14 hours ago
Harvard researchers have developed metalens, an electronic flat lens that works like the human eye.
About the Lens:
The technology used in the new artificial eye will revolutionize the lenses used in cameras, VR/AR headsets and eyewear. The special features of the lens include simultaneous focus, control of aberrations caused by astigmatisms and image shifts.
The Lens demonstrates the feasibility of embedded optical zoom and autofocus for a wide range of applications, including cell phone cameras. It uses tiny nanostructures to focus light and hence the entire visible light spectrum at a single point.
2 days ago
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), United States (US) space agency confirmed the next phase of development of the Europa Clipper Mission. It is an interplanetary mission to Jupiter’s smallest moon Europa with the target. It is conducting an in-depth exploration of Jupiter’s moon Europa whether the icy moon can have suitable conditions for sustaining life and increase our insights into astrobiology.
The space agency’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, the development of the Europa Clipper mission in partnership with the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory for the Science Mission Directorate.
The mission is managed by the Planetary Missions Program Office at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama.Jupiter’s Galilean moon Europa consists of a huge ocean of liquid water beneath its icy shell.
The water is in contact with the rocky core of the moon, which according to space scientists, make a range of interesting chemical reactions possible.The astrobiologists consider 1,940-miles-wide (3,120 kilometres) Europa moon to be one of the best bets to host alien life in the solar system.
Headquarters: Washington, D.C., United States
Founder: Dwight D. Eisenhower
Founded: 29 July 1958, United States
2 days ago
The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) released the first visuals of the moon captured by Chandrayaan-2 from a distance of 2,650 km from the lunar surface on 22 August. The photograph was taken on 21 August. In the image sent by Chandrayaan-2, ISRO has identified two landmarks on the moon, Mare Orientale basin, and Apollo crater. The first Moon image was captured at a height of about 2650km from the Lunar surface.
The Mare Orientale is shaped like a target ring bull's-eye. It is located on the Moon's extreme western edge which is difficult to see from an earthbound perspective. It is over 3 billion years old, about 950 km across and was formed by the impact of an asteroid sized object.
Apollo is a 538km diameter double-ringed impact crater in the southern hemisphere of the far side of the Moon.
2 days ago
Russia has sent a humanoid robot to the International Space Station (ISS) on a 10-day mission. The aim is to support the astronauts on board. The name of the humanoid robot is Fedor. The Skybot F-850 became the first humanoid robot to be sent to space by Russia after it was launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on 22 August. The spacecraft has been scheduled to stay until September 7, 2019.
The robot is travelling in an unmanned Soyuz MS-14 spacecraft. Fedor is expected to dock at the ISS on 23 August. The spacecraft holds more than 650kg of cargo, including medical supplies and food rations for the crew waiting at the station. It is also expected that Fedor will eventually carry out more dangerous tasks, like spacewalks.
3 days ago
NASA scientists are crossing Greenland on a mission to track melting ice.Greenland melting faster in the last decade and this summer it has seen two of the biggest melts on record since 2012.
Global warming is the chief culprit of the melting ice issue .Both warmer air and warmer water are eating away at Greenland it causes to lose billions of tons of ice daily in the summer.A team of scientists and engineers aboard a research plane are dropping probes into the ice to help figure out which is the bigger cause.If water is playing a bigger role than scientists had thought, that could mean seas will be rising faster than expected.
4 days ago
An IIT-Delhi student formulated a kind of reusable sanitary napkins that are made from composite banana fiber. These napkins can last up to 2 years and can be reused around 120 times.
Reusable sanitary napkins:
The reusable pads are ultra-thin and are highly absorbent with Lock Technology that makes the pad leakproof and avoids creating any rashes. These pads can be washed in cold water with detergents after every use. The cost of reusable napkins is Rs.199. The designed product will save up to 75% of the cost.
The aim of the reusable sanitary pads is to address the disposable pad waste burdening the planet. The product is also concerned about women hygiene and to make their life simpler without any discomforts.
Need for reusable sanitary napkins:
Most of the sanitary napkins are made of synthetic materials and plastic. These plastics can take more than 50-60 years to decompose. This enormous amount of menstrual waste is usually dumped in landfills or thrown in open burnt etc is creating a hazard for the environment and air pollution hazard.
