NCERT SOLUTIONS CLASS 9 SOCIAL SCIENCE

NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science is provided here. Students can download the complete NCERT solutions for class 9th Social Science in the full PDF format. This page provides the complete solution of for all Chapters of Class 9th Social Science. Download the NCERT Solutions for Class 9th Social PDF for free in this page. Get the solutions for all individual chapters and exercises of Class

Last modified:2019-10-14

                           NCERT Solutions for Class 9th Social Science

 

 

Title: NCERT Solutions for Class 9th Social Science and download NCERT Class 9th English PDF dd MM YYYY 
 

Description:NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science is provided here. Students can download the complete NCERT solutions for class 9th Social Science in the full PDF format. This page provides the complete solution of for all Chapters of Class 9th Social Science. Download the NCERT Solutions for Class 9th Social PDF for free in this page. Get the solutions for all individual chapters and exercises of Class 9th Social Science .

Are you studying Class 9? Looking for the NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science? If yes, you came to the right place. CBSE students who are studying Class 9th Social Science can get the NCERT Solutions for Class 9th  Social Science. We are providing the complete solutions for all Chapters which comes under the Class 9th .

 

The various topics of Class 9th Social Science are:

Chapter 1 - Democracy in the Contemporary World

Chapter 2 - What is Democracy? Why Democracy?

Chapter 3 - Constitutional Design

Chapter 4 - Electoral Politics

Chapter 5 - Working of Institutions

Chapter 6 - Democratic Rights

 

Fresherslive provides you the detailed questions and answers for 9th Standard Social Science. The chapter wise details are mentioned above. Students can check their answers for all the NCERT social studies questions and it will be useful for exam preparation. Students can download the pdf for free of cost. Candidates can also download the chapter wise questions and answers.

 

Chapter 1 - Democracy in the Contemporary World

 

Question 1: Which of the following does not lead to the spread of democracy?

a) Struggle by the people

b) Invasion by foreign countries

c) End of colonialism

d) People’s desire for freedom

Answer: (b) Invasion by foreign countries

 

Question 2: Which of the following statements is true about today’s world? a) Monarchy as a form of government has vanished. b) The relationship between different countries has become more democratic than ever before. c) In more and more countries rulers are being elected by the people. d) There are no more military dictators in the world.

Answer: (c) In more and more countries rulers are being elected by the people.

 

Question 3: Use one of the following statements to complete the sentence: Democracy in the international organisations requires that … a. The rich countries should have a greater say. b. Countries should have a say according to their military power. c. Countries should be treated with respect in proportion to their population. d. All countries in the world should be treated equally.

Answer: (d) All countries in the world should be treated equally. Question 4: Based on the information given in this chapter, match the following countries and the path democracy has taken in that country.

 

COUNTRY PATH TO DEMOCRACY

a. Chile i Freedom from British colonial rule

b. Nepal ii End of military dictatorship

c. Poland iii End of one party rule

d. Ghana iv King agreed to give up his powers

 

Question 7: Which of the following positions can contribute to democracy at the global level? Give reasons for your answer in each case.

(a) My country gives more money to international institutions.

 

Therefore, I want to be treated with more respect and exercise more power.

Answer a) : If any country gives more money to international institutions and its citizens want more respect and more power, it would not contribute to democracy at the global level. Every country and its citizens enjoy equal status whether it is a poor or a rich country. Equality is the basic principle of democracy.

(b) My country may be small or poor. But my voice must be heard with equal respect, because these decisions will affect my country.

Answer  b:)  This position totally contribute to democracy at the global level as Democracy give equal right to every people. The wealth and size of a country doesn’t matter in global democracy.

(c) Wealthy nations will have a greater say in international affairs. They cannot let their interests suffer just because they are outnumbered by poor nations.

Question 8: Here are three opinions heard in a television debate on the struggle for democracy in Nepal. Which of these do you agree with and why? Guest 1: India is a democracy. Therefore, the Indian government must support the people of Nepal who are struggling against monarchy and for democracy.

