness. This image is a sharp contrast to that of her mother who is nearing her death and has become old, inactive, weak and withered. The poet has juxtaposed the two images to indicate the contrasts between them. Childhood marks the beginning of life whereas old age marks its end. 

 

Question : Why has the mother been compared to the 'late winter's moon'? 

Answer :: With the growing age, the poet's mother has started losing all her vitality and radiance. The poet uses the simile of 'late winter's moon' for her mother to indicate her approaching death. Winter, being the last season of the year, is synonymous with lifelessness and dormancy. And, a winter's moon is also pale-white in colour bearing a close resemblance to her mother who, having lost all her strength and beauty, looks 'wan' and 'pale' to the poet. Her mother, too, is in the last phase of her life. 

 

Question : What do the parting words of the poet and her smile signify? 

Answer : The poet's parting words, "see you soon, Amma," signify both her farewell to her mother and an effort to leave her with optimism and cheer. They also enable the poet to empathise with the sense of isolation faced by her mother in old age. Her smiles signify her helplessness in the face of her mother's inevitable death. They express her love and concern for her mother along with the underlying pain and struggle that she undergoes in coming to terms with this bitter realisation.

 

Chapter 2 : An Elementary School Classroom in a Slum 

Question : Have you ever visited or seen an elementary school in a slum? What does it look like?

Answer : Yes, I have visited an elementary school in a slum. The school was in a pitiful state. Its dingy and neglected classrooms were devoid of even basic amenities like fans and lights. Every single window was broken and bore marks of rust. How the students in the classroom dealt with the outside noise or the winters was anybody's guess. The ceilings too were full of cobwebs. The furniture was broken and almost unusable. The walls of the classrooms were as shabby, malnourished and disinterested as the students sitting in their enclosures. Even the teachers seemed to have lost their concern both for the students and their education. Moreover, I was shocked to know that the usage of toilets was restricted to the school staff. (A model answer has been provided for students' reference. It is strongly recommended that students prepare the answer on their own.) 

Question : Tick the item which best answers the following. (a) The tall girl with her head weighed down means the girl . (i) is ill and exhausted (ii) has her head bent with shame (iii) has untidy hair (b) The paper-seeming boy with rat's eyes means the boy is . (i) sly and secretive (ii) thin, hungry and weak (iii) unpleasant looking (c) The stunted, unlucky heir of twisted bones means the boy . (i) has an inherited disability (ii) was short and bony (d) His eyes live in a dream. A squirrel's game, in the tree room other than this. This means the boy is . (i) full of hope in the future (ii) mentally ill (iii) distracted from the lesson (e) The children's faces are compared to 'rootless weeds'. This means they . (i) are insecure (ii) are ill-fed (iii) are wasters

Answer :

(a) (ii) is ill and exhausted

(b) (ii) thin, hungry and weak

(c) (i)has an inherited disability

(d) (iii) distracted from the lesson

(e) (iii)are wasters

 

Question : What do you think is the colour of 'sour cream'? Why do you think the poet has used this expression to describe the classroom walls? 

Answer : The 'sour cream' may indicate a dirty yellowish colour. The poet uses the expression 'sour cream walls' to

represent the colour as well as the foul smell emitted by these walls.

 

Question :  The walls of the classroom are decorated with pictures of 'Shakespeare', 'buildings with domes', 'world maps' and beautiful valleys. How do these contrast with the world of these children?

Answer : The pictures of 'Shakespeare', 'buildings with domes', 'world maps' and beautiful valley represent honor, education, civility, beauty and vastness. While, the poverty stricken and neglected kids in the classroom are an embodiment of the lack: they lack beauty, proper education, development and freedom to explore the world. Even their future does not hold any promise. In fact, there are chances these pictures may tempt them to pursue wrong path in order to find ways to attain the things indicated by them. Thus, the contrast is highlighted by juxtaposing the world as represented by the pictures and the reality of these kids confined in a "narrow street sealed in with a lead sky", both made present in the same classroom. 

 

Question : What does the poet want for the children of the slums? How can their lives be made to change?

Answer: He wants the children of the slums to venture into the outside world, beyond the boundaries of their slums, and experience a better present and future life. The elementary school in the slum does not serve any purpose with its poor infrastructure and disinterested students. The poet feels that the governor, inspector and visitors should take initiative to bring about a real change in their situation. To ensure a better way of living for them, they need to be given proper education and freedom from their present confines. They need opportunity, encouragement and optimism to be able to live a life with purpose and zest.

 

Question :  What does the title of the poem suggests to you? What do you think the poem is about? 

Answer : The title of the poem suggests the importance of silence.

The poem is about the importance of self-examination and introspection. It is also an appeal for universal

harmony.

(A model answer has been provided for students' reference. It is strongly recommended that students themselves prepare the answer based on their own experience.)

 

Answer:

According to the poet, taking a break from our monotonous routine by 'counting up to twelve' and 'keeping still' will help us understand ourselves and those around us better. The quietness will aid our understanding of the significance of peace and tranquility in this age of futile activities. Thus, they will help us in introspection and self-analysis.

 

Question :  Do you think the poet advocates total inactivity and death?  

Answer :  Although the poet believes that silences assist in introspection and help in taking a break from the world of frenzied activity, he does not advocate total inactivity and death. Rather, he believes that observing stillness once in awhile helps people to spring back in action, rejuvenated. 

