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NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science 2021 - NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science the subject consists of four topics History, Geography, Civics, Economics. All these four topics consist of five- eight-chapter so it turns out to be difficult for students to cover all these topics. So to help them understand and make things we have provided solutions for all the topics. For a more detailed understanding read the article below.

by Nancy Jennifer Francis Xavior | Last updated: May 27, 2021

NCERT - Learn Chapter-wise Free NCERT Text books

NCERT - Learn Chapter-wise Free NCERT Text books

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NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science 2021

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science 2021 - In Class 10, Social Science is an important topic. However, the subject is entirely theoretical, some students find it boring, while others find it challenging due to the extensive syllabus. Students also lack writing abilities and are frequently unsure of how much to write in a certain Social Science question. We have provided here the NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science to assist them in performing well in the Social Sciences, which will prove to be a good answer to all of their issues.


Chapter 1 - The Rise of Nationalism in Europe

1. What steps did the French revolutionaries take to create a sense of collective identity among the French people?

Answer. The French revolutionaries took many important steps to create a sense of collective identity among the French people. These were:

  • The French revolutionaries introduced various measures and practices that could create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people. The ideas of la patrie (the fatherland) and le citoyen (the citizen) emphasized the notion of a united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution.

  • A new French flag, the tricolour, was chosen to replace the former royal standard.

  • The Estates General was elected by the body of active citizens and renamed the National Assembly.

  • New hymns were composed, oaths taken and martyrs commemorated, all in the name of the nation.

  • A centralised administrative system was put in place and it formulated uniform laws for all citizens within its territory.

  • Internal customs duties and dues were abolished and a uniform system of weights and measures was adopted.

  • Regional dialects were discouraged and French, as it was spoken and written in Paris, became the common language of the nation.

2. Who were Marianne and Germania? What was the importance of the way in which they were portrayed?

Answer: Marianne and Germania were female allegories for the French and the German nation respectively. These female allegories were used to portray ideas such as Liberty, Republic and Justice. These allegories remind the public of the national symbol of unity and to persuade them to identify with it.

3. Briefly trace the process of German unification.

Answer: In 1848, the middle class Germans tried to unite the different regions of the German confederation into a nation-state governed by an elected parliament. They were, however, repressed by the combined forces of the monarchy and the military, supported by the large landowners of Prussia. From then on, Prussia took on the leadership of the movement for national unification. Its chief minister Otto von Bismarck was the architect of this process with the help of the Prussian army and bureaucracy. Three wars over seven years – with Austria, Denmark and France – ended in Prussian victory and completed the process of unification. In January 1871, the Prussian king, William I, was proclaimed German Emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles.

4. What changes did Napoleon introduce to make the administrative system more efficient in the territories ruled by him?

Answer: Napoleon introduced the following changes to make the administrative system more efficient in the areas ruled by him:

  • He established civil code in 1804 also known as the Napoleonic Code. It did away with all privileges based on birth. It established equality before the law and secured the right to property.

  • He simplified administrative divisions, abolished feudal system, and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues. In towns too, guild systems were removed. Transport and communication systems were improved.

  • Guild restrictions were removed in the towns. Transport and communication systems were improved.

  • Peasants, artisans, businessmen and workers enjoyed the new found freedom.

Chapter 2 - Nationalism in India

Question 2. What is meant by the idea of satyagraha?

Answer: The idea of satyagraha implies a unique method of mass agitation that emphasises the power of truth and the need to search the truth. It supports the belief that if the cause is true and the struggle is against injustice, then there is no need for physical force to fight the oppressor. In this, people-including the oppressors have to be persuaded to see the truth instead of being forced to accept truth through the use of violence. By this struggle, truth was bound to be victorious.

3. Imagine you are a woman participating in the Civil Disobedience Movement. Explain what the experience meant to your life.

Answer: A large number of women participated in large the Civil Disobedience Movement which was called by Gandhiji. They participated in protest marches, manufactured salt, and picked foreign cloth and liquor shops. Many of them were put to jail by the police. Women at that time saw national service as a sacred duty.

4: Compare the images of Bharat Mata in this chapter with the image of Germania in Chapter 1.

Answer: Comparison of the images of Bharat Mata with the image of Germania:

  • The image of Germania symbolises the German nation whereas the image of Bharat Mata represents the Indian nation.

  • The image of Bharat Mata is different from that of Germania in the sense that former reflects the religious basis of its making.

  • The image of Bharat Mata painted by Abanindranath Tagore is bestowed with learning, food, clothing and some ascetic quality also. In another painting, we find Mata holding Trishul and standing beside a lion and an elephant – symbols of power and authority. Germania as a female figure is standing against a background of the tricolour fabric of the national flag. She is wearing a crown of oak leaves, as the German oak stands for heroism.