Guest 2: That is a dangerous argument. We would be in the same position as the US was in Iraq. Remember, no outside force can promote democracy. Guest 3: But why should we bother about the internal affairs of another country? We should be worried about our business interests there, not about democracy.

Answer: We can’t totally neglect our neighbours as what doing in their country must affect our behaviour also. So in my opinion Guest 1 is right in some way. We have to adopt some measures that will support the people who are struggling against monarchy and for democracy. Not by military but by some other cooperation which will not hurt the sentiments of the people. This will also help India in maintaining a good relationship with democratic country rather than a monarchical rule.

Question 5: What are the difficulties people face in a non-democratic country
Give answers drawing from the examples given in this chapter.
Answer: The difficulties people face in a non-democratic country are:
 No freedom to elect their rulers.
 People can’t form organisation or organise protest against the rulers.
 No freedom of speech and expression.
 Don’t have any say in government policies
 Civic rights are curtailed.

Question 6: Which freedoms are usually taken away when a democracy is overthrown by the military?

Answer: The freedoms which are taken away when a democracy is overthrown by the military:  Freedom of electing their rulers.  Freedom of speech, expression and protest against any governmental policies.  People can’t form political parties or organisations.

 

Question 7: Which of the following positions can contribute to democracy at the global level? Give reasons for your answer in each case. (a) My country gives more money to international institutions. Therefore, I want to be treated with more respect and exercise more power.

Answer a: If any country gives more money to international institutions and its citizens want more respect and more power, it would not contribute to democracy at the global level. Every country and its citizens enjoy equal status whether it is a poor or a rich country. Equality is the basic principle of democracy.

(b) My country may be small or poor. But my voice must be heard with equal respect, because these decisions will affect my country.

Answer b: This position totally contribute to democracy at the global level as Democracy give equal right to every people. The wealth and size of a country doesn’t matter in global democracy. (c) Wealthy nations will have a greater say in international affairs. They cannot let their interests suffer just because they are outnumbered by poor nations.

Question 8: Here are three opinions heard in a television debate on the struggle for democracy in Nepal. Which of these do you agree with and why?

Guest 1: India is a democracy. Therefore, the Indian government must support the people of Nepal who are struggling against monarchy and for democracy.

Guest 2: That is a dangerous argument. We would be in the same position as the US was in Iraq. Remember, no outside force can promote democracy.

Guest 3: But why should we bother about the internal affairs of another country? We should be worried about our business interests there, not about democracy.

Answer: We can’t totally neglect our neighbours as what doing in their country must affect our behaviour also. So in my opinion Guest 1 is right in some way. We have to adopt some measures that will support the people who are struggling against monarchy and for democracy. Not by military but by some other cooperation which will not hurt the sentiments of the people. This will also help India in maintaining a good relationship with democratic country rather than a monarchical rule.

 

Democratic Politics – Chapter 2

What is Democracy? Why Democracy?

Question 1 Here is some information about four countries. Based on this information, how would you classify each of these countries? Write ‘democratic’, ‘undemocratic’ or ‘not sure’ against each of these.

(a) Country A: People who do not accept the country’s official religion do not have a right to vote.

Answer (a) Undemocratic

(b) Country B: The same party has been winning elections for the last twenty years.

Answer (b) Not sure

(c) Country C: Ruling party has lost in the last three elections.

Answer (c) Democratic

(d) Country D: There is no independent election commission.

Answer (d) Undemocratic

Question 2

Here is some information about four countries. Based on this information, how would you classify each of these countries? Write ‘democratic’, ‘undemocratic’ or ‘not sure’ against each of these. (a) Country P: The parliament cannot pass a law about the army without the consent of the Chief of Army.

Answer (a) Undemocratic (b) Country Q: The parliament cannot pass a law reducing the powers of the judiciary.

Answer (b) Democratic (c) Country R: The country’s leaders cannot sign any treaty with another country without taking permission from its neighbouring country.