 

Question :  What is the 'sadness' that the poet refers to in the poem? 

Answer: The poet refers to the 'sadness' of failing to understand oneself in the monotonous everyday existence. He also finds it sad that humanity is moving towards its own ruin owing to its unanalyzed actions. He regrets the rush of outdoing others that has made us forget the values of humanity. 

 

Question : What symbol from Nature does the poet invokes to say that there can be life under apparent stillness?  

Answer: The poet uses the symbol of the earth to illustrate the point that there can be life under apparent stillness. 

 

Question : Choose a quiet corner and keep still physically and mentally for about five minutes. Do you feel any change in your state of mind? 

Answer: Yes, I felt a strange stillness engulfs me initially. But soon, I started thinking about my day and the activities that I was engaged in. My mind, of its own accord, moved to thoughts or actions that preoccupied my mind. As my thoughts became organized, the skewed priorities, of their own accord, became apparent. It also gave me an opportunity to reprioritise and energy to work with a new zeal. All worries seemed unnecessary and I felt relieved of stress. It became easier for me to focus on more important things in life and empty my mind of petty issues that I dwelt on without reason. Thus, these five minutes of silence and introspection brought a huge change in my perspectives. I've now decided to continue this for the rest of my life.

 

Chapter 3 : Keeping Quiet

Question : What does the title of the poem suggests to you? What do you think the poem is about? 

Answer : The title of the poem suggests the importance of silence. The poem is about the importance of self-examination and introspection. It is also an appeal for universal harmony. 

 

Question : What will counting up to twelve and keeping still help us achieve?  

Answer :According to the poet, taking a break from our monotonous routine by 'counting up to twelve' and 'keeping still' will help us understand ourselves and those around us better. The quietness will aid our understanding of the significance of peace and tranquility in this age of futile activities. Thus, they will help us in introspection and self-analysis. 

 

Question:  Do you think the poet advocates total inactivity and death? 

Answer : Although the poet believes that silences assist in introspection and help in taking a break from the world of frenzied activity, he does not advocate total inactivity and death. Rather, he believes that observing stillness once in awhile helps people to spring back in action, rejuvenated. 

 

Question : What is the 'sadness' that the poet refers to in the poem? 

Answer : The poet refers to the 'sadness' of failing to understand oneself in the monotonous everyday existence. He also finds it sad that humanity is moving towards its own ruin owing to its unanalyzed actions. He regrets the rush of outdoing others that has made us forget the values of humanity. 

 

Question : What symbol from Nature does the poet invokes to say that there can be life under apparent stillness? 

Answer : The poet uses the symbol of the earth to illustrate the point that there can be life under apparent stillness.  

 

Question : Choose a quiet corner and keep still physically and mentally for about five minutes. Do you feel any change in your state of mind? 

Answer : Yes, I felt a strange stillness engulfs me initially. But soon, I started thinking about my day and the activities that I was engaged in. My mind, of its own accord, moved to thoughts or actions that preoccupied my mind. As my thoughts became organized, the skewed priorities, of their own accord, became apparent. It also gave me an opportunity to reprioritise and energy to work with a new zeal. All worries seemed unnecessary and I felt relieved of stress. It became easier for me to focus on more important things in life and empty my mind of petty issues that I dwelt on without reason. Thus, these five minutes of silence and introspection brought a huge change in my perspectives. I've now decided to continue this for the rest of my life

 

Chapter 4: A Thing of Beauty

Question : What pleasure does a beautiful thing give us? Are beautiful things worth treasuring? 

Answer : The world is filled with negative elements which make our life dull, sad, depressing and bereft of hope. In such moments, a beautiful thing gives us everlasting joy and helps us forget our sorrows.

Yes, a beautiful thing is worth treasuring because even its memory soothes our nerves and inspires us to overcome the challenges of life. 

 

Question :  List the things of beauty mentioned in the poem. 

Answer :According to the poet, there are numerous things of beauty that help us forget our sorrows. These are the sun, the moon, old and young trees that provide shade to 'simple sheep', daffodils, clear streams of rivers, musk-roses in the forest and the lovely tales of mighty men.

 

Question : List the things that cause suffering and pain. 

Answer: The poet lists a number of things that cause suffering and pain, such as despondency, depression, unhealthy and wrong ways taken up by humans to acquire their desired goals, etc. The poet also feels that there is a real dearth of noble souls in this world. 

 

Question : What does the line, 'Therefore are we wreathing a flowery band to bind us to earth' suggest to you? 

Answer :This line suggests that things of beauty bind us to the earth with a beautiful connection. According to the poet, even if the world is not worth living because of the innumerable reasons that ultimately result in gloom and depression, the zeal to live a happy and content life can be derived from the sight of the beautiful bounties of nature around us. 

 

Question : What makes human beings love life in spite of troubles and sufferings? 

Answer : Human beings love life in spite of troubles and sufferings because of the existence of several natural and beautiful things around them. These things of beauty never fade. They give joy and optimism to human mind, and thus, help in overcoming or bearing the troubles and sufferings. 

 

Question : Why is 'grandeur' associated with the 'mighty dead'?