The Menstrual Hygiene Alliance of India (MHAI) reported that about 336 million menstruating women in India use disposable sanitary pads summing up to 121 million. India has around 12.3 billion disposable sanitary napkins every year with a majority of these are non-biodegradable.
August 20, 2019
Indian's first-ever mission aimed for a soft landing on the Moon's south polar region, Chandrayaan-2, was inserted into Moon's orbit on 20 August. The entry was confirmed by the Indian Space Agency, ISRO. Chandrayaan-2 was launched on July 22 and had left the Earth's orbit on August 14. Before reaching the final orbit, the spacecraft will now undergo four-orbit manoeuvres about 100 km from the lunar surface.
Chandrayaan-2 was precisely inserted in the defined orbit. Following its entry in the lunar orbit, there will be four more orbit manoeuvres to make the spacecraft enter its final orbit passing over the lunar poles at a distance of about 100 km from the moon's surface.
Various research and monitoring centres such as The Mission Operations Complex (MOX) at ISRO Telemetry, Tracking and Command Network (ISTRAC) in Bengaluru with support from Indian Deep Space Network (IDSN) antennas at Byalalu has been continuously monitoring the health of the spacecraft.
The mission will help scientists to gain a better understanding of the origin. The detailed topographical studies, comprehensive mineralogical analyses, and a host of other experiments on the lunar surface that will be conducted on the Moon will help mankind to understand the evolution of the Moon.
August 20, 2019
K Thangaraj, chief scientist at the Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology(CCMB), Hyderabad, Telangana, won this year’s J C Bose Fellowship. The award is given for his outstanding contribution in the field of population and medical genomics on August 17, 2019. His research work includes the genetic basis of male infertility, cardiovascular disease, sex determination, mitochondrial disorders, ayur genomics and forensic genetics.
He established the association of mitochondrial DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) variations with several disorders which is the first in India.
JC Bose fellowship
It is awarded to active scientists and engineers in recognition of their outstanding performance and contributions by the Science and Engineering Research Board, Department of Science and Technology, Govt. of India.
The award is named after Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose. He is the inventor of crescograph(a device used to measure growth of plants). He is also known as the father of Bengali science fiction. The duration of the fellowship is 5 years. Each fellowship receives Rs10 Lakh per annum for conferences and other expenses.
August 18, 2019
TB Alliance's new drug Pretomanid was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA). Along with it, the new oral three-drug regimen for the extensively-drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) got its approval. It is estimated to have a mortality rate of 60%. Pretomanid was approved under the Limited Population Pathway for Antibacterial and Antifungal Drugs (LPAD pathway).
The treatment includes a combination of pretomanid tablets with bedaquiline and linezolid. This combination is collectively referred to as the BPaL regimen. It has an efficacy rate of 90%.
As per the report by World Health Organization (WHO), the drugs earlier had a success rate of only 34% for XDR-TB and 55% for multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) cases. These medicines also had severe side-effects like deafness, numbness, joint pain, renal failure hormonal imbalance, vertigo, among others.
In 2015-2017, Pretomanid was tested on 109 patients with XDR-TB and MDR-TB from South Africa. 95 patients were successfully treated after a 6 months trial and a follow-up of six months was also done.
The new regimen is needed to be given only for six-months whereas in previous treatments it was eight antibiotics every day for 18 months or more depending on the severity.
August 18, 2019
Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) finalised India's first National Essential Diagnostics List (NEDL). India has now become the first country to compile such a list. The move comes after the challeges faced by ICMR which decided that diagnostics serve a key role in improving health and quality of life.
NEDL aims to bridge the current regulatory system’s gap. The current system does not cover all the medical devices and in-vitro diagnostic device (IVD).
The newly-introduced system is equipped to manage only the few notified devices. The list would provide guidance to the government to decide the kind of diagnostic tests that different healthcare facilities in villages and remote areas require.