Chapter 3 The Making of a Global World

1. Give two examples of different types of global exchanges which took place before the seventeenth century, choosing one example from Asia and one from the Americas.

Answer: Examples of the different types of global exchanges which took place before the seventeenth century are:

  • Example from the Americas: America was rich in foods and minerals. Today’s common foods like potatoes, tomatoes, chillies, soya, maize, groundnuts, etc., came to Europe and then Asia from America after Christopher Columbus accidentally discovered this continent.

  • Example from Asia: Noodles are believed to reach Europe from China. China exported pottery and textile to India and Southeast Asia. Precious metals like Gold and Silver flowed from Europe to Asia via Silk Route.

2. Explain how the global transfer of disease in the pre-modern world helped in the colonisation of the Americas.

Answer: The global transfer of disease in the pre-modern world helped in the colonisation of the Americas because the native Americans had no immunity against the disease that came from Europe. Before the discovery of America, it had been cut off from the rest of the world for millions of years. So, they had no defence against the disease. In particular, Smallpox proved a deadly killer. It killed and decimated whole communities, paving the way for conquest.

3. Give two examples from history to show the impact of technology on food availability.

Answer: Two examples from history to show the impact of technology on food availability were

(i) Improvement in transportation system: Faster railways, lighter wagons and larger ships helped transport food more cheaply and quickly from production units to final markets.

(ii) Refrigerated ships: Refrigerated ships helped transport perishable foods like meat, butter and eggs over long distances.

4. What is meant by the Bretton Woods Agreement?

Answer: The Bretton Woods Agreement was signed between the world powers in July 1944 at Bretton Woods in New Hampshire, USA. The Bretton Woods Conference established the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to deal with external surpluses and shortages of its member-nations. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) was set up to finance post-war reconstruction.

Chapter 4 - The Age of Industrialisation

1. Why did some industrialists in nineteenth-century Europe prefer hand labour over machines?

Answer: Some industrialists in nineteenth-century Europe preferred hand labour over machines because:

  • Machines were expensive and their repair was also costly.

  • They were not as effective as claimed by their inventors and manufacturers.

  • As the poor peasants and migrants moved to cities in large numbers in search of jobs, the supply of workers was more than the demand due to which labour was available at low wages.

  • In seasonal industries only seasonal labour was required.

  • The market demanded goods with variety of designs, colours and specific shapes which could not be fulfilled by using machines. Intricate designs and shapes could be produced only with hand labour.

  • In Victorian age, the aristocrats and other upper class people preferred articles made by hand only.

2. How did the East India Company procure regular supplies of cotton and silk textiles from Indian weavers?

Answer: The English East India Company used different means to procure silk and cotton from the Indian weavers:

  • They appointed paid supervisors called Gomasthas to develop a system of management. They also collected supplies and examined cloth quality of the weavers.

  • The existing traders and brokers were eliminated to establish a more direct control over the weavers.

  • The company weavers were prevented from dealing with other buyers through a system of advances and loans. Once an order was placed, the weavers were given loans to purchase the raw material for their production.

  • At many places weaver were often beaten and flogged for delays in supply.

4. Why did industrial production in India increase during the First World War?

Answer: Industrial production in India increased during the First World War due to following reasons:

  • British industries became busy in producing and supplying the war-essentials. Hence, they stopped exporting British goods or clothes for colonial markets like that in India.

  • With the decline of imports suddenly, it was a good opportunity for Indian industries to produce enough goods to meet the demand of home market.

  • As the war prolonged, Indian factories were called upon to supply war needs such as jute bags, cloth for the army uniforms, tents and leather boots, etc.

  • To meet the increased demands of variety of products, new factories were set up and old ones were made to increased their production.

  • Many new workers were employed. Thus, the First World War gave a boost to Indian industries.

Chapter 5 - Print Culture and the Modern World

NCERT solutions for 10 Social Science History Chapter 5 - Print Culture and the Modern World are provided here. Download these NCERT solutions in PDF. These NCERT solutions are best for a thorough understanding and active learning of facts and events. Students must read the NCERT Book and NCERT Solutions for obtaining the best results in the CBSE Class 10 Social Science Board Exam 2021. In CBSE exams, all the questions are usually based on the NCERT book only. So, practice the NCERT questions and take the help of the NCERT solutions provided below for the best answers.

NCERT Solutions Class 10

Social Science - History

Chapter 5: Print Culture and the Modern World

Write in Brief

1. Give reasons for the following:

(a) Woodblock print only came to Europe after 1295.

