Science & Technology Current Affairs 2018 - Current Affairs Today

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  • India successfully tests Anti-Tank Guided Missile HELINA in Pokhran

    The indigenously designed and developed guided bombs Smart Anti Airfield Weapon (SAAW) successfully flight tested from IAF aircraft at Chandan range in Jaisalmer.

    Saudi to introduce free nap pods to the pilgrims of hajj

    Saudi Arabia successfully tested nap-pods. The nap-pods will be provided free of cost. The free nap pods will be rolled out in Saudi Arabia as a measure to modernise the centuries-old practice of Hajj. It aims at providing a place to rest for the pilgrims who cannot afford to book hotels on site during Hajj.  The pod is made up of fibreglass pod. It is of 3m long and 1m in height. It is also provided with a mattress, clean sheets, air conditioning and a large, well-lit mirror. To reduce space, it can be lined up horizontally or stacked vertically. The government has also introduced apps for on-the-spot translation and emergency medical care.

    Microsoft and Apollo Hospitals builds AI to predict CVD risk

    Microsoft India and Apollo Hospitals together have built an Artificial Intelligence powered CardioVascular Disease (CVD) risk score Application Program Interface (API). The API is built on Microsoft’s cloud computing platform Azure. It is the first of its kind in India. It has been designed to predict the risk of CVD in the Indian population. The aim is to prevent heart disease, save lives.  It is expected that AI can augment human ingenuity. It would also enable doctors across the Apollo network of hospitals to drive preventive cardiac care across the country. The collaboration is because Microsoft needed to partner (Apollo hospitals) with a firm that can provide key ingredients such as relevant data and the right level of domain expertise in cardiology to build the technology.

    Albany Medical Center Prize 2018 awarded to 3 US Scientists

    Three US scientists James Allison, Carl June and Steven Rosenberg were declared winners 2018 Albany Medical Center Prize in Medicine and Biomedical Research. It is the second-highest value prize in medicine and biomedical research, awarded by the Albany Medical Center.

    Helium steps into 150th year since its discovery

    Helium (He), with atomic number 2, was discovered on 18th August 1868 by French astronomer Jules Janssen along with Norman Lockyer. The first evidence was discovered while the astronomers during a total solar eclipse in Guntur, India. It was initially named as D3 as it resembled D1 and D2 Fraunhofer line lines of sodium. Later on March 26, 1895, the Scottish chemist Sir William Ramsay isolated helium on Earth.  Helium is the key to astrophysics. Liquid helium is used in cryogenics and  MRI scanners. It is also used in pressurizing and purge gas, as a protective atmosphere for arc welding and in processes such as growing crystals to make silicon wafers. In common it is used as a lifting gas in balloons and airships.

    Ashok Leyland unveiled Innoline, its new technology

    Ashok Leyland, the Hinduja Group’s flagship company, introduced Innoline technology. Innoline is a BS IV engine driven by an in-line fuel pump. This technology is a combination of the indigenous mechanical pump for BS III engines with iEGR (Intelligent Exhaust Gas Recirculation) technology. iGER is a renowned technology with the in-line pump or SADA pump. This in-line pump is well-known in the Indian commercial vehicle industry and is preferred by drivers and service mechanics alike, Ashok Leyland said in a statement.

    PhonePe partners with IRCTC app Rail connect to facilitate convenient payments

    This will enable PhonePe’s 100 million-plus users to now pay directly from their bank accounts using UPI, credit and debit cards and also the PhonePe wallet. Indian Railway Catering and Tourism Corporation (IRCTC) app will have a trusted digital payment platform for the transactions.

    Madhya Pradesh Chief Minister Shivraj Singh Chouhan launches Dial 100 Police Mobile App

    Shivraj Singh Chouhan announced that more CCTV cameras will be fixed outside schools, public and private areas. The main aim of the app is to help the needy at the time of emergency.

    Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced manned space mission taking Indian astronauts to space on board 'Gaganyaan' by 2022

    The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) will have two unmanned missions and spacecraft will be launched using GSLV Mark-III. GSLV Mark III launch vehicle will be fully equipped with crew module and life support system for a manned mission in the next two years.  If successful, India would be fourth nation to achieve that feat.