Answer (c) Undemocratic (d) Country S: All the major economic decisions about the country are taken by officials of the central bank which the ministers cannot change. Answer (d) Undemocratic

Question 3 Which of these is not a good argument in favour of democracy? Why?

(a) People feel free and equal in a democracy.

(b) Democracies resolve conflict in a better way than others.

(c) Democratic government is more accountable to the people.

(d) Democracies are more prosperous than others.

Answer: Option ‘D’ Democracies are more prosperous than others is not a good argument in favour of democracy as there are many countries such as Sri Lanka, India which opted for democracy but not prosperous where other countries such as China or Saudi Arabia which have communist and monarchy rule respectively are more prosperous. The prosperity of

any country depends on the correct policies of government. It also depends on the availability of natural resources not with the form of government. Democracy can’t guarantee prosperity.

Question 4 : Each of these statements contains a democratic and an undemocratic element. Write out the two separately for each statement. (a) A minister said that some laws have to be passed by the parliament in order to conform to the regulations decided by the World Trade Organisation (WTO). Answer (a): A minister said that some laws have to be passed by the parliament – Democratic element to the regulations decided by the World Trade Organisation (WTO). – Undemocratic element (b) The Election Commission ordered re-polling in a constituency where large-scale rigging was reported. Answer (b): The Election Commission ordered re-polling in a constituency – Democratic element large-scale rigging was reported – Undemocratic element (c) Women’s representation in the parliament has barely reached 10 per cent. This led women’s organisations to demand one-third seats for women.

Answer (c): This led women’s organisations to demand one-third seats for women. – Democratic element Women’s representation in the parliament has barely reached 10per cent. – Undemocratic element.

Question 5: Which of these is not a valid reason for arguing that there is a lesser possibility

of famine in a democratic country?

(a) Opposition parties can draw attention to hunger and starvation.

(b) Free press can report suffering from famine in different parts of the country.

(c) Government fears its defeat in the next elections.

(d) People are free to believe in and practise any religion.

Answer: Option ‘d’ is not a valid reason for arguing that there is a lesser possibility of famine in a democratic country. This is because practising a religion has nothing to do with preventing famine.

Question 6

There are 40 villages in a district where the government has made no provision for drinking water. These villagers met and considered many methods of forcing the government to respond to their need. Which of these is not a democratic method? (a) Filing a case in the courts claiming that water is part of right to life. (b) Boycotting the next elections to give a message to all parties. (c) Organising public meetings against government’s policies. (d) Paying money to government officials to get water. Answer: Option ‘d’, which advocates paying the government officials money, is an undemocratic method.

Question 7 Write a response to the following arguments against democracy: (a) Army is the most disciplined and corruption-free organisation in the country. Therefore army should rule the country. (b) Rule of the majority means the rule of ignorant people. What we need is the rule of the wise, even if they are in small numbers. (c) If we want religious leaders to guide us in spiritual matters, why not invite them to guide us in politics as well. The country should be ruled by religious leaders.

Answer: A democracy is the government elected by the people, from among the people themselves. The Army is integral in protecting the country, but it is not elected by the people; hence, it cannot form a democratic government. The second statement is not true as all people are intelligent to some extent. The third statement is dangerous because bringing religion into politics can cause serious conflict.

 

Question 8: Are the following statements in keeping with democracy as a value? Why? (a) Father to daughter: I don’t want to hear your opinion about your marriage. In our family children marry where the parents tell them to. Answer (a): This statement of father is undemocratic as every adult has right to choose their life partner. The father does not have right to impose their choice on daughter. (b) Teacher to student: Don’t disturb my concentration by asking me questions in the classroom.

Answer (b): This statement also is not under democratic setup. The student have right to ask question. This is undemocratic if his right is denied.

 

c) Employee to the officer: Our working hours must be reduced according to the law. Answer (c): The third statement is democratic as it calls for a rule of law which is beneficial for the employees.