(b) Martin Luther was in favour of print and spoke out in praise of it.

(c) The Roman Catholic Church began keeping an Index of Prohibited books from the mid-sixteenth century.

(d) Gandhi said the fight for Swaraj is a fight for liberty of speech, liberty of the press, and freedom of association.


(a) Woodblock print was invented in China around the sixth century. It came to Europe in 1295 when Marco Polo, an Italian explorer, returned to Italy after many years of exploration in China. He brought with him the technology of woodblock printing.

(b) Martin Luther was a great religious reformer of Germany. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses that criticised the corrupt practices of the Roman Catholic Church. Very soon, thousands of copies of Luther’s writings were printed and read widely. He was deeply moved by realising the power of printing and was grateful to it. He considered print as the ultimate gift of God. This led to the beginning of the reformation movement. This is the reason why Luther was in favour of print and spoke out in praise of it.

(c) Print and popular literature encouraged many distinctive interpretations of religious faiths. Manocchio, a miller in Italy, began to read the books that were available in his locality. He gave a new interpretation of the Bible and formulated a view of God. Due to this, the Roman Catholic Church had to face many dissents from mid-16th century onwards. Therefore, the church banned such books and decided to maintain an Index of the prohibited books.

(d) According to Mahatma Gandhi, the liberty of speech, liberty of press and freedom of association were three most powerful weapons of expressing and cultivating public opinion. No nation can survive without these three prerequisites. If a country wants to get freedom from foreign domination then these three liberties are very important.

2. Write short notes to show what you know about:

(a) The Gutenberg Press

(b) Erasmus's idea of the printed book

(c) The Vernacular Press Act


(a) The Gutenberg Press: It was the first printing press that was developed by Johan Gutenberg. He spent his childhood in a large agricultural estate and had good experience in operating olive and wine presses. By 1448, he developed a modified version of olive and wine presses. With this new printing press, the first book he printed was Bible. This press had a long handle attached to the screw. The screw was turned with help of the handle which in turn pressed down the platen over the printing block that was placed on the top of a sheet of damp paper. The lead moulds were used for casting the metal types for the letters of alphabet.

(b) Erasmus’s idea of printed book: Erasmus was the Latin scholar and a Catholic reformer. He criticized the printing of books because he was afraid that this would lead to the circulation of books that were full of rebellious ideas. He thought that majority of the books were irrelevant and illogical which would only spread the scandalous and irreligious ideas. According to him, with such books coming in large numbers, the significance of valuable literature would be lost.

(c) The Vernacular Press Act: This act was passed in 1878 by the British government in India. This act gave the government with tyrannical rights to censor reports and editorials in the Vernacular Press. If a Vernacular Paper published any seditious report and the newspaper ignored the initial warning, then the press was seized and the printing machinery confiscated.

3. What did the spread of print culture in nineteenth century India mean to:

(a) Women

(b) The poor

(c) Reformers


(a) Women: With the spread of print culture in nineteenth century India, the Indian women became as important as readers and writers. This increased the literacy among women. Many journals started emphasizing the importance of women’s education. Many books and magazines were especially published in the interest of women. Some literate women started writing books and their autobiographies. From the 1860s, many Bengali women writers like Kailashbashini Debi wrote books that highlighted the miserable condition of majority of women in India where they were imprisoned at home, kept in ignorance, forced to do hard domestic labour and treated unjustly by the males they served. Thus, the print culture gave women some amount of freedom to read and develop their own views on various issues related to women.

(b) The poor people: In the 19th century, many publishers started producing cheap books which weres were sold at crossroads. This increased the readership among the poor people. Public libraries were also set up which increased the access to the books. Now, everyone was able to gain knowledge. Encouraged and inspired by the social reformers, the people like factory workers also started setting up their libraries. Some of them also wrote books highlighting the issue of class distinction. In 1938, Kashibaba, a Kanpur mill worker wrote and published ‘Chote aur Bade Ka Sawal’ to depict the links between caste and class exploitation.

(c) Reformers: Indian reformers used newspapers, journals and books to highlight the unethical issues and the social evils prevailing in the society.

  • Raja Ram Mohan Roy published the Sambad Kaumudi to highlight the plight of widows.

  • Many Bengali women writers like Kailashbashini Debi wrote books highlighting the experiences of women about how women were imprisoned at home, kept in ignorance, forced to do hard domestic labour and treated unjustly by the menfolk of the family.

  • In the 1880s, Tarabai Shinde and Pandita Ramabai wrote about the miserable lives of the upper-caste Hindu women, especially the widows.