    Researchers found that Aspirin may help to prevent AIDS

    Researchers have found that Aspirin which is an affordable and globally available drug could help prevent HIV transmission. They tested the effect of acetylsalicylic acid or aspirin and other anti-inflammatory drugs on HIV target cells. It showed that Aspirin was the most effective as it reduced the number of HIV target cells.  Researches are being done whether Aspirin can reduce the level of target cells will actually prevent HIV infections. If the research turns out as expected then it could be a strategy for HIV prevention which is not only inexpensive but easily accessed globally. 

    India to launch its second lunar mission Chandrayaan-2 on January 3 next year

    Indian Space Research Organisation(ISRO)is aiming to launch the mission but the window to land on the lunar surface is open till March 2019.  The 800-crore rupees is the overall cost of lunar mission named “Chandrayaan-2” The 3,890-kg Chandrayaan-2, which will be launched onboard the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mk-3, will orbit around the moon.

    ISRO plans to telecast its own ISRO TV Channel

    The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is planning to celebrate Vikram Sarabhai centenary celebration starting in August 2019. This is to honour the visionary scientist and its legendary founding father Vikram Sarabhai.  As a part of its celebration, ISRO has planned to telecast a dedicated ISRO TV channel to showcase ISRO's space applications, developments and science issues. It aims at targeting youngsters and the people in remote areas in their language. It has also planned to organise a series of activities nationally and internationally to commemorate the great international scientist. The initial outlay for the planned events costs up to Rs.50 crore. Vikram Sarabhai, the architect of the Indian space programme, the first ISRO chief and renowned cosmic ray scientist, was born on August 12, 1919. 

    NASA launched Parker Solar Probe To Touch Sun

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) launched off a $1.5 billion spacecraft toward the Sun to protect the Earth by unveiling the mysteries of dangerous solar storms. The probe is designed Sun's mysterious atmosphere known as corona coming within 3.83 million miles (6.16 million kilometres). It is the first major mission under Nasa's Living With a Star program with 1.5 billions.  

    Google launches Video Q and A App Cameos Aimed At Celebrities

    This app allows people to answer questions about themselves, then share those answers directly on Google. With the Cameos app, famous personalities can address fans questions in their own voice, instead of leaving the answers up to other websites.

    Astronomers spotted a very distant radio galaxy

    Astronomers, from Pune, used an Indian telescope, Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT), and discovered the most distant radio galaxy ever known. The galaxy is located at a distance of 12 billion light-years. One of the very rare objects in the universe is the Radio galaxies. They are colossal galaxies with a supermassive black hole in their centre that actively accretes gas and dust from its surroundings. The discovery of such galaxies at extremely large distances will help in understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies.

    Excise Department used drones with camera to identify ganja plants in Karnataka

    Excise Department has employed drones fitted with a camera for surveillance in areas vulnerable for the cultivation of ganja. It served well by finding banned crops being cultivated in a clandestine manner in the Shivamogga district of Karnataka.  The department had used three drones for surveillance. Each drone has a maximum flight distance of 1.5 kilometre and maximum flight time of 20 minutes. Fifteen Excise personnel have been deployed for the operation.

    Scientists found a new compound which might reverse human cell ageing

    Scientists have developed a new compound which is believed to reverse ageing in human cells. This might lead to the basis for a new generation anti-degenerative drugs. Compounds namely AP39, AP123 and RT01 were designed in a way that they can selectively deliver minute quantities of the gas hydrogen sulphide to the mitochondria, the power stations, in cells. By delivering so, it helps the old or damaged cells to generate the energy needed for survival and to reduce senescence. These compounds produced a 40-50% drop in the number of senescent blood vessel cells.

    Mike Pence disclosed the plans of U.S. in building its 6th Space Force

    Mike Pence, U.S. Vice-President, disclosed the details of the plans to build a U.S. Space Force, the sixth branch of America’s massive military. It was President Donald Trump’s vision to create the Space Force. Trump said that the Pentagon needs it to tackle vulnerabilities in space and assert U.S. dominance in orbit. Mr.Pence also said that an independent Space Force was necessary to counter Russia and China, who are working towards anti-satellite capabilities. U.S. will be investing an additional $8 billion in U.S. space security systems over the next five years.