Answer : The 'grandeur' of the 'mighty dead' lies in their noble deeds. They have left behind the beautiful legacy of their brave acts. Their selfless sacrifice for their nation and deeds for the welfare of mankind still continue to inspire us. 

 

Question :  Do we experience things of beauty only for short moments or do they make a lasting impression on us?

Answer : The poet believes that when we encounter a beautiful thing, even for a small moment, the pleasure remains with us forever. It leaves a lasting impression that inspires us to live life with hope and optimism.

 

Question : What image does the poet use to describe the beautiful bounty of the earth? 

Answer : The poet uses the image of 'an endless fountain of immortal drink' to describe the beautiful bounty of the earth. The earth, like a fountain, pours unto us numerous beautiful sights like the sun, the moon, flowers, rivers and greenery.

 

Chapter 5 : A Roadside Stand

Question : Have you ever stopped at a roadside stand? What you observed there? 

Answer:  The poet believes that when we encounter a beautiful thing, even for a small moment, the pleasure remains with us forever. It leaves a lasting impression that inspires us to live life with hope and optimism . The city folk who drove through the countryside hardly paid any heed to the roadside stand or to the people who ran it. If at all they did, it was to complain.

 

Question : Which lines bring this out? What was their complaint about?

Answer: “The polished traffic passed with a mind ahead, Or if ever aside a moment, then out of sorts At having the landscape marred with the artless paint Of signs that with N turned wrong and S turned wrong” According to the city folk, these stalls with inartistic signboards blemish the scenic beauty of the landscape. 

 

Question : What was the plea of the folk who had put up the roadside stand?

Answer: The rural folks pleaded pathetically for some customers to stop by and buy some of their goods. City folks used to pass by on this road and hence the rural folk set up the roadside stand to attract their attention and sell their goods.

 

Question :  The government and other social service agencies appear to help the poor rural people, but actually do them no good. Pick out the words and phrases that the poet uses to show their double standards. 

Answer: The poet criticizes the double standards of the government and other social service agencies who promise to improve the standard of living of the poor farmers and show them

 

Question : Of what or whom is Aunt Jennifer terrified with in the third stanza?

Answer : Aunt Jennifer is probably terrified of the oppression of her chauvinist husband. She lives her life under constant pressure of duties and responsibilities of a married woman. The image of the wedding ring, even after her death, suggests that there is no escape whatsoever from the conventions of her marriage and that she had to succumb to them.

 

Question : What are the 'ordeals' Aunt Jennifer is surrounded by? Why is it significant that the poet uses the word 'ringed'? What are the meanings of the word 'ringed' in the poem? 

Answer : Aunt Jennifer has been living her life in accordance with the rules laid down by her husband. Her life lacks expression and is overburdened by the demands and duties of her married life. Although old and weak, she still has to face oppression by her husband. These are the ordeals that the poet talks about. The use of the word 'ringed', in the poem, is significant and appropriate because it correctly represents the vicious circle from which Aunt Jennifer is unable to free herself. The word 'ringed' not only indicates that she is wearing her wedding ring but also that she is bound by the responsibilities, fear and oppression of her marriage for entire life and, probably, after it too.

 

Question : Why do you think Aunt Jennifer created animals that are so different from her own character? What might the poet be suggesting, through this difference? 

Answer : In creating animals that are different from her own character, Aunt Jennifer found a means of living an alternate life that is denied to her: a life that is proud, free, fearless and sure of itself. The tigers denote her yearning for power, freedom and fearless living. Through this difference, the poet may be indicating the prejudices of the patriarchal society that is unfair to females, especially the married ones. (A model answer has been provided for students' reference. It is strongly recommended that students prepare the answer on their own.)

 

Question : Interpret the symbols found in this poem. 

Answer : The poet has expressed his views and concerns in the poem through a number of symbols. These include tigers, the men, a screen and, most importantly, a ring.Aunt Jennifer has created tigers on a screen. These tigers symbolise Aunt Jennifer's silent yearning for a life of freedom and power. The screen on which she knitted the tigers may represent the world in general. The men beneath the tree may represent people like her husband. She makes her tigers fearless, proud and free to prance about the screen or the world. The symbol of the heavy wedding ring she wore on her finger represents the ordeals and burdens of her married life which caged her in a vicious circle that, the poet indicates, will continue even in her death just as in her life. (A model answer has been provided for students' reference. It is strongly recommended that students prepare the answer on their own.)

 

Question: Do you sympathise with Aunt Jennifer? What is the attitude of the speaker towards Aunt Jennifer?

Answer : Yes, the character of Aunt Jennifer wins our sympathy as a reader. Her ordeals and sufferings move the reader.

Even the speaker in the poem shows sympathy and pity towards her. The speaker says that even after Aunt Jennifer's death, she will be terrified of her husband and the ordeals of her marriage.

 

Question: Notice these expressions in the text. Infer their meanings from the context.

Answer : in great dread of - fearful in anticipation of something

counted on - to rely or trust on somebody/something

thumbed at the edges - worn or soiled edges caused by frequent handling

in unison - something happening or being done at the same time

a great bustle - an excited (and often noisy) activity or a rapid, active commotion reproach ourselves with - to express disapproval, criticism, or disappointment.

 

Question: What was Franz expected to be prepared for school that day?

Answer : That day, Franz was expected to be prepared with the lesson on participles. 