  • In 1871, Jyotiba Phule wrote about the poor condition of the low caste people. In the 20th century, BR Ambedkar also wrote powerfully against the caste system.

  • EV Ramaswamy Naicker, also known as Periyar, wrote about the caste system prevailing in Madras.


Chapter 1 - Resources and Development

(i) Name three states having black soil and the crop which is mainly grown in it.

(ii) What type of soil is found in the river deltas of the eastern coast? Give three main features of this type of soil.

(iii) What steps can be taken to control soil erosion in the hilly areas?

(iv) What are the biotic and abiotic resources? Give some examples.


(i) Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh are the three states where black soil is found and cotton is the main crop grown in black soil.

(ii) Alluvial Soil is found in river deltas. Three main features of this type of soil are:

  • It is very fertile.
  • It is rich in potash, phosphoric acid and lime.
  • It has a high water retention capacity

(iii) Soil erosion can be controlled in the hilly areas by:

  • Terrace farming
  • ploughing across contour-lines
  • Growing strips of grass between the crops.

(iv) Biotic Resources: The resources which are obtained from the biosphere and have life are called Biotic Resources. For example, plants, animals, human beings, etc.

Abiotic Resources: The resources which are composed of non-living things are called Abiotic Resources. For example, soil, air, water, metals, etc.

(i) Explain the land use pattern in India and why has the land under forest not increased much since 1960-61?

(ii) How have technical and economic development led to more consumption of resources?


(i) In India, the land is primarily used for agriculture, grazing and other activities like housing, construction of roads and industries. Some part of it is covered with forests and deserts. The pattern of the net sown area varies from one state to another state depending upon the climate and soil types. For example, about 80 percent of the total area in Punjab and Haryana is used for cultivation while in Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Manipur and Andaman Nicobar Islands, it is even less than 10 percent. The part of the land which is covered by forests in India is about 22%.

The land under the forest has not increased since 1960–61 due to the increased use of land for agricultural activities, industrialisation and urbanisation. Increasing population and subsequent increase in demand for resources resulted in the degradation of forests. The land under forest has increased by only about 4% since 1960-61.

(ii) The following factors are responsible for technical and economic development leading to increased consumption of resources:

  • Technological development led to efficient machinery. As a result, production increased ultimately leading to the consumption of more resources.
  • Economic development raised people's demands and the technological advancement led to greater exploitation of resources to meet their demands.
  • Improved medical and health resources led to increased population which in turn resulted in increased consumption of resources.

Chapter 2 - Forest and Wildlife Resources

What is biodiversity? Why is biodiversity important for human lives?

(ii) How have human activities affected the depletion of flora and fauna? Explain.


(i) Biodiversity is the variety and variability of life forms on Earth. It can also be referred as a measure of variation at the ecosystem, species and genetic level. All the species on this Earth are living in a system having multiple networks of interdependencies. Human beings also depend on several biotic and abiotic factors for their survival like they obtain food from plants animals. They are dependent on many other species to run their business and industries. Hence, biodiversity is important for human lives.

(ii) Following activities by humans resulted in the depletion of flora and fauna:

  • Various dam and river valley projects resulted in a decline of forest cover.
  • Illegal mining projects also destroyed forests in a vast area.
  • Increasing housing plans, factories and infrastructure also disturbed the flora and fauna adversely.
  • Hunting animals for their skin, tusk, bones, teeth, horns, etc., led many species to the verge of extinction.
  • Increasing environmental pollution caused many species of birds to extinct.
  • Increasing forest fires due to the global warming resulted in depletion of valuable forests and wildlife.

Chapter 3 - Water Resources

(i) Explain how water becomes a renewable resource.

(ii) What is water scarcity and what are its main causes?

(iii) Compare the advantages and disadvantages of multi-purpose river projects.


(i) Water is a renewable resource as it gets renewed by water cycle that includes three processes - evaporation, condensation and precipitation. The water that disappears from the surface of the earth due to evaporation comes back in the form of rain. This process of water cycle is never ending which makes it a renewable resource.

(ii) Scarcity of water is defined as a situation where there is lack of fresh water resources to meet water demand. Growing population, over-exploitation and unequal distribution of water among social groups are the main causes of water scarcity.

(iii) Advantages of multi-purpose river projects: They are useful for irrigation, electricity generation, flood control, inland navigation, fish breeding, water supply for industrial and domestic purposes and tourist attraction.

Disadvantages of multi-purpose river projects: The local flora and fauna get destroyed. Many native villages are submerged. The natural flow of water is also affected.

Chapter 4- Agriculture

(i) Name one important beverage crop and specify the geographical conditions required for its growth.

(ii) Name one staple crop of India and the regions where it is produced.