    Tokyo to deploy facial recognition in the Summer Olympics 2020

    The Summer Olympics of 2020 has been planned to happen in Tokyo. In Tokyo 2020 the athletes and the staff will be scanned by cutting-edge facial recognition technology. This is the first time facial recognition ever that is to be deployed for all the people involved in the Olympics at all venue. The electronics giant NEC has developed the technology in order to prevent fraudulent entry by people borrowing, stealing or faking an ID card. The technology will take only 0.3 seconds to match up a face with a pre-registered photo.

    Apple gets patent for Face ID feature on Mac

    After incorporating the facial recognition feature in iPhone X, Apple could be replacing its Touch ID in Mac by Face ID with gesture controls in the future. This patent suggests how body language more generally -- head, torso and arm -- could be used to signal intent to the Mac.

    An invasive agriculture pest Fall Armyworm is found in Karnataka

    The Indian Council for Agricultural Research (ICAR) discovered an invasive agricultural pest Fall Armyworm ( Spodoptera frugiperda ) in Karnataka. Shivamogga’s University of Agricultural and Horticultural Sciences Entomologists C.M. Kalleshwara Swamy and Sharanabasappa suspected the unusual happening in maize crops in Shivamogga this year. A major maize pest in North America, the Fall Armyworm arrived in Africa in 2016. It has threatened the continent’s maize crop, a staple which feeds 300 million people. The pest feeds on around 100 different crops, such as vegetables, rice, and sugarcane and it spreads in no time. The Karnataka finding is the first report of the pest in Asia.

    Technology to be used to tackle corruption in Home Guards, Karnataka

    Roopa D, Inspector-General of Police, Home Guards and Civil Defence, announced that the department is to introduce technologies such as biometric and automated duty rotation systems in the Home Guards organisation in Karnataka. It is to wipe out corruption in the department.  It has been decided that the Home Guards will have attendance on the biometric system installed on tabs so that attendance could be taken in the parade grounds. The same biometric method would be used while training Home Guards.

    TRAI integrates Its Mobile App DND 2.0 & MyCall With UMANG Platform

    Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) MyCall is a user-friendly application for Crowdsourced Voice Call Quality Monitoring.  DND (Do Not Disturb) Services App enables smartphone users to register their mobile number under DND and report spam messages or calls to avoid Unsolicited Commercial Communication (UCC)/Telemarketing Calls/SMS.  UMANG is developed by National e-Governance Division (NeGD), Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY).   

    India's moon mission Chandrayaan 2 launch delayed for 2nd time

    The launch of India's second Moon mission Chandrayaan-2 has been delayed for the second time from October to January next year. Chandrayaan-2 will be ISRO’s first time attempt to land a rover on the Moon. The launch was first planned in April and was pushed to October. Reason for Delay in Launch:- ISRO faced two setbacks this year, losing communication with GSAT-6A satellite and failing PSLV-C39 mission.

    ISRO to launch its heaviest satellite GSAT 11 on November 30

    Indian Space Research Organisation's (ISRO) heaviest satellite so far - the GSAT-11 (weighing over 5.7 tonnes i.e., 5,700-kg)- which the space agency had cleared for launch in June, will take off a spaceport in French Guiana on 30 November. GSAT-11 carries 40 transponders in the Ku-band and the Ka-band frequencies, and is capable of providing high bandwidth connectivity with up to 14 GB per second data transfer speed. ♦ GSAT full form - Geo synchronous SATellites. ♦  ISRO chairman - K Sivan.