August 18, 2019
Central Board of Secondary Education conducts the 13th edition of the Central Teacher Eligibility Test (CTET) .The exam will be conducted on 08-12-2019. The test will be conducted in 20 languages in 110 cities all over the country. The Information Bulleting containing details of examination, syllabus, languages, eligibility criteria, examination fee, examination cities, and important dates will be available on CTET official website www.ctet.nic.in from 19-08-2019.
Candidates are requested to download the Information Bulletin only from above mentioned website and read the same carefully before applying. Candidates have to apply online only through CTET website www.ctet.nic.in. The online application process will start from 19-08-2019. The last date for submitting online application is 18-09-2019 and fee can be paid upto 23-09- 2019.
Central Teacher Eligibility Test (CTET)
The CTET exam is conducted for two papers - Paper I is meant for Primary stage (for classes 1 to 5) teachers and Paper II is meant for Elementary stage (for classes 6 to 8) teachers. Candidates who fulfill the eligibility criteria for both papers can apply for both papers. The exam is conducted to certify the eligibility of teachers to teach in CBSE-affiliated schools. CBSE generally conducts the CTET examination twice in a year, once in July and once in December. The result for the July 2019 CTET exam was released on July 30th in which around 3.5 candidates had participated out of which 2.15 lakh qualified from Paper I and 1.37 lakh from Paper-II.
August 14, 2019
The Central Government launched a mobile application through which people will be able to get their household waste picked up by urban municipal bodies. The people have to pay to civic bodies to avail the service through Swachh Nagar app. They can track the waste-collection vehicle on the app. The main aim is to ensure the accountability of municipal corporations. According to the Union Housing and Urban Affairs Ministry. Launching Swachh Survekshan 2020.The theme is Cleanliness is Our Right, the minister Hardeep Singh Puri survey's major focus has always been on citizen engagement through feedback or indicators involving their participation.The citizen-centric focus enhanced substantially .There are 24 states and more than 3,800 cities have been certified Open Defecation-Free (ODF). The government has set a target of making the country ODF by October 2, The Swachh Nagar app, the ministry's Secretary Durga Shanker Mishra people will be able to use the app to have solid waste, construction and demolition waste and wet waste picked up by the local civic body after making a payment.
August 13, 2019
Researchers from the Max Planck Institute, Germany have found the largest black hole ever. It was named Holmberg 15A. The researchers are to further continue studying the massive blackhole and will conduct more complex and detailed modelling surrounding it. The study will help them figure out how exactly these black holes are formed and how many such massive blackholes are yet to be discovered.
The black hole was observed at the center of Holm 15A, the central galaxy of Abell 85 which is about 700 million light-years away. The radius of the black hole is about radius is about 790 Astronomical unit (AU).
Holm 15A is more than twice as large as the previous observed record-setter at 40 billion times the mass of the Sun, and 10,000 times the mass of the black hole at the core of the Milky Way. The black hole was spotted by using data from the Very Large Telescope array.
An Astronomical Unit (AU) is an unit of length, roughly equal to 150 million kilometers, that is used to measure the average distance between Earth and the Sun. AUs are generally used to measure distances within our Solar System.
August 13, 2019
Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) said that Chandrayaan-2 is to enter the moon's orbit on 20 August. ISRO is to perform a maneuvers called trans-lunar injection, by which Chandrayaan-2 will leave earth and move towards the moon's orbit.
On 6 August, Chandrayaan-2 spacecraft entered the 5th orbit around the Earth after five orbit-raising manoeuvres. The manoeuvre to get the spacecraft out of the Earth's orbit will be performed on 14 August. The spacecraft will be landing on the moon's surface on 7 September by performing a series of maneuvers.
Chandrayaan-2, India’s second lunar mission, was successfully launched on 22nd July. The Chandrayaan-2 spacecraft weighs around 3.8 tonnes. The cost of the mission was Rs.978 crore, Rs.603 crore for the space segment and Rs.375 crore for the launch.
The space segment of Chandrayaan-2 includes an orbiter, a lander named Vikram and a rover named Pragyan. The orbiter is expected to separate Vikram, the lander, on 7 September.
A trans-lunar injection (TLI) maneuver is a propulsive movement which will set a spacecraft on a trajectory. This procedure will cause the spacecraft to arrive at the Moon.