(iii) Enlist the various institutional reform programmes introduced by the government in the interest of farmers.

(iv) The land under cultivation has got reduced day by day. Can you imagine its consequences?


(i) Tea is an important beverage crop. This plant grows well in tropical or sub tropical climates . Deep, fertile and well-drained soil which is rich in humus and organic matter is the most suitable for tea plantation. Tea bushes require warm and moist frost-free climate all through the year with frequent showers that ensures continuous growth of the tender leaves.

(ii) Rice is a staple crop of India. It is majorly grown in the following regions:

  • Plains of North
  • North East India
  • Coastal Areas
  • Deltaic Regions

(iii) Various institutional reform programmes introduced by the Government in the interest of farmers are:

  • Minimum Support Price (MSP)
  • Provision for crop insurance against drought, flood, etc.
  • Subsidy on Fertilisers
  • Establishment of Grameen banks to provide low-interest loans
  • Facilities of Kissan Credit Card and Personal Accident Insurance Scheme

(iv) Consequences of the decline in land under cultivation come out to be as follows:

  • Shortage of food
  • Rise in prices of food grains
  • Shortage of supply of raw material for agro-industries.
  • Increase in unemployment
  • Increase in import of food grains will put stress on the economy

Chapter 5 - Minerals and Energy Resources

(ii) What is a mineral?

Answer: A mineral can be defined as a homogenous, naturally occurring substance with a definable internal structure. Minerals are found in varied forms in nature, ranging from the hardest diamond to the softest talc.

(iii) How are minerals formed in igneous and metamorphic rocks?

Answer: In igneous and metamorphic rocks, minerals may occur in the cracks, crevices, faults or joints. The smaller deposits are called veins and the larger ones are called lodes. When the minerals in liquid/ molten and gaseous forms are forced upward through cavities towards the earth’s surface, they cool down and solidify to form veins or lodes. Metallic minerals like tin, copper, zinc and lead are obtained from veins and lodes.

(iv) Why do we need to conserve mineral resources?

Answer: We need to conserve mineral resources as they are limited on the earth. It takes billions of years for them to be replenished in nature. Continued extraction of ores leads to increasing costs of extraction and a decrease in quality as well as quantity. It takes millions of years for the formation of minerals. Thus, as compared to the current rate of consumption, the rate of replenishment of minerals is very slow.

Chapter 6 - Manufacturing Industries

(i) What is manufacturing?

Answer: Production of goods in large quantities after processing the raw materials into more valuable products is termed as manufacturing. For example: paper is manufactured from wood.

(ii) Name any three physical factors for the location of the industry.

Answer: Three physical factors important for the location of the industry are:

  • Availability of raw materials
  • Availability of power
  • Proximity to the market

(iii) Name any three human factors for the location of an industry

Answer: Three human factors necessary for the location of an industry are:

  • Labour
  • Capital
  • Market

(iv) What are the basic industries? Give an example.

Answer: Basic industries are the industries which supply their products as raw materials to the industries which manufacture other goods. For example: Iron and steel industries provide iron and steel to other industries as the raw material to manufacture engineering goods, vehicles, construction material, etc.

(v) Name the important raw materials used in the manufacturing of cement?

Answer: Important raw materials used in the manufacturing of cement are:

  • Limestone
  • Silica
  • Alumina
  • Gypsum

Apart from these, coal, electric power and rail transportation are also needed in the manufacturing of cement.

Chapter 7 - Lifelines of National Economy

(i) State any three merits of roadways.

(ii) Where and why is rail transport the most convenient means of transportation?

(iii) What is the significance of the border roads?

(iv) What is meant by trade? What is the difference between international and local trade?


(i) Three merits of roadways are:

  • The cost of construction of roads is much lower than that of railway lines.
  • Roads can go through the dissected and undulating land areas.
  • Transportation of goods by roadways is economical as loading costs are low and they also provided the door-to-door services.

(ii) Rail transport is the most convenient means of transportation in the northern plains because the region has level stretches of land making it easy for laying railway tracks. Along with this, large population and rich agricultural resources make the rail transport a profitable venture.

(iii) Border roads are of strategic importance and they have improved accessibility in the areas of difficult terrain like the northern and north eastern border areas. They have helped in the economic development of these areas.

(iv) The exchange of goods among people, states and countries is termed as trade.

  • Trade between two or more countries is called international trade.
  • Trade occurring within a country is termed as local trade. It is carried out within cities, towns and villages of a country.