    Google officially launches Android 9.0 named 'Pie'

    Google announced 'Pie' as the name for the latest version of the Android operating system, succeeding Android Oreo. The Android P or 'Pie' version has begun rolling out to Pixel phones and will be available to other devices later this year. Other Important Highlights: Since Android 1.5, Google has named each version of its mobile operating system after a sweet food — moving sequentially through the letters of the alphabet. ♦ Android 1.5 Cupcake (April 2009) ♦ Android 1.6 Donut (September 2009) ♦ Android 2.0/2.1 Éclair (October 2009, January 2010) ♦ Android 2.2 Froyo (May 2010) ♦ Android 2.3 Gingerbread (December 2010) ♦ Android 3.0/3.1/3.2 Honeycomb (February 2011, May 2011, July 2011) ♦ Android 4.0 Ice Cream Sandwich (October 2011) ♦ Android 4.1/4.2/4.3 Jelly Bean (July 2012, November 2012, July 2013) ♦ Android 4.4 KitKat (October 2013) ♦ Android 5.0/5.1 Lollipop (November 2014, March 2015) ♦ Android 6.0 Marshmallow (October 2015) ♦ Android 7.0/7.1 Nougat (August 2016, December 2016) ♦ Android 8.0/8.1 Oreo (August 2017, December 2017)

    United Kingdom announces new organ donation plan to address Indian-origin shortages

    The proposed new system of consent for organ and tissue donation is expected to come into effect in England in 2020. This announcement comes as a recent report called on the National Health Service (NHS) to take more proactive action to address the high death rate among Indian-origin people in Britain due to low levels of organ donation within the community.

    Chinese researchers create worlds first single-chromosome yeast

    Researchers from China have claimed to have created the world’s first single-chromosome yeast while not affecting the majority of its functions. The researchers involved in the creation are molecular biologists from the Centre for Excellence in Molecular Plant Sciences in China. The research was published on the website of the journal – Nature on August 2, 2018.

    Himachal Pradesh launches Shaur Nahin mobile application

    Himachal Pradesh Chief Minister Jai Ram Thakur launched ‘horn not ok’ awareness campaign and ‘shaur nahin’ (no noise) mobile application. The main aim is to spread awareness of unnecessary blowing horn as it creates unnecessary noise pollution. The app will enable the general public to report cases of noise pollution. It has settings for two types of users general public and officers both of whom have a one-time password (OTP).

    NASA selects Indian origin Sunita Williams among 9 astronauts for human spaceflight

    Williams has been named for the Boeing programme to the ISS (International Space Station), the first test flight scheduled to take place in the middle of 2019. The eight active NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) astronauts and one former astronaut-turned-corporate crew member will launch on Boeing CST-100 Starliner and SpaceX Dragoncapsules to the International Space Station beginning in 2019. The Eight other astronauts are: Victor Glover, Robert Behnken, Michael Hopkins, Douglas Hurley, Eric Boe, Christopher Ferguson, Josh Cassada, and Nicole Mann. 

    HAL along with with IIT-K tested RUAV

    Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd (HAL) and IIT-Kanpur have together developed a 10 kg Rotary Wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (RUAV). It was tested successfully and flown for the first time in Bengaluru. The 10-minute flight of the helicopter-like RUAV is powered by a 2-stroke petrol engine. The RUAV can carry a payload of 2.5-kg or instrument including a live-streaming video camera. It can operate for an hour and travel 8-10 km. After this success, HAL’s Rotary Wing R&D Centre will develop heavier RUAVs with weapons as payloads. Apart from military and civil helicopters, HAL designs and develops RUAV for defence, paramilitary forces and homeland security.

    Telangana government asked ICRISAT to study the Mission Kakatiya project

    International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) inked a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with the Catchment Area Development Authority of Telangana Irrigation Department at the State Secretariat.  Upon this, Telangana government has asked the ICRISAT to conduct a research on the impact of Mission Kakatiya programme.  The research would be conducted for 2 two years covering various aspects like the impact of de-siltation on water availability for irrigation, changes in cropping pattern and recharge of groundwater. It would also incorporate economic valuation in terms of nutrients applied.

    World's 1st Hindi-Speaking Robot Rashmi

    Ranchi-based software developer Ranjit Srivastava is developing the world's first Hindi-speaking humanoid robot called Rashmi.  The robot will speak Bhojpuri, Marathi, and English, and is equipped with facial expressions and recognition systems.

    Reliance Jio partnered with SBI for digital services

    RIL’s telecom subsidiary Reliance Jio partnered with State Bank of India (SBI) to extend the next generation of digital banking and payments services to customers.  MyJio platform will enable SBI YONO’s digital banking features and solutions for a seamless, integrated and superior customer experience. It will also extend the financial services capabilities of SBI and Jio Payments Bank.