 

Question 9 Consider the following facts about a country and decide if you would call it a democracy. Give reasons to support your decision (a) All the citizens of the country have right to vote. Elections are held regularly. Answer (a): This is democracy as only democratic setup allows right to vote and also election at regular time period. (b) The country took loan from international agencies. One of the conditions for giving loan was that the government would reduce its expenses on education and health.

 

Answer (b): A democratic country has to look after the welfare of its people. The condition of reducing of expenses on health and education is against the welfare of the people. (c) People speak more than seven languages but education is available only in one language, the language spoken by 52 percent people of that country.

 

Answer (c): In democracy, education is available in all languages as it basic right. Official language can be the language of majority of people. (d) Several organisations have given a call for peaceful demonstrations and nation-wide strikes in the country to oppose these policies. Government has arrested these leaders.

 

Answer (d): In a democracy people have right to express their opinion in peaceful manner. It is undemocratic behaviour. (e) The government owns the radio and television in the country. All the newspapers have to get permission from the government to publish any news about government’s policies and protests.

Answer (e): This is undemocratic nature as in democracy freedom of press and media is must. If government own radio and television then freedom of press violated.

 

Chapter 3: Democratic Politics

 

Question 1. Here are some false statements. Identify the mistake in each case and rewrite these correctly based on what you have read in this chapter. (a) Leaders of the freedom movement had an open mind about whether the country should be democratic or not after independence.

Answer (a): Leaders of the freedom movement had a consensus that the country should be a democratic nation after independence. (b) Members of the Constituent Assembly of India held the same views on all provisions of the Constitution.

Answer (b): Members of the Constituent Assembly of India held the same views on the basic principles of the constitution. (c) A country that has a constitution must be a democracy.

Answer (c): A country that is a democracy must have a constitution. (d) Constitution cannot be amended because it is the supreme law of a country. Answer (d): Constitution can be amended to keep up with the changes in aspirations of the society.

 

Question 7. A friend from Nepal has written you a letter describing the political situation there. Many political parties are opposing the rule of the king. Some of them say that the existing constitution given by the monarch can be amended to allow more powers to elected representatives. Others are demanding a new Constituent Assembly to write a republican constitution. Reply to your friend giving your opinions on the subject.

Answer: In my opinion second option is best. Making small amendments does not shift whole power in hands of representatives. This does not make total responsibility on elected representatives what will happen in next years. So, a new and well drafted constitution is right choice.

 

Question 8. Here are different opinions about what made India a democracy. How much importance would you give to each of these factors? (a) Democracy in India is a gift of the British rulers. We received training to work with representative legislative institutions under the British rule.

Answer (a): Democracy in India is a gift of the British rulers. We received training to work with representative legislative institutions under the British rule. (b) Freedom Struggle challenged the colonial exploitation and denial of different freedoms to Indians. Free India could not be anything but democratic. Answer (b): Freedom struggle was important in spreading the idea of nationalism in India and inculcating the practice of making decisions by consensus. (c) We were lucky to have leaders who had democratic convictions. The denial of democracy in several other newly independent countries shows the important role of these leaders.

Answer (c): The leaders had the desire to give freedoms to the people. India’s freedom struggle is the only example of a bloodless freedom struggle in the contemporary history. This could be possible because our nationalist leaders had the maturity to listen to others’ views.

Question 9. Read the following extract from a conduct book for ‘married women’, published in 1912. ‘God has made the female species delicate and fragile ‘both physically and emotionally, pitiably incapable of self-defence. They are destined thus by God to remain in male protection – of father, husband and son – all their lives. Women should, therefore, not despair, but feel obliged that they can dedicate themselves to the service of men’.

Do you think the values expressed in this para reflected the values underlying our constitution? Or does this go against the constitutional values? Answer: The values expressed in this para is totally contradictory to the values underlying our constitution. Here, women are treated as weak while in our constitution men and women both are treated equal. The governmental policies also favour women to bring them in mainstream.