Chapter 1: Power Sharing

1. What are the different forms of power-sharing in modern democracies? Give an example of each of these.


Different forms of power-sharing in modern democracies are:

(i) Power-sharing in different forms of government: Power is shared among different organs of government, such as the legislature, executive and judiciary. It is also termed as horizontal distribution of power because it allows different organs of government placed at the same level to exercise different powers. For example, The distribution of power between Indian Parliament (legislature), the council of ministers headed by chief ministers (executive) and Courts of India.

(ii) Power-sharing among various levels of governments: The power is shared among governments at different levels– a general government for the entire country and governments at the provincial or regional level. This is also called the federal division of power. Under this the Constitution clearly lays down the power of each level of government. For example, In India, power is shared among three levels of government which are Central government, State government and the local governments.

(iii) Power-sharing among different social groups: Power may also be shared among different social groups such as the religious and linguistic groups. For example, in India, reservations are made for the socially weaker sections of society in legislatures and bureaucracy.

(iv) Power-sharing among political parties, pressure groups and movements: Political Parties, Pressure Groups and Movements control or influence those who are in power. Different political parties contest elections for power which ensures that power does not remain in one hand. In the long run, power is shared among different political parties that represent different ideologies and social groups.

Chapter 2: Federalism

1. What is the main difference between a federal form of government and a unitary one? Explain with an example.


Federal form of government

Unitary form of government

There is a sharing of power between the state and the central governments.

For example – In India, there is union government at the centre and the state governments at the state level.

In this form of government, the central government has all the powers and there is no role of the state governments.

For example – In Sri Lanka and Britain, the national government has all the powers.

2 When does a social difference become a social division?


The social division takes place when some social difference overlaps with other differences. Situations of the kind when one kind of social difference becomes more important than the other and people start feeling that they belong to different communities, gives rise to the social divisions. For example, the difference between the Blacks and Whites becomes a social division in the US because the Blacks tend to be poor, homeless and discriminated against. In India, Dalits tend to be poor and landless. They often face discrimination and injustice.

Chapter 3: Democracy and Diversity

1 When does a social difference become a social division?


The social division takes place when some social difference overlaps with other differences. Situations of the kind when one kind of social difference becomes more important than the other and people start feeling that they belong to different communities, gives rise to the social divisions. For example, the difference between the Blacks and Whites becomes a social division in the US because the Blacks tend to be poor, homeless and discriminated against. In India, Dalits tend to be poor and landless. They often face discrimination and injustice.

Chapter 4: Gender, Religion and Caste

1State different forms of communal politics with one example each.


Communal politics is based on the idea that religion is the principal basis of social community. It has different forms:

  • The expression of communal superiority in everyday beliefs: This involves religious prejudices, stereotypes of religious communities and a belief in the superiority of one’s religion over other religions. For example, militant religious groups.
  • The desire to form a majoritarian dominance: A communal mind often leads to a quest for political dominance of one's religion over another in a community. It takes a form of majoritarian dominance. For example, separatist leaders and political parties in Jammu and Kashmir and Central India in the past.
  • The use of sacred symbols and religious leaders in politics to appeal to the voters: Political mobilisation on religious lines is another frequent form of communalism. Political parties, generally, nominate their candidates according to the caste or religion dominant in a particular constituency. For example, in a Muslim dominated area, people generally elect a Muslim candidate.
  • Communal violence is another form of communalism in politics. For example, the anti-Sikh riots in 1984.

2. State how caste inequalities are still continuing in India.


Caste has not disappeared from contemporary India. This can be clear by looking at the following facts:

  • According to the National Sample Survey Office (NSSO), the average economic status of caste groups in India still remains the same as was in the past. Most of the rich section belongs to higher castes, while people of lower castes are generally poor.
  • Despite the constitutional prohibition, many people are still considered as untouchables in the country.
  • Even now most people marry within their own caste or tribe.
  • Political parties often field their candidates in constituency according to the caste prevailing in that constituency. People also tend to vote on the caste lines.

Chapter 5: Popular Struggles and Movements

1. In what ways do pressure groups and movements exert influence on politics?


Pressure groups and movements exert influence on politics in the following ways:

  • They gain public support and confidence for their goals and activities by carrying out information campaigns, organising meetings, filing petitions, etc.
  • They hold strikes and by disrupting the government's programmes, they force the government to look into their demands.
  • Many business groups often employ professional lobbyists to influence the government policies.

2. Describe the forms of relationship between pressure groups and political parties?


The various forms of relationship between political parties and pressure groups can be mentioned as follows:

  • In some instances, the pressure groups are either formed or led by the leaders of political parties or act as extended arms of political parties. For example, most trade unions and students’ organisations in India are either established by, or affiliated to one or the other major political party.
  • Sometimes political parties grow out of movements. For example, parties like the DMK and the AIADMK in Tamil Nadu formed out of the social reform movements during the 1930s and 1940s.
  • In most cases, political parties and pressure groups have an indirect relationship, where negotiations and dialogues take place between them regarding various social and political issues.