 

Question: What did Franz notice that was unusual about the school that day?

Answer : That day, Franz noticed the absence of the routine commotion caused by the opening and closing of desks, repeating of lessons in unison and rapping of the teacher's ruler on the table. The usual hustle-bustle was replaced by a strange stillness that was the characteristic of a school on a "Sunday morning." 

 

Question: What had been put up on the bulletin-board? 

Answer : The bulletin-board notified the general public about an order from Berlin. It stated that only German was to be taught to students in the schools of Alsace and Lorraine. 

 

Question : What changes did the order from Berlin cause in school that day? 

Answer : The order from Berlin brought all the routine hustle-bustle of the school life to a stand- still. The teacher, M. Hamel, became more sympathetic to his students and taught his lessons with more patience. The students became more attentive in their classes. The villagers, who were sitting at the usually empty back benches and had come to show their respect and gratitude to M. Hamel, regretted not going to school more than they did. The order also brought about a great change in the feelings of the people towards their country and their native language. There was a general sadness about not being able to utilise the opportunities of learning French when it was easily accessible. 

 

Question: How did Franz's feelings about M. Hamel and school change?

Answer : Franz was shocked when M. Hamel told the students about the order from Berlin and that it was their last French lesson. He forgot about his teacher's ruler and crankiness. He developed a fondness for M. Hamel at the troubling idea of being separated from him forever. He understood the pain and agony his teacher was undergoing. And, he became more sympathetic towards his teacher.  His school too, now, carried a different meaning. His books and lessons seemed old friends whom he couldn't give up. He realised with pain how much French meant to him and regretted not being attentive in his classes earlier. Suddenly, he felt that the 'difficult concepts' had never actually been difficult. 

 

Question: The people in this story suddenly realize how precious their language is to them. What shows you this? Why does this happen? 

Answer : The crowd surrounding the bulletin-board, the presence of the villagers in the class, the silence in place of the routine hustle and bustle of the school, the emotions that gripped M. Hamel and Franz, representing that of the teacher and the student community respectively, were all indicators of the realisation of the importance of their language to them. In the story, M. Hamel says that people realise the importance of somebody or something in their lives very often when it is lost to them. Similarly, it was the order from Berlin that made people realise the importance of their language for them. 

 

Question : "When a people are enslaved, as long as they hold fast to their language it is as if they had the key to their prison." Can you think of examples in history where a conquered people had their language taken away from them or had a language imposed on them? 

Answer : Some examples of the native language taken away from its people and/or imposition of the language of the conqueror are: (a) Portuguese becoming the lingua franca of Angola. (b) English imposed on the various Celtic peoples. (c) Spanish imposed on the Basques and the Catalans. (d) Turkish imposed on the Kurds. (A few examples have been provided for students' reference. It is strongly recommended that students develop the answer on their own.)

 

Question: English is a language that contains words from many other languages. This inclusiveness is one of the reasons it is now a world language, for example: petite - French kindergarten - German capital - Latin democracy - Greek bazaar - Hindi Find out the origin of the following words. Tycoon, tulip, logo, bandicoot, barbecue, veranda, robot, zero, ski, trek

Answer : tycoon - Japanese tulip - French logo - Greek 

Bandicoot - Telugu barbecue - Spanish veranda - Hindi robot - Czech zero - Italian ski - Norwegian trek - Dutch 

 

Question: Franz thinks, "Will they make them sing in German, even the pigeons?" What could this mean? (There could be more than one answer.)

Answer : Language is inherent to culture and identity. The authority of human beings is restricted only to false boundaries that can be controlled. Nature and other things cannot be governed by some superficial laws of the wilful people. By taking the reference of making the pigeons learn German, the author is pointing to this very constraint. 

 

Question: What happens to a linguistic minority in a state? How do you think they can keep their language alive? For example: Punjabis in Bangalore Tamilians in Mumbai Kannadigas in Delhi Gujaratis in Kolkata 

Answer : A linguistic minority in a state does not have as much liberty to exercise linguistic skills as the natives of the state. They initially try to learn the jargon in order to cope with the day-to-day life activities and finally begin to understand the native language with regular interaction. At the workplace and educational organisations, English or the link language helps a lot to cope up with the work and learning process. But, when it comes to understanding the basic norms of the society, in order to socialize, one does face a sort of linguistic barrier during communication. To keep their language alive, the linguistic minorities can form small communities where they can celebrate their festivals as per their traditions. Moreover, they can continue to speak their native language at their homes in order to make their children learn the language. People must, even, try to visit their native places at regular intervals in order to stay close to their roots.

 

Question : Read this sentence. M. Hamel had said that he would question us on participles. In the sentence above, the verb form “had said” in the first part is used to indicate an “earlier past.” The whole story is narrated in the past. M. Hamel's “saying” happened earlier than the events in this story. This form of the verb is called the past perfect. Pick out five sentences from the story with this form of verb and say why this form has been used. 

Answer : In the following sentences, two activities of past, occurring at two different points of time in the past, are indicated. The one that happens earlier takes the “had” + past form of the verb (V3), while the one that follows it takes the simple past form of the verb (V2). 

 

Question: Notice the underlined words in these sentences and tick the option that best explains their meanings. (a) “What a thunderclap these words were to me!”