    DTAB to impose ban on Oxytocin

    The Drug Technical Advisory Board (DTAB) recommended the Union Ministry of Health and Family Welfare to lift the ban on Oxytocin. Under the Drugs and Cosmetics Act 1940 and Rules 1945, the ban will be imposed citing the serious misuse of oxytocin in the dairy sector. Also, DTAB suggested that only Karnataka Antibiotics and Pharmaceuticals Ltd., a PSU, could manufacture and supply the drug across the country.              

    The successful test on Naval LCA marks a milestone

    The indigenous Light Combat Aircraft (LCA), Naval Prototype 2 (NP2) successfully landed on the Shore Based Test Facility (SBTF) in Goa. This trial is a milestone towards completion of CCT trials of LCA Navy.  The Arrestor Hook System (AHS) for Ship Deck operations of LCA Naval version was designed and developed by Aircraft Research and Design Centre (ARDC) wing of Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL). The combined effort by HAL,  Aeronautical Development Agency (ADA), Center for Military Airworthiness & Certification (CEMILAC), Regional Director Aeronautical Quality Assurance (RDAQA) and Navy led to the success. Navy will conduct a series of such trials and the Naval LCA is expected to be on INS Vikramaditya by the end of 2018.

    Facebook to introduce time management tools

    Facebook (and Instagram) has announced that it is to introduce a time management tool which will be like a daily reminder. This tool will help people to manage their time by restricting them in spending time on the platforms.  Using this tool the users can set a time limit to be spent on the app. They will be alerted when they reach the time limit. It is also introducing an option to deactivate notifications on smartphones.

    USFDA approved Zydus Cadila for its antibacterial drug

    Zydus Cadila Pharmaceutical received its approval from the United States Food & Drug Administration (USFDA) to manufacture and market its antibacterial drug Azithromycin for Oral Suspension USP. The drug is used to treat bacterial infections.  The medication is used to treat infections in the respiratory system, skin and ear and sexually transmitted diseases. The drug is to be manufactured at the group’s formulations manufacturing facility at Baddi.

    TRAI announced auction of 5G spectrum for Rs.492 crore per MHz

    The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) announced a mega spectrum auction of 5G services at a pan-India reserve price of about Rs.492 crore per MHz for the first time in India. TRAI has introduced a reduction of  43% in the reserve prices of 700 MHz band spectrum.  In 2016, when TRAI held the spectrum auction there were no takers because of high pricing. Previously, in 2016 the recommended pan-India reserve price for 700 MHz was Rs. 11,500 crore and it has been reduced to Rs.6,538 crore per MHz in 2018. The major participants are Bharti Airtel, Vodafone-Idea and Reliance Jio.

    Govt launched e Aksharayan Software in 7 Indian languages

    E-Aksharayan is free, desktop software for converting scanned printed Indian Language documents into a fully editable text format in Unicode encoding. The software supports editing in seven Indian languages - Hindi, Bangla, Malayalam, Gurmukhi, Tamil, Kannada & Assamese.

    Nokia signed world's first big 5G deal worth $3.5 billion

    Finland's Nokia will supply T-Mobile, the third biggest U.S. mobile carrier, with $3.5 billion in next-generation 5G network gear, marking the world's biggest 5G deal so far. In February, T-Mobile was working both with Nokia and rival network vendor Ericsson of Sweden to build out 5G networks in 30 U.S. cities during 2018.

    WhatsApp launched 4 person group video calling

    Both Android and iOS users can now hold audio and video conversations with up to four people. The ability to make video calls in WhatsApp (owned by Facebook) was first launched in 2016.

    NASA's TESS started its planet searching operation

    NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS), the newest planet hunter, has started its search for planets around nearby stars. TESS was launched in April 2018. It began its science operations on July 25.  It is expected to transmit its first series of science data back to Earth in August. The mission will last for the next two years monitoring the nearest and brightest stars for periodic dips in their light. These events, called transits, suggest that a planet may be passing in front of its star.  It is expected that thousands of planets using this method can be found and some of which could potentially support life.