Question 10. Read the following statements about a constitution. Give reasons why each of these is true or not true. (a) The authority of the rules of the constitution is the same as that of any other law.

Answer (a): Not True Constitution is the supreme law. It describes how government elects and their powers, rights of citizens and their protection. This is totally different than any other law. (b) Constitution lays down how different organs of the government will be formed.

Answer (b): True Constitution defines the role of the legislature, the executive and the judiciary and how they should be formed and by whom. (c) Rights of citizens and limits on the power of the government are laid down in the constitution.

 

Answer (c): True Constitutional setup limits the power of government through different institutions and also talks about the right of citizens.

(d) A constitution is about institutions, not about values

 

Answer (d): Not True The Constitution contains all the values which the institutions have to promote. The Preamble to the Constitution is a shining example of this and states clearly that justice, liberty, equality and fraternity have to be promoted. Secularism has to be followed and socialism and democracy should be the basis of the government.

 

Chapter 4: Democratic Politics

 

Question 1. Which of the following statements about the reasons for conducting elections are false? (a) Elections enable people to judge the performance of the government. (b) People select the representative of their choice in an election. (c) Elections enable people to evaluate the performance of the judiciary. (d) People can indicate which policies they prefer. Answer: (c) Elections enable people to evaluate the performance of the judiciary.

 

Question 2. Which of these is not a good reason to say that Indian elections are democratic? a. India has the largest number of voters in the world. b. India’s Election Commission is very powerful. c. In India, everyone above the age of 18 has a right to vote. d. In India, the losing parties accept the electoral verdict. Answer: (a) India has the largest number of voters in the world.

 

Question 4. List all the different election related activities mentioned in the chapter and arrange them in a time sequence, beginning with the first activity and ending with the last. Some of these activities are given below: releasing election manifestos; counting of votes; making of voters’ list; election campaign; declaration of election results; casting of votes; ordering of re-poll; announcing election schedule; filing nomination. Answer: Making of voters’ list → Announcing election schedule → Releasing election manifesto → Election campaign → Filing nomination → Casting of votes → Ordering of repoll → Counting of votes → Declaration of election results.

 

Chapter 5: Democratic Politics

Question 1. If you are elected as the President of India which of the following decision can you take on your own? (a) Select the person you like as Prime Minister. (b) Dismiss a Prime Minister who has a majority in Lok Sabha. (c) Ask for reconsideration of a bill passed by both the Houses. (d) Nominate the leaders of your choice to the Council of Ministers.

Answer: (c) Ask for reconsideration of a bill passed by both the houses

Question 2. Who among the following is a part of the political executive? (a) District Collector (b) Secretary of the Ministry of Home Affairs (c) Home Minister (d) Director General of Police

Answer: (c) Home Minister

Question 3:

Which of the following statements about the judiciary is false? (a) Every law passed by the Parliament needs approval of the Supreme Court (b) Judiciary can strike down a law if it goes against the spirit of the Constitution (c) Judiciary is independent of the Executive (d) Any citizen can approach the courts if her rights are violated

Answer: (a) Every law passed by the Parliament needs approval of the Supreme Court

Question 4. Which of the following institutions can make changes to an existing law of the country? (a) The Supreme Court (b) The President (c) The Prime Minister (d) The Parliament

Answer: (d) The Parliament

 

Question 5 : Of all the institutions that we have studied in this chapter, name the one that exercises the powers on each of the following matters. (a) Decision on allocation of money for developing infrastructure like roads, irrigation etc. and different welfare activities for the citizens

 

Answer (a): Lok Sabha (The Finance Ministry) (b) Considers the recommendation of a Committee on a law to regulate the stock exchange

 

Answer (b): The Parliament (c) Decides on a legal dispute between two state governments

 

Answer (c): The Supreme Court (d) Implements the decision to provide relief for the victims of an earthquake.