August 12, 2019
Mukesh Ambani announced the roll-out of 'Jio Fiber' from September 5, promising free voice calls for life from landlines, 100 Mbps minimum broadband speed at subscription starting from Rs 700 a month and free HD TV set on a commitment to an annual plan. The 42nd Annual General Meeting (AGM), Reliance Industries' Chairman and Managing Director Mukesh Ambani said Jio offer unlimited international calling pack from its landlines to the US and Canada at Rs 500 a month that default tariff plans will be one-fifth to one-tenth of existing market tariffs.Jio Fiber services would be available on a commercial basis from September 5.The average fixed-line download speed in the US which is the most developed economy is around 90 Mbps. India even the most basic Jio Fiber plan starts with 100 Mbps speed and we have plans all the way up to 1 Gbps or 1000 Mbps," he said adding that this would improve the quality of fixed-line data in India.The plans will come at less than one-tenth of global rates, Ambani said Jio Fiber plans will be priced between Rs 700 to Rs 10,000 per month "to suit every budget".The plans come bundled with subscriptions to most leading premium Over The Top (OTT) applications.Premium Jio Fiber customers will be able to watch movies in their living rooms the same day these movies are released in theatres.
This service - Jio First Day First Show will be launched in mid-2020.It was widely-expected that he would spell out the details of the commercial roll-out of Jio Giga Fiber at Monday's AGM.Jio has been scaling up Jio Giga Fibre infrastructure in various cities over the last few months, and half a million homes have already been given access to it on a trial basis.
JIO Fiber Offers
The company will also offer special mobility service for Jio Fiber users to deliver a platinum-grade service and product experience.Jio Postpaid Plus will offer priority SIM-setup service at home. It would also provide data and voice connectivity across all devices, both at home and outside, along with family plans and international roaming at a fraction of a cost.Jio amassed over 340 million mobile subscribers in less than three years, is now ready to fire four new growth engines including Internet of Things (IoT) for the entire country, home and enterprise broadband services as well as broadband for SMEs.The investment cycle of Reliance Jio is complete, and about Rs 3.5 lakh crore has been invested in its digital network.The potential for growth is immense and half a billion customers is now I believe well within our reach. The investment cycle of Jio is now complete, and only marginal investments would be needed in areas to grow capacity. Jio's IoT platform will be commercially available starting January 1, 2020. Jio aims to connect at least 1 billion of these (connected devices) on Jio's IoT platform. This translates into a Rs 20,000 crore per year revenue opportunity for Jio. The company received strong interest from strategic and financial investors for its consumer businesses.
August 12, 2019
Biologist Chandrima Shaha will become the first woman to head the Indian National Science Academy (INSA). She previously the vice-president of INSA and the director of the National Institute of Immunology in Delhi.
She will prioritize communicating science “aggressively” and combat pseudoscience. She and the elected council of 30 members will take charge on January 1, 2020. Shaha was cricketer and also worked as a commentator for All India Radio.Shaha’s research focused on understanding cell death pathways. Her laboratory has worked on finding the precise mechanisms of cell death and how this process is regulated by “diverse signalling pathways” in unicellular (Leishmania parasite) and multicellular (cancer cells) models.The main aim is to provide a deeper understanding of cell death events that can help in the development of improved therapeutics for diseases associated with anomalous cell death.The Indian Science Congress come under fire after prominent scientists have suggested that events mentioned in Indian mythological texts have scientific explanations. Several politicians have also made pseudo-scientific claims in the past.
Indian National Science Academy (INSA)
Founded: 7 January 1935
Location: New Delhi, India
Headquarters: New Delhi
President: Ajay K. Sood
August 11, 2019
Researchers in Canada and China developed a technology called transdermal optical imaging (TOI). The technology works by taking into account the fact the facial skin is translucent. The Optical sensors on smartphones that are used can capture red light reflected from hemoglobin under the skin. This allows TOI to visualize and measure changes in blood flow.
The technology gives 95% accuracy. The technology needs extra research to make it more accurate. The technology will help people at risk of hypertension- or hypotension-related issues to track their blood pressure without the need for a dedicated device. It could also help people with limited healthcare access, such as people who live in remote areas.