Answer : The words were (i) loud and clear. (ii) startling and unexpected. (iii) pleasant and welcome. (b) “When a people are enslaved, as long as they hold fast to their language it is as if they had the key to their prison.” It is as if they have the key to the prison as long as they (i) do not lose their language. (ii) are attached to their language. (iii) quickly learn the conqueror's language. (c) Don't go so fast, you will get to your school in plenty of time. You will get to your school (i) very late. (ii) too early. (iii) early enough. (d) I never saw him look so tall. M. Hamel (a) had grown physically taller. (b) seemed very confident. (c) stood on the chair.

 

Question: Write a paragraph of about 100 words arguing for or against having to study three languages at school. 

Answer : For Knowledge of additional language gives an edge - makes a person more competitive in today's fast paced world - better employment opportunities with fluency in a foreign language - multi-national companies send professionals for on-site projects to other countries - delegates from other countries coming to interact with people of our country - can work as translators, interpreters or tourist guides, etc. - preservation of culture and tradition through native language. Against Students are already burdened with two languages - no need for a third language - no natural inclination for foreign language - foreign language not of much use in daily life and gradually gets forgotten - should not be forced on people who do not need it - can be taught only to those who demand for it - time and effort should not be wasted on something of no clear use.
 

Question: Have you ever changed your opinion about someone or something that you had earlier liked or disliked? Narrate what led you to change your mind. 

Answer : Directions: Think about something that you hated earlier but hate no more. It may be anything - eating a particular vegetable, studying a subject, going to a particular place. Or, you may think about a person whom you did not like earlier but your opinion about that person has changed now. It might be because of some misunderstanding orso. After you make your choice, recollect the reason for your dislike. Recollect what happened that made you change your opinion about the thing or person. Think about how it helped you look at things or events or people in different perspective. Write about it in a paragraph form. You may end it by talking about the learning experience or how it enriched your perspective or broaden your scope of thinking.

 

Chapter 2 : Lost Spring

Question : Notice these expressions in the text. Infer their meaning from the context.

Answer : looking for -try to locate or discovers log their daylight hours -struggle persistently during the daytime roof over his head -a place to live

perpetual state of poverty -endless impoverishment dark hutments -encampment of huts devoid of any light imposed the baggage on the child - force the profession on the child.

 

Question: What is Saheb looking for in the garbage dumps? Where is he and where has he come from? 

Answer : Saheb is looking for coins, rupee notes and any other useful objects in the garbage dumps. Saheb and his family have migrated to Seemapuri, a slum area on the outskirts of Delhi, looking for a source of living after they were uprooted from their native village in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

 

Question: What explanations does the author offer for the children not wearing footwear? 

Answer : The author comes across many shoeless rag-picker children in her neighbourhood. According to her, one explanation of this habit of remaining barefoot is that it is a tradition among the poor children of this country. However, the author quickly mentions that calling it a tradition could be just a means of justification of utter destitution. 

 

Question: Is Saheb happy working at the tea-stall? Explain. 

Answer : Saheb is not really happy working at the tea-stall because working for a master meant sacrificing his freedom and his "carefree look". Even though the job at the tea-stall pays him 800 rupees and all his meals, he seems less contented than before. The weight of his master's steel canister seems heavier than his rag-picking plastic bag. 

 

Question: How, in your opinion, can Mukesh realise his dream? 

Answer : Mukesh was different from the others of his community. By daring to dream, he has already taken the first step towards a big change. He wants to become a motor mechanic and drive a car. He can realise this dream with determination and hard work. There might be many obstacles on his way but a strong willpower will help him move towards the way to success. The fact that he is willing to walk a long distance in order to learn the vocation, underlines his firm resolve. The only thing left for him to do is to make that first journey to that garage and request the owner to take him in and guide and direct him on his journey as a mechanic.

 

Question: What makes the city of Firozabad famous?

Answer : Firozabad is famous for its glass bangles. The place is the centre of India's glass- blowing industry.

 

Question: What could be some of the reasons for the migration of people from villages to cities?

Answer : There are many factors that cause migration of people from villages to cities. Some villagers voluntarily move

to the cities in search for jobs and better civic and health facilities, etc. Others are forced to migrate when natural disasters like floods, storms, drought, famine, etc. destroy their houses and properties. History has records of large scale migrations caused by wars. Also, many villagers who are better off than others manage to send their children to study in the cities.In the lesson 'Lost Spring Saheb and his family migrates to Seemapuri from Dhaka after their houses were destroyed in the storms.

 

Question: Would you agree that promises made to poor children are rarely kept? Why do you think this happens in the incidents narrated in the text?

Answer : Yes, the promises made to poor children are seldom kept. Often, they are not taken seriously or have been made on the pretext of retaining a child's fancy for something. This keeps the child hoping for a better possibility till he/she realises the truth. It is difficult for people to shatter the children's dreams; while it is also painful to see these children thrive on false hopes given to them. Once, while interacting with Saheb, the narrator ends up encouraging him to study and jokingly talks about opening a school herself. At that time she fails to realise that unknowingly she has sown a seed of hope in Saheb's heart. She becomes conscious of her mistake when, after a few days, Saheb approaches her, enquiring about her school. Her hollow promise leaves her embarrassed.

 

Question: Mention the hazards of working in the glass bangles industry.