 

Answer (d): The Executive

 

Question 6. Why is the Prime Minister in India not directly elected by the people? Choose the most appropriate answer and give reasons for your choice. (a) In a Parliamentary democracy only the leader of the majority party in the Lok Sabha can become the Prime Minister. (b) Lok Sabha can remove the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers even before the expiry of their term. (c) Since the Prime Minister is appointed by the President there is no need for it. (d) Direct election of the Prime Minister will involve lot of expenditure on election.

Answer: In a Parliamentary democracy only the leader of the majority party in the Lok Sabha can become the Prime Minister. This is to ensure that the Prime Minister secures a majority support. This prevents him/her from being either a puppet or a dictator since he/she has to function along with a council of ministers.

Question 7 : Three friends went to watch a film that showed the hero becoming Chief Minister for a day and making big changes in the state. Imran said this is what the country needs. Rizwan said this kind of a personal rule without institutions is dangerous. Shankar said all this is a fantasy. No minister can do anything in one day. What would be your reaction to such a film?

Answer: This film is unrealistic. A single man can’t do anything alone. He have to follow procedures and guides written in constitution. A personal rule without institutions is dangerous.

Question 8 . A teacher was making preparations for a mock parliament. She called two students to act as leaders of two political parties. She gave them an option: Each one could choose to have a majority either in the mock Lok Sabha or in the mock Rajya Sabha. If this choice was given to you, which one would you choose and why?

Answer: I would choose to have a majority in the Lok Sabha as it is more powerful than the Rajya Sabha. Lok Sabha members are directly elected by the people. The leader of political party which is in majority in Lok Sabha will be appointed as prime minister which is most powerful person in the country.

Question 9. After reading the example of the reservation order, three students had different reactions about the role of the judiciary. Which view, according to you, is a correct reading of the role of judiciary?

(a) Srinivas argues that since the Supreme Court agreed with the government, it is not independent.

(b) Anjaiah says that judiciary is independent because it could have given a verdict against the government order. The Supreme Court did direct the government to modify it.

(c) Vijaya thinks that the judiciary is neither independent nor conformist, but acts as a mediator between opposing parties. The court struck a good balance between those who supported and those who opposed the order.

 

Answer: The view that Anjaiah had is correct according to my view

 

Question 10. Which of the following statements about the reasons for conducting elections are false?

(a) Elections enable people to judge the performance of the government. (b) People select the representative of their choice in an election. (c) Elections enable people to evaluate the performance of the judiciary. (d) People can indicate which policies they prefer.

Answer: (c) Elections enable people to evaluate the performance of the judiciary.

Question 11. Which of these is not a good reason to say that Indian elections are democratic?

a. India has the largest number of voters in the world.

b. India’s Election Commission is very powerful.

c. In India, everyone above the age of 18 has a right to vote.

d. In India, the losing parties accept the electoral verdict.

Answer:

(a) India has the largest number of voters in the world

Question 12. List all the different election related activities mentioned in the chapter and arrange them in a time sequence, beginning with the first activity and ending with the last. Some of these activities are given below: releasing election manifestos; counting of votes; making of voters’ list; election campaign; declaration of election results; casting of votes; ordering of re-poll; announcing election schedule; filing nomination.

Answer: Making of voters’ list → Announcing election schedule → Releasing election manifesto → Election campaign → Filing nomination → Casting of votes → Ordering of repoll → Counting of votes → Declaration of election results

Question 13: Surekha is an officer in-charge of ensuring free and fair elections in an assembly constituency in a state. Describe what should she focus on for each of the following stages of election: (a) Election campaign

Answer (a): She will have to focus on various duties such as ensure that candidates cannot bribe or threaten voters, expenditure limit is not crossed by a candidate, candidates not appeal to vote in the name of religion or caste, they not use worship place for campaign or use any government resources. (b) Polling day

Answer (b): She will have to cross check the voters’ list and check ID proof of the voters, booth capturing not take place. Ensure that Free and fair election should be conducted (c) Counting day

 

Answer (c) She have to look on counting is carried out, representatives of all parties present at counting area in order to avoid malpractices.