August 10, 2019
Indian Institute of Technology Madras (IIT-M) introduced the Project Water Chakra to recycle urine. The project was done by an IIT-M student with 3 project staff.
The Project Water Chakra won the Indian Innovation Growth Programme 2.0 award in July 2019. The project has developed a prototype for the Carbon Zero Challenge.
Initially, they retrofitted urinals on the campus to collect urine. The concentrated urine was stored for 3 days until the urea was converted into ammonia. The ammonia is segregated by a process called Steam distillation. This commercial grade liquid can be used to make cleaning products, such as detergents or in rubber manufacturing. Also, 90% of the water can be recovered and it can be used for gardening purposes and flushing.
August 8, 2019
Delhi government has announced that 11,000 hotspots will be installed to provide Wi-Fi before the end of 2019. The announcement was made by CM Arvind Kejriwal. It also announced that 4,000 hotspots will be installed at bus stops. The State govt. has planned to install 1,40,000 more CCTVs in the State.
The Citywide Wi-Fi project aims to help in bridging the digital divide. It will also provide motivation to education, entrepreneurship, business, employment. It will also tie in with women's safety initiatives.
The expenditure finance committee (EFC) has approved the 'hotspot' model to provide free internet to Delhiites. The committee has also approved Rs.99 crore for the project.
In the first phase, up to 15 GB usage per mobile number will be free of cost per month. The Wi-Fi signals will be available within a radius of about 50m from where the router is installed. The project has been planned to be completed by September 2020.
August 8, 2019
The SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket launched Israeli telecommunications satellite called Amos-17 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. The satellite was launched successfully into the geosynchronous transfer orbit .
The launch was a makeup launch for Spacecom when a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket exploded on the launch pad in 2016. Amos-17 has been designed to provide enhanced voice, video and data services to customers in Africa and parts of Europe, the Middle East, India and China.
SpaceX's previous and recent launches:
Before AMOS 17, Spacex launched the Europe’s Arianespace consortium with two satellites from its spaceport in the South American country of French Guiana using its heavy-lift Ariane 5 rocket.
The second satellite called EDRS-C is part of an effort led by the European Space Agency and Airbus to facilitate high-speed laser communications between orbiting satellites and ground stations.
August 8, 2019
Punjab's Mohali traffic police have launched 'Intelights'. The system was designed by the students of a Chandigarh university. It is India’s first 3-D Smart Traffic Signal devised on the wireless system. It has been installed at the traffic crossing near the Airport Road. The 3-D Smart Traffic Signal will regulate the traffic signals with a smart bird's eye. The cost estimated varies from Rs.70 lakh to Rs.1 crore.
The Intelligent Traffic Timer Control (Intelights) uses dynamic signal control technology to adjust the timers of red, yellow and green lights according to the traffic density at an intersection. Intelights uses existing CCTV cameras that automatically evaluates the traffic density using Artificial Intelligence (AI) which sets the signal timers accordingly. This process gets repeated for every cycle of traffic lights to keep traffic flowing smoothly.
Why was it introduced?
Intelights project proposes a 360-degree solution to curb the rising problem of traffic congestion. The major reason for traffic congestion is the inefficient working of traffic signal timers installed at intersections. The timers of traffic lights display a preset value which leads to waste of time. To tackle this issue the 3D traffic signals introduced the Intelights.
August 7, 2019
Iran unveiled three precision-guided missiles with the defence minister to defend itself in the face of US "viciousness and conspiracies". The new line-up of air-to-air missiles dubbed the "Yasin", "Balaban" and a new series of the "Ghaem" were developed jointly by the ministry and Sa Iran, also known as Iran Electronics Industries. Defence Minister Brigadier-General Amir Hatami belonged their launch as another significant achievement of power and dignity for the Islamic Republic of Iran.
The Great Satan America and its mercenaries defence ministry will not hesitate for a moment to defend the Islamic republic and to expand security. The Yasin was a smart, guided missile with folding wings that can be fired from a range of 50 kilometres (30 miles) of its target from manned or unmanned aircraft. The Balaban was guided by GPS and sensors equipped with folding wings and could be mounted under aircraft.