Answer : The impoverished workers in the glass bangles industry toil in potentially hazardous working conditions while welding. The furnaces they work in have extremely high temperature and lack proper ventilation. Persistently working in low light conditions, without any protective eye gear, leaves them blind. Even burns and cuts are quite common. The workers are quite prone to ailments such as lung cancer.

 

Question: Mention the hazards of working in the glass bangles industry.

Answer : The impoverished workers in the glass bangles industry toil in potentially hazardous working conditions while welding. The furnaces they work in have extremely high temperature and lack proper ventilation. Persistently working in low light conditions, without any protective eye gear, leaves them blind. Even burns and cuts are quite common. The workers are quite prone to ailments such as lung cancer.

 

Question: What forces conspire to keep the workers in the bangle industry of Firozabad in poverty? 

Answer : The unfavourable social and legal systems, the deceptive middlemen, and their own sad destinies keep the workers in the bangle industry of Firozabad in perpetual poverty. 

Question: Why should child labour be eliminated and how? 

Answer : Child labour should be eliminated because it takes away from the child his childhood and the prospect of elementary education. Moreover, since the child labourers are cheap, and consequently engaged in hazardous and dangerous employment, they are often vulnerable to mental and physical illness. In order to curb this problem, it is important to make education easily accessible. Apart from that, the parents must be made aware of the consequences of working in harmful environments. It is also important to make the public aware of the fact that child labour is a criminal offence and is punishable under law. The government must ensure stricter child labour laws and that the offenders are punished.

Question: How is Mukesh's attitude to his situation different from that of his family?

Answer : Mukesh belongs to a family of glass bangle makers in Firozabad. Even though the children of such families usually carry on their family profession, Mukesh wants to be a motor mechanic and drive a car. Unlike his family members, and others of his community, he has dared to dream. His grandmother's words about the unbreakable lineage represent the attitude they have towards their situation in life. They believe that it is their destiny to toil as bangle makers. But Mukesh dreams of a better and safer career. The resolute boy is willing to walk a long distance from his home to learn to be a mechanic, exemplifying the saying, 'where there is a will, there is a way'.

 

Question: Notice these expressions in the text. Infer their meanings from the context.

Answer : keep body and soul together - to manage to keep alive; to survive

hunger gleamed in his eyes - feeling so hungry that the expression shows on one's face plods along the road - moving along the road slowly but deliberately, to walk with a heavy feet unwonted joy - unusual pleasure or happiness impenetrable prison - impassable confinement nodded a haughty consent - indifferent agreement eased his way - moved himself slowly and carefully fallen into a line of thought - agreement of thoughts things have gone downhill - to decline or grow worse and worse.

Question: From where did the peddler get the idea of the world being a rattrap?

Answer : During one of his usual plodding, the peddler thought on the subject of rattraps. It presented him with the idea of the world being a rattrap and he grew fond of thinking this way. 

 

Question: Why was he amused by this idea?

Answer : The peddler was amused by the idea of the world being a giant rattrap because he was never treated kindly by the world. Therefore, he harboured hard feelings for it and loved 'to think ill of it' by comparing it with a giant rattrap. 

 

Question: Did the peddler expect the kind of hospitality that he received from the crofter? 

Answer : No, the peddler did not expect the kind of hospitality that he received from the crofter. This was because usually he was greeted by 'sour' and unfriendly faces whenever he knocked on doors and requested for shelter. 

 

Question: Why was the crofter so talkative and friendly with the peddler?

Answer : The crofter was a lonely fellow who lived on his own in a little gray cottage by the roadside. He had no wife or children, and craved company and friends. So, one day when the peddler turned up at his doorstep, he was happy to find someone to talk to, to be relieved of his boredom and monotony. This is the reason he was so talkative and friendly with the peddler.

 

Question: Why did he show the thirty kroner to the peddler? 

Answer : The crofter was a naive and trusting man who craved company more than anything else. He wanted to share his joy of earning money with someone. He got his chance when the peddler came along. Moreover, he thought that the peddler did not believe him, so he showed the peddler the thirty kronor bills that he kept in a leather pouch
 

Question: Did the peddler respect the confidence reposed in him by the crofter? 

Answer : No, the peddler did not respect the confidence reposed in him by the crofter. In fact, he betrayed his trust by robbing the thirty kronors from him. However, later in the story, his conscience was awakened by his stay with the Willmanssons and he decided to return the money.

 

Chapter 5 : Indigo

Question: Notice these expressions in the text. Infer their meanings from the context. 

Answer :  urge the departure -insist on the going away of the British from India  conflict of duties -clash of obligation or responsibility harbor a man like me -give shelter to an advocate of home-rule  seek a prop -try to find support or assistance.

 

Question : 1. Strike out what is not true in the following. a. Rajkumar Shukla was (i) a sharecropper. (ii) a politician. (iii) a delegate. (iv) a landlord. 

Answer : (i) a sharecropper. (ii) a politician. (iii) a delegate. (iv) a landlord. 

 

Question: Why is Rajkumar Shukla described as being 'resolute'? 

Answer : Rajkumar Shukla is described as being 'resolute' because even after being told about the prior engagements of Gandhi at Cawnpore and other parts across the county, he does not quit. He continues to accompany Gandhi everywhere. Furthermore, he persistently asks Gandhi to fix a date for his visit to his native district of Champaran. His resolution and determination finally impresses Gandhi and the latter complies with his request. 