Question 14: The table below gives the proportion of different communities among the candidates who won elections to the US Congress. Compare these to the proportion of these communities in the population of the US. Based on this, would you suggest a system of reservations in the US Congress? If yes, why and for which communities? If no, why not?

Answer: Blacks and Hispanics should be given reservation in the US Congress as per their percentage in the US population.

Question 15: Can we draw the following conclusions from the information given in this chapter? Give two facts to support your position for each of these.

It is very easy for the party in power to win an election. Answer (c): It is not very easy for the party in power to win an election:  The ruling parties routinely lose elections.  Candidates who are known to spend a lot of money often lose elections. (d) Many reforms are needed to make our elections completely free and fair.

Answer (d): Certain Reforms are necessary to make our elections completely free and fair:  To ensure that independent and small parties not suffer in elections.  To ensure candidates with criminal records not participate.

Question 16. Chinappa was convicted for torturing his wife for dowry. Satbir was held guilty of practicing untouchability. The court did not allow either of them to contest elections. Does this decision go against the principles of democratic elections?

Answer: This decision does not go against the principles of democratic elections. Any person who is convicted for a crime has not right to remain a part of the society and hence has no right to contest the election.

Question 17: Here are some reports of electoral malpractices from different parts of the world. Is there anything that these countries can learn from India to improve their elections? What would you suggest in each case? (a) During an election in Nigeria, the officer in charge of counting votes deliberately increased the votes of one candidate and declared him elected. The court later found out that more than five lakh votes cast for one candidate were counted in favour of another.

Answer (a): In this case, representatives of each candidate should be present to make sure that the votes are counted in a fair way. (b) Just before elections in Fiji, a pamphlet was distributed warning voters that a vote for former Prime Minister, Mahendra Chaudhry will lead to bloodshed. This was a threat to voters of Indian origin.

Answer (b): The election commission should set up an enquiry into the case and debar the candidate or party involved in distributing such pamphlets. (c) In the US, each state has its own method of voting, its own procedure of counting and its own authority for conducting elections. Authorities in the state of Florida took many controversial decisions that favoured Mr. Bush in the presidential elections in 2000. But no one could change those decisions.

Answer (c): There should be a single election commission which should be free from political influence and should be responsible for conducting elections throughout the country.

Question 18. Here are some reports of malpractices in Indian elections. Identify what the problem in each case is. What should be done to correct the situation? (a) Following the announcement of elections, the minister promised to provide financial aid to reopen the closed sugar mill.

Answer (a): After announcement of election, it is not legal to announce policy decisions according to Code of Conduct. The minister should be immediately taken to task by the Election Commission. (b) Opposition parties alleged that their statements and campaign was not given due attention in Doordarshan and All India Radio.

Answer (b): The election commission must ensure that all political party are given equal opportunity to appear on Doordarshan and All India Radio. EC take action against misuse of this media. (c) An inquiry by the Election Commission showed that electoral rolls of a state contain name of 20 lakh fake voters.

Answer (c): The presence of the fake voters means that the elections were rigged by the authorities who prepared the electoral rolls. The election commission should supervise preparation of fresh electoral rolls.

(d) The hoodlums of a political party were moving with guns, physically preventing supporters of other political parties to meet the voters and attacking meetings of other parties.

Answer (d): By using hoodlums, the political party is terrorising its rivals. The election commission should order the arrest of the hoodlums and bar the party from the elections.

Question 19. Ramesh was not in class when this chapter was being taught. He came the next day and repeated what he had heard from his father. Can you tell Ramesh what is wrong with these statements? (a) Women always vote the way men tell them to. So what is the point of giving them the right to vote?

Answer (a): The statement is wrong because the policy of secret ballot ensures that an individual can vote for whoever he/she wants. Women are fully capable of taking decisions on their own and selecting the candidate they like.

(b) Party politics creates tension in society. Elections should be decided by consensus not by competition.