Chapter 6: Political Parties

1. What is a political party?


A political party is a group of people who come together to contest elections and hold power in the government. They agree on some policies and programmes for the society, with a view to promoting the collective good.

2. What are the characteristics of a political party?


The characteristics of a political party are:

  • All the members of a party share the same interests in policies and programmes.
  • They seek to introduce and implement the policies which are for the welfare of the citizens.
  • Each party has three components – leader, active members and followers.

Chapter 7: Outcomes of Democracy

(i) Industrialised countries can afford democracy but the poor need dictatorship to become rich.

(ii) Democracy can’t reduce inequality of incomes between different citizens.

(iii) The government in poor countries should spend less on poverty reduction, health, education and spend more on industries and infrastructure.

(iv) In a democracy, all citizens have one vote, which means that there is an absence of any domination and conflict.


(i) This is a wrong statement as there is no relationship between democracy and industrial growth of a nation. The economic development of the nation is dependent upon the resources, policies and the government's openness to attract investments. If the dictatorship could have brought wealth in the nation, then many countries such as Nigeria and Myanmar, which are under dictatorial rule, would have become rich.

(ii) I agree with this statement that democracy can not reduce income inequality as there are sectional communities which have different professions. Democracy brings social and political equality. People have the right to vote and access the fundamental rights.

(iii) This is not a correct statement. For the development of a country, it is important to focus on human resources. The country is made up of its people and it cannot grow until its population is literate and healthy. By increasing the literacy rates and improving the health standards of its people, the government can develop the required human resources which are essential for the industrial development of the country.

(iv) The statement is not completely true. Though it is right that in a democracy every citizen has the right to cast one vote but it does not mean that there is an absence of conflicts. Major group of the society may try to dominate the minority of society. This, in turn, will give rise to the conflicts in the society.

Chapter 8: Challenges to Democracy

1. Let us group these again, this time by the nature of these challenges as per the classification suggested in the first section. For each of these categories, find at least one example from India as well.


Foundational Challenge

Poland, Myanmar, Pakistan, Iraq, US, Guantanamo Bay, Nepal

In India, Naxal problem and insurgency in North-Eastern states.

Challenge of Expansion

Ghana, International organisations, Saudi Arabia, Yugoslavia, Sri Lanka, Northern Ireland.

In India, to grant more powers to local governments like municipal bodies and village panchayats.

Challenge of deepening

Mexico, Saudi Arabia, Belgium, Bolivia and US- Civil rights.

In India, to increase women representation in Parliament and state legislatures.


Chapter 1: Development

1. In what respects is the criterion used by the UNDP for measuring development different from the one used by the World Bank?

Answer: The criterion used by UNDP is different from the one used by the World Bank because World bank only uses per capita income for measuring the development of a country while UNDP besides considering per capita incomes, compares countries on the basis of the educational level of the people, healthcare facilities and infant mortality rate which are important in improving the quality of life and making the citizens more productive.

2. Why do we use averages? Are there any limitations to their use? Illustrate with your own examples related to development.

Answer: We use averages as they are useful for comparing differing quantities of the same category. This does not show the distribution of things between people. There are limitations of calculating averages because this does not give any information about the distribution of a thing between people. For example, the per capita income does not show the distribution of income. It does not show the percentage of the poor in the population.

Chapter 2 - Sectors of the Indian Economy

1. For each of the sectors that we came across in this chapter why should one focus on employment and GDP? Could there be other issues which should be examined? Discuss.


For each of the sectors that we came across in this chapter, one should focus on employment and GDP because these determine the development of a country in terms of its economic growth. A focus on employment and GDP helps determine two important things- per capita income and productivity. Hence, in each of the three sectors, employment rate and status, as well as its contribution to the GDP, help us understand how that particular sector is functioning and what needs to be done for its further growth.

Other issues which should be examined are as follows:

  • Poverty
  • Health-care facilities
  • Education
  • Food production
  • Advancement of technology

2. How is the tertiary sector different from other sectors? Illustrate with a few examples.


The tertiary sector different from the primary and secondary sectors this sector does not produce goods by itself but the other two sectors produce goods. This sector help in the development of the primary and secondary sectors. The activities under the tertiary sector are an aid or support for the production process. For example, transport, communication, storage, banking, insurance, trade activities etc. Similarly, doctors, teachers, lawyers, tailor, etc., come under the tertiary sector as they provide services rather than material goods. This is why this sector is also termed as the service sector.