 

Question: Why do you think the servants thought Gandhi to be another peasant? 

Answer : Gandhi was a simple and humble man dressed in a plain 'dhoti' (loincloth). To the servants, he must have looked like just another poor farmer in this country. Moreover, he was accompanied by Rajkumar Shukla whom they knew to be a poor indigo sharecropper. Thus, when the servants saw them both together, they mistook Gandhi to be another peasant. 

 

Question: List the places that Gandhi visited between his first meeting with Shukla and his arrival at Champaran. 

Answer : After his first meeting with Shukla, Gandhi visited Cawnpore, his ashram near Ahmedabad, Calcutta, Patna and Muzaffarpur before he reached Champaran.

 

Question: What did the peasants pay the British landlords as rent? What did the British now want instead and why? What would be the impact of synthetic indigo on the prices of natural indigo? 

Answer : According to the long-term contract, the peasants were forced to plant fifteen percent of their holdings with indigo and pay the entire harvest as rent. Now, with the development of synthetic indigo in Germany, the British landlords did not want indigo from these plantations. Hence, the shrewd landlords decided to release the peasants of Champaran from the fifteen percent arrangement on the payment of a compensation. Development of synthetic indigo would lead to an increase in the price of natural indigo.

 

Question: The events in this part of the text illustrate Gandhi's method of working. Can you identify some instances of this method and link them to his ideas of satyagraha and non-violence? 

Answer : There are many instances in the narrative that can be linked to Gandhi's idea of non- cooperation and satyagraha. One such instance is Gandhi's refusal to obey the court order asking him to leave Champaran immediately. Besides that, Gandhi's protest against the delay of the court proceedings is also an instance of his belief in civil disobedience. Furthermore, Gandhi does not falter to plead guilty in front of the court. He accepts his guilt but presents a rational case as to what made him disobey the law. For him, truth is above everything and, thus, he decides to follow the voice of conscience and obey the "higher law of our being". 

 

Question: Why did Gandhi agree to a settlement of 25 per cent refund to the farmers? 

Answer : For Gandhi, it was not the money but the principles that were of utmost importance. He believed that the very fact that the British landlords surrendered was of more significance than the percentage of refund. He wanted the poor farmers to realise that they too had rights and that they need not live in fear of the British landlords. Therefore, although he had initially quoted a 50 percent refund, he later agreed to a settlement of 25 percent refund to the farmers. Besides, Gandhi was interested in long- term solutions rather than immediate benefits. 

 

Question: How did the episode change the plight of the peasants? 

Answer : The episode of Champaran brought more than one change in the plight of the peasants of that district. These peasants gained confidence which was evident in their spontaneous demonstration on the morning of Gandhi's trial. After the successful refund of the compensation, the peasants, for the first time, realised their own rights and were liberated from the fear that had plagued them. This episode brought an end to the fifteen percent arrangement of sharecropping. However, the most radical change that the episode brought about was in their social and cultural standards. Gandhi opened schools in six villages. His wife took pains to make the peasants aware of the importance of general sanitation and personal hygiene. He even appointed a doctor.

 

Question: Why do you think Gandhi considered the Champaran episode to be a turning- point in his life? 

Answer : Gandhi considered the Champaran episode to be a turning point in his life because he realised that civil disobedience, which had triumphed for the first time, could go a long way in the freedom struggle. Moreover, he had succeeded in making the peasants aware of their rights and becoming confident. This success, thus, proved the effectiveness of Gandhi's method of non-violence and non-cooperation. 

 

Question: How was Gandhi able to influence lawyers? Give instances.

Answer : Gandhi was able to influence the lawyers through his conviction, earnestness and pertinent questioning. Gandhi reproached the lawyers of Muzaffarpur for charging a large sum of money as fee from the peasants. Later, the lawyers from Bihar opined that they would return to their own places in the event of his imprisonment. But, Gandhi made them realise that it would be impudent for them, being lawyers from a neighbouring place, to return when a stranger was ready to get himself imprisoned for the peasants. So, they agreed to follow him to jail. Gandhi also convinced the lawyers not to seek support from an Englishman and be self-reliant.

 

Question: What was the attitude of the average Indian in smaller localities towards advocates of 'home rule'? 

Answer : During those times, the average Indian in smaller localities lived in fear of the British. They were afraid of the dire consequences of helping the advocates of "home-rule". Hence, though they were supportive of people like Gandhi, they were afraid of showing it explicitly and only a few could actually dare to come out openly. In the story, we find people, like Professor Malkani, who had the courage to give shelter to Gandhi on the latter's visit to Muzaffarpur. 

 

Question: How do we know that ordinary people too contributed to the freedom movement?

Answer : In the chapter 'Indigo' Louis Fischer writes of how a small farmer Rajkumar Shukla from a small district, Champaran, helps bring about a very prominent change. Likewise, many other peasants from the villages fought courageously and contributed in their own way to the movement. Their cumulative effort eventually resulted in their winning the battle of Champaran and to finally free themselves of the sharecropping arrangement.

 

Question: Discuss the following. 1. "Freedom from fear is more important than legal justice for the poor." Do you think that the poor of India are free from fear after Independence? 2. The qualities of a good leader. 