Answer (b): Competition works as both deterrent and motivator for the political candidates. A fear of losing the election and a motivation for winning the elections works in favour of people.

(c) Only graduates should be allowed to stand as candidates for elections.

 

Chapter 6 : Democratic Politics

Question 1. Which of the following is not an instance of an exercise of a fundamental right?

(a) Workers from Bihar go to the Punjab to work on the farms

(b) Christian missions set up a chain of missionary schools

(c) Men and women government employees get the same salary

(d) Parents’ property is inherited by their children

Answer: (d) Parents’ property is inherited by their children

Question 2. Which of the following freedoms is not available to an Indian citizen?

(a) Freedom to criticise the government

(b) Freedom to participate in armed revolution

(c) Freedom to start a movement to change the government

(d) Freedom to oppose the central values of the Constitution

Answer:

(b) Freedom to participate in armed revolution

(c) Freedom to start a movement to change the government

(d) Freedom to oppose the central values of the Constitution

 

Question 3. Which of the following rights is available under the Indian Constitution? (a) Right to work (b) Right to adequate livelihood (c) Right to protect one’s culture (d) Right to privacy Answer : (c) Right to protect one’s culture

 

Question 4. Name the Fundamental Right under which each of the following rights falls: (a) Freedom to propagate one’s religion Answer (a): Right to freedom of religion (b) Right to life Answer : (b) Right to freedom (c) Abolition of untouchability Answer (c): Right to equality (d) Ban on bonded labour Answer : (d) Right against exploitation

 

Question 5. Which of these statements about the relationship between democracy and rights is more valid? Give reasons for your preference. (a) Every country that is a democracy gives rights to its citizens. (b) Every country that gives rights to its citizens is a democracy. (c) Giving rights is good, but it is not necessary for a democracy.

 

Answer: (a) Every country that is a democracy gives rights to its citizens. Every country which provides rights to its citizens might not be a democracy but it is essential for a democracy to provide rights to its citizens.

 

Question 6. Are these restrictions on the right to freedom justified? Give reasons for your answer. (a) Indian citizens need permission to visit some border areas of the country for reasons of security.

 

Answer: (a) This is justified. Right to freedom is for all the citizens which grants to move freely anywhere in the country but due to security reasons some areas are restricted as the freedom of movement by every citizen can prove dangerous for the security of India. (b) Outsiders are not allowed to buy property in some areas to protect the interest of the local population.

Answer: (b) In certain cases this can be justified to maintain the cultural or ethnic identity of local population. (c) The government bans the publication of a book that can go against the ruling party in the next elections

Answer: (c) This restriction can’t be justified as it violates the freedom of speech and expression right.

 

Question 7. Manoj went to a college to apply for admission into an MBA course. The clerk refused to take his application and said “You, the son of a sweeper, wish to be a manager! Has anyone done this job in your community? Go to the municipality office and apply for a sweeper’s position”. Which of Manoj’s fundamental rights are being violated in this instance? Spell these out in a letter from Manoj to the district collector.

 

Answer: Right to equality is violated here as according to this every citizen of India before the law whether he is from upper or lower caste or rich or poor. Right ot freedom is also violated as it grants personal liberty. He or She can carry any profession or business.

 

Question 8. When Madhurima went to the property registration office, the Registrar told her, “You can’t write your name as Madhurima Banerjee d/o A. K. Banerjee. You are married, so you must give your husband’s name. Your husband’s surname is Rao. So your name should be changed to Madhurima Rao.” She did not agree. She said “If my husband’s name has not changed after marriage, why should mine?” In your opinion who is right in this dispute? And why?

 

Answer: In this dispute, Madhurima is right. The Registrar, by questioning and interfering in her personal affairs, is violating her right to freedom. Also, the social question of adopting the husband’s surname has roots in a religious practice which treats women as weaker and inferior. In lieu of this, forcing Madhurima to change her name is an infringement on her right to equality and right to freedom of religion.

 

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