They have unveiled tensions between Iran and the US and its allies in the Strait of Hormuz linking oil-producing countries in the Middle East to markets in Asia, Europe and North America. The tensions arose after the US withdrew from a 2015 nuclear deal between Iran and world powers last year and began stepping up a campaign of "maximum pressure" on the Islamic republic.
August 6, 2019
Franky Zapata, the French inventor, successfully crossed the English Channel on a jet-powered hoverboard. He set off on his kerosene-fueled Flyboard from Sangatte in the Pas de Calais region on the northern coast of France for the 22-mile (36 km) journey to St.Margaret’s Bay.
The hoverboard was powered by a backpack which contains enough paraffin to keep Zapata airborne for about 10 minutes. He had to stop to refuel halfway through the journey.
He set a record of a top speed of 202 Km per hour during the crossing. The success comes after the failure of his first bid on 25 July 2019. Earlier in December, the French military gave Zapata’s company, Z-AIR, a €1.3m (£1.19m) development grant.
Hover board is a mode of transport that is used for personal transportation. It resembles a skateboard that travels above the surface of the ground, ridden in a standing position.
August 5, 2019
The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) Chairman K.Sivan laid the foundation stone for the Space Situational Awareness Control Centre in Bengaluru. The Centre aims to protect the high value space assets from space debris' close approach and collisions. It is an important milestone in the progress of ISRO.
Functions of the Centre:
The Space Situational Awareness Control Centre would hold various range of activities to protect Indian space assets from inactive satellites, parts and pieces of orbiting objects, asteroids near earth and adverse space weather conditions.
The Centre will learn the tracking data of inactive satellites from indigenous observation facilities. It will also generate useful information from bare observations through analysis.
Space Situational Awareness & Management (SSAM):
Due to the increase in manmade space debris and the increased collision threat with operational spacecraft, the Space Situational Awareness & Management (SSAM) has become an internationally significant area.
August 4, 2019
The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) launched a trial for two new TB vaccines. This is India’s first large-scale trial. This is a large preventive TB vaccine trial. The initiative involves more than 12,000 healthy household contacts of newly diagnosed TB patients from across six states of India are set to be enrolled.
Two thousand participants from each of the six states including Delhi, Maharashtra, Odisha, Telangana and Karnataka will enroll over the next seven to eight months. Also, seven main centres will have six sub-sites, where these trials will be conducted.
Two new vaccines:
The two new TB vaccines that are introduced by ICMR are:
♦ Immuvac manufactured by Cadila Pharmaceuticals
♦ VPM 1002 manufactured by Institute of India, Pune
The medicines are to be tested with three testing phases. Based on the results the Union Ministry of Health and Family Welfare will decide and set the price of the vaccines.
Reason for ICMR's new TB vaccines:
To treat TB multi-drug course that usually spans six months is usuallu involved. Scientists from ICMR suggested that new TB vaccines other than BCG (Bacille Calmette-Guerin), which is 100 years old, is needed to treat TB as it has been partially effective in protecting infants and young children and it provides poor protection against pulmonary disease in adolescents and adults.
TB in India:
Data from Ministry of Health and Family Welfare’s Central TB division said that the TB incidence in India has touched almost 2.8 million every year along with drug-resistant TB incidence at 1,47,000 annually. It also said that around 27% of the world’s TB incidences are from India. It has marked the highest share at a global level. In 2017, the Centre vowed to eliminate TB by the year 2025.
August 3, 2019
Researchers from University of Warsaw released the most detailed three-dimensional map of the Milky Way. It has revealed that the Milkyway galaxy is not a flat disc but has a warped shape like a fascinator hat or a vinyl record that has been left in the sun.
Evidence that it is not flat:
The study said that the stars 60,000 light years away from the Milky Way’s centre are as far as 4,500 light years above or below the galactic plane and it gives high possibility to conclude that the milky way galaxy is not flat in shape.
Both the new study and an earlier one published in February are based on the distribution across the galaxy of stars known as Cepheids. The key to creating the maps is the phenomenon of dimming and brightening of the stars. Cepheids are celestial bodies whose brightness varies in a regular cycle over time.