Chapter 3 Money and Credit

1. How does money solve the problem of double coincidence of wants? Explain with an example of your own.


Double coincidence of wants occurs when goods or commodities are exchanged without the use of money. Here, both the individuals who exchange goods are actually in need of those goods. In a barter system where goods are directly exchanged without using money, double coincidence of wants is an essential feature. By serving as a medium of exchanges, money removes the need for double coincidence of wants and the difficulties associated with the barter system. Now, no specific buyer or seller is required for interchanging of products. For example, a farmer has to sell wheat in exchange for cereals then it would be difficult for him to find such a buyer. But money will solve this problem. Now, the farmer can sell his wheat to someone who needs this and with the earned money he can buy cereals for him as well.

2. How do banks mediate between those who have surplus money and those who need money?


Banks encourage the people with surplus money to invest their money with them. In return those people are paid a certain rate of interest for the same. Banks hold about 15 per cent of their deposits as cash. This is kept as provision to pay the depositors who might come to withdraw money from the bank on any given day. They use the major portion of the deposits to extend loans to those who need money. In this way banks mediate between those who have surplus money and those who need money. Banks charge a higher interest rate on loans than what they offer on deposits. The difference between the two rates is their main source of income.

Chapter 4 Globalisation And The Indian Economy

1. What was the reason for putting barriers to foreign trade and foreign investment by the Indian government? Why did it wish to remove these barriers?


The Indian government, after Independence, had put barriers to foreign trade and foreign investment. This was done to protect the producers within the country from the foreign competition especially when industries had just started to come up in the 1950s and 1960s.

But later, in 1990s, the government accepted that foreign competition would encourage Indian industrialists to improve the quality of their products and removing these barriers would increase trade and quality of products produced in the country.

2. How would flexibility in labour laws help companies?


Flexibility in labour law helps companies to attract foreign investments. Instead of hiring workers on a regular basis, companies hire workers flexibly for short periods when there is intense pressure of work. Company heads can negotiate wages and terminate the employees depending on market conditions. This will lead to an increase in the company's competitiveness and reduce its labour cost.

Chapter 5 - Consumer Rights

1. What factors gave birth to the consumer movement in India? Trace its evolution.


The factors that gave birth to the consumer movement in India are as follows:

  • Lack of legal system to protect the consumers from exploitation in the marketplace
  • Extreme food shortages
  • Black marketing
  • Adulteration of food and edible oil

Till the 1970s, consumer organisations were mostly busy writing articles and holding exhibitions. There has been an upsurge in the number of consumer groups who have shown concern towards the value of goods and services since the 1980s. In 1986, the Indian government enacted the Consumer Protection Act, also known as COPRA. This was a major step in the consumer movement in India. There are today more than 700 consumer groups in the country who are working in the field of protecting the consumers' interest.

2. Explain the need for consumer consciousness by giving two examples.


Consumer consciousness is being aware of your right as a consumer while buying trading anything in the market so that they are not being cheated or exploited in the market place. Consumer consciousness is very important to improve the market conditions which provide consumers with more choices at lower prices and reduce the incidences of their exploitation by the sellers.

For example :

A buyer must check the expiry and manufacturing date of the product before buying from the shop. In case, any expired product is found in the shop, a complaint must be raised against the seller.

Sometimes shopkeepers indulge in unfair practices such as selling the underweight or adulterated/ defective items. So, to reduce such instances, it's very important for the consumers to be aware and act smartly.

3. Mention a few factors which cause exploitation of consumers.


Factors which cause exploitation of consumers are :

  • Lack of awareness of consumer rights
  • Lack in proper monitoring of rules and regulations
  • Consumers ignore small losses as the individual purchase quantity is quite small
  • Lack of consumer consciousness

4. What is the rationale behind the enactment of Consumer Protection Act 1986?


The rationale behind the enactment of Consumer Protection Act (COPRA) 1986 was to set up separate departments of Consumer Affairs in central and state governments to safeguard the interests of the consumers and to grant them the right to seek redressal against unfair trade practices and exploitation.

Disclaimer: The above information is for general informational purposes only. All information on the Site is provided in good faith, however we make no representation or warranty of any kind, express or implied, regarding the accuracy, adequacy, validity, reliability, availability or completeness of any information on the Site.
Also Learn

Ncert solutions 2023 - FAQ

1. NCERT 10th social science consists of how many topics?

NCERT social science consists of 4 topics.

2. What are the four topics in social science?

Geography, Civics, History, Economics.

3. Is there a solution for all chapters?

Yes, there is a solution for all the chapters.

4. How many chapters are there on each topic?

There are 5-8 topics on each topic

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