Answer : 1. In the story, Gandhi makes it possible for the sharecroppers of Champaran to shed their fear of the British landlords. According to Gandhi, freedom from fear is the first step towards self-reliance. However, it is unfortunate that the poor of the country are not free from fear, even decades after the independence. Their actions, work, etc. are still under pressure; they are under the mercy of the bureaucratic system. Furthermore, the poor live in a continual fear of the police, who instead of taking care, often end up maltreating them. The already poor farmers are becoming poorer, because of globalisation and the craze for the foreign products. This leaves them in the fear of further destitution. 2. A leader is someone who leads the minds of others and convinces them into following his set of ideas and beliefs. As such, there are some qualities inherent in the persona of the leader that sets him apart from the rest. One of these qualities includes dedication to one's work. His enthusiasm is evident in his work and life, and this inspires others to follow him. A good leader is courageous in the face of adversity and is never a quitter. He motivates and encourages others, bringing out the best in them. He appreciates the efforts of others and is not biased or impartial. 

 

Question: Notice the use or non-use of the comma in the following sentences. a. When I first visited Gandhi in 1942 at his ashram in Sevagram, he told me what happened in Champaran. b. He had not proceeded far when the police superintendent's messenger overtook him. c. When the court reconvened, the judge said he would not deliver the judgment for several days. 

Answer : a. In this sentence, the comma is used after a long introductory phrase. b. Essential clauses do not require commas. In this sentence, the clause 'when the police superintendent's messenger overtook him' is an essential clause because it provides essential information. Hence, a comma is not required in this sentence. c. In this sentence again we have an introductory clause which provides extra information. The second half of the sentence can stand alone and, therefore, is separated from the introductory clause with a comma. 

 

Question: Find out the facts of the case. 

Answer : On 11 March 2011, the TÃ…Âhoku earthquake and tsunami occurred disabling the power supply and cooling of three Fukushima Daiichi reactors. The three cores largely melted in the first three days. This accident, which is rated 7 on the INES scale, led to the release of high radioactive substances, including contaminated water leaking from the three units. Although there were no immediate deaths, over 100000 residents were evacuated from their homes.

 

Question: Suggest a possible settlement. 

Answer : A possible way to avert such disasters is by constructing such plants away from residential areas.It is imperative to improve safety measures and take other possible steps to eliminate the release of harmful materials.

 

Chapter 6 : 

Question : Notice these words and expressions in the text. Infer their meaning from the context.

Answer : Blew over: Give along, angry speech of criticism or accusation Was struck dumb:Render speechless, as by surprise or shock Catapulted into: To shoot forth or launch A coat of mail: An armoured coat made of chain mail, interlinked rings, or overlapping metal plates Played into their hands: To act or behave so as to give an advantage to (an opponent). The favourite haunt: A frequently visited place Hearda bell ringing: Stirring an often indistinct memory.

 

Question : What does the writer mean by ‘the fiery misery’ of those subjected to make-up’?

Answer: The heat produced by the lights in the make-up room brought about a lot of discomfort to the actors in the make-up room.  Hence the writer  refers to this pain and trouble as ‘fiery misery’.
 

Question : What is the example of national integration that the author refers to? 

Answer: The make-up division of the Gemini Studios was an example of national integration. According to the author, this is so because people from different regions and religious groups worked together in the same department. The department was headed by a Bengali who was succeeded by a Maharashtrian. The other helpers included a Dharwar Kannadiga, an Andhra, a Madras Indian Christian, an Anglo-Burmese and the local Tamils. 

 

Question : What work did the ‘office boy’ do in the Gemini Studios? Why did he join the studios? Why was he disappointed? 

Answer: The office boy applies make-up on the players who played the crowd.

 

Question : 1. Did the people at Gemini Studios have any particular political affiliations? 

Answer: Most of the people at Gemini Studios were followers of Gandhiji and wore khadi. Beyond khadi and wearing of khadi they did not have any particular political affiliations. However, they were all against communism. 

 

Question :  Why was the Moral Rearmament Army welcomed at the Studios? 

Answer: The Moral Rearmament Army was a kind of counter movement to international communism. The Big Bosses of Madras like Mr. Vasan simply played into their hands. So the Moral Rearmament Army was welcomed at the Gemini Studios. 

 

Question : Name one example to show that Gemini Studios was influenced by the plays staged by MRA. 

Answer: The plays staged by the MRA greatly influenced Madras and Tamil drama community. For some years almost all Tamil plays had a scene of sunrise and sunset in the manner of ‘Jotham Valley’ with a bare stage, a white background curtain and a tune played on the flute. 





 


Free Job Alert to your Email




  • Dates
  • Results
  • Admit Card
  • Application Form

  • Dates
  • Results
  • Admit Card
  • Application Form








सरकारी नौकरी अब हिंदी में




FreshersLive - No.1 Job site in India. Here you can find latest 2019 government as well as private job recruitment notifications for different posts vacancies in India. Get top company jobs for both fresher and experienced. Job Seekers can get useful interview tips, resume services & interview Question and answer. Practice online test free which is helpful for interview preparation. Register with us to get latest employment news/rojgar samachar notifications. Also get latest free govt and other sarkari naukri job alerts daily through E-mail.