The study suggested that about 26,000 light years from the centre of the galaxy the bending away from the plane of the galaxy has begun and it becomes steeper from about 32,000 light years. By calculating the ages of the stars and plotting their 3D positions in the Milky Way’s disc explains the formation of the Milky Way’s spiral arms up to 175 million years ago.
August 1, 2019
The Union Cabinet approved the setting up of ISRO Technical Liaison Unit (ITLU) in Moscow. The move comes as the India Space Research Organisation's (ISRO) cooperation with Russia on the Gaganyaan project, India's human space mission programme. The process has been planned to be completed within six months from the date of approval.
The cost estimated for the project is about Rs.1.5 crore per annum. It is expected to be incurred at ISRO Technical Liaison Unit (ITLU) towards salary, office expenses, rent and taxes etc.
The ISRO Technical Liaison Unit (ITLU) at Moscow will provide effective technical coordination for timely interventions on diversified matters with Russia and neighbouring countries for realization of the programmatic targets of ISRO.
The ITLU Moscow office will be managed by an ISRO scientist or engineer designated as Counsellor (Space) on deputation and supported by the staff sourced locally.
ISRO’s Gaganyaan programme requires development of some of the key technologies and establishment of specialized facilities, which are essential to support life in space. ISRO will be able to collaborate with Space agencies/industries in Russia and neighbouring countries for mutually synergetic outcomes.
August 1, 2019
India signed a deal worth Rs 1500 crore to buy R-27 air-to-air missiles from Russia.
The main objective of this deal is to boost the capabilities of Indian Air Force (IAF) R-27 air-to-air missiles will be equipped on the Su-30MKI fighter jets.
It is a medium-range air-to-air missile. It is initially developed for MiG and Sukhoi fighter jets. They developed these missiles to add the capability to the Sukhoi and MiG warfare aircraft. Indian Air Force signed Rs 7600 crore deals in the past two months.The actual design of R-27 missile was started in 1962 while its production was started in 1986. More than 25 countries are taking services of this missile.R-27 missile can destroy air targets even in adverse weather conditions. The length of the missile is 4 meter and the diameter is 0.23 meter. The weight of the missile is 253 kilograms.There are six extended versions - R-27ER1, R-27R1, R-27ET1, R-27T1, R-27EP1, and R-27P1.
The government gave emergency purchasing powers to all three military services. Indian army can buy whatever warfare equipment is important to safeguard our borders. The powers given to security forces within three months at a cost up to Rs 300 crore.
July 31, 2019
Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Madras have developed a Smart agricopter. The innovation aims to eliminate manual spraying of pesticides in agricultural fields.
As the manual pesticide spraying remains an extremely hazardous activity as it affects the health of the farmers' and laborers' in a massive overuse of toxic chemicals. The Cost estimation of the agricopter is to be around Rs 5.1 lakh.
The Smart Agricopter is a hexacopter drone with the capacity to carry 15 liters of pesticide. Agricopter will allow spraying pesticides ten times faster and with 100% precision. It has multispectral imaging camera which provides smart analysis of crop health. It also ensures that the entire spraying process is completely autonomous and that the farmer is never exposed to the pesticide.
July 28, 2019
Centre has approved the Union Ministry of Earth Sciences' Deep Ocean Mission (DOM). The project plans to explore the deepest recesses of the ocean. It is a five year project. The cost estimated for the project is Rs.8,000 crore.
DOM will commence from October 31, 2019. A blueprint of the programme was unveiled by the Ministry last July. One of the proposals is offshore desalination plant that will work with tidal energy. The projects also proposes to develop a submersible vehicle that can go to a depth of at least 6,000 metres with three people on board.
The main objective of the mission is to explore the deep ocean. The mission aims to look for metals and minerals. For this project, India has been allotted a site of 75,000 sq. km. in the Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB) by the UN International Sea Bed Authority for exploitation of polymetallic nodules (PMN). Various estimations says that 380 million metric tonnes of polymetallic nodules are available at the bottom of the seas in the Central Indian Ocean. India’s Exclusive Economic Zone spreads over 2.2 million sq. km. and in the deep sea, lies unexplored and unutilised.
July 27, 2019
India enhanced with Atomic energy