    Swelect introduced a technique to produce pure drinking water using sunlight and air

    Swelect Energy Systems Ltd. has partnered with the U.S. based Zero Mass Water for the project ‘Source’, a hydro (solar) panel. It aims at providing pure drinking water using sunlight and air.  In this, the water vapour from the air will be drawn into the Source through fans. As the air flow passes through a condenser, the vapour will be collected.  It then flows into a reservoir where it is mineralised with calcium and magnesium. Water is pumped through a polishing cartridge before being delivered to a dispenser. The cost of one panel is Rs.2 lakh. It can generate up to 5 litres of water/day depending on humidity and sunlight.

    USFDA approved Aurobindo Pharma for generic anticoagulant injection

    United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) has approved Aurobindo Pharma Limited for the manufacturing and marketing of  Bivalirudin injection with the strength of 250 mg/vial. It is used as an anticoagulant in patients with certain conditions.  The approved Abbreviated New Drug Application (ANDA) is a generic equivalent to the reference listed drug product Angiomax injection of The Medicines Company. Aurobindo Pharma has a total of 381 ANDA approvals from the USFDA. The drug will be launched in the month of September. 

    AIIMS has developed a diagnostic test with high sensitivity and specificity for TB meningitis

    A team led by Prof. Jaya Sivaswami Tyagi from the Department of Biotechnology at All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) has developed the diagnostic test for TB meningitis with nearly 100% sensitivity and about 91% specificity. The diagnostic test is based on a derivative of a DNA aptamer that shows high binding affinity in the nanomolar range and high specificity to a TB antigen (HspX). The performance of the diagnostic test was evaluated in 87 cerebrospinal fluid samples obtained from paediatric subjects. The currently used diagnostic methods of microscopy and culture of cerebrospinal fluid are with huge limitations in terms of sensitivity and time (up to 8 weeks). Even GeneXpert has only 55% sensitivity. The introduced diagnostic test for TB meningitis has been patented by AIIMS and Translational Health Science and Technology Institute (THSTI) and licensed to AptaBharat Innovation Pvt Limited.

    EIL has launched Electric Vehicle charging and battery swapping infrastructure initiative

    Essel Infraprojects Ltd, (EIL) has launched Electric Vehicle charging and battery swapping infrastructure initiative under Essel Green Mobility Limited in Lucknow. Essel Infraprojects is planning to invest Rs.1,750 crore on this project. Under the project, EIL has initiated 250 charging stations, 1,000 battery swapping stations in 20 cities of Uttar Pradesh. EIL will also invest in the deployment of 25,000 e-rickshaws simultaneously. This will create around 50,000 job opportunities.

    Government to introduce DigiYatra for air passengers

    Government is in the process to introduce Digiyatra facility to enhance the experience of air passengers. It will be one among the Digital India programme that is coordinated by the Ministry of Civil Aviation. The aim is to reduce the queues at airports and bring efficiency to the boarding process. It is to place Indian Aviation amongst the most innovative aviation networks in the world. In this facility, the image of the passenger will be captured as he/she enters the airport, and then the passenger will be able to go through the full lifecycle of the travel in a hassle-free manner. To access this facility one needs to enrol into DigiYatra program through AirSewa app. The DigiYatra programme will be launched at airports in Bengaluru, Hyderabad, Kolkata, Varanasi and Vijayawada.

    Mangalores KMC doctors identified a rare blood group called P Null phenotype

    A team of doctors, from the Blood Bank of Kasturba Medical College (KMC) Mangalore, came across a rare blood group and identified it as ‘pp’ or ‘P null’ phenotype.  Immunohaematology work-up was performed by the team and International Blood Group Reference Laboratory (IBGRL), Bristol, U.K., confirmed it by doing a serological test. This is the first time that the P blood group null phenotype has been detected in India.

    India into deep ocean exploration

    India has allocated Rs.8,000 crore for a deep ocean exploration. This plan will extend for 5 years. The Union Earth Sciences Ministry revealed the blueprint of the ‘Deep Ocean Mission (DOM)’. The plan includes an offshore desalination plant based on tidal energy and developing a submersible vehicle that can go to a depth of at least 6,000 metres with three people on board. Deep Ocean Mission will focus on advanced technologies that will be used for deep-sea mining, underwater vehicles, underwater robotics and ocean climate change advisory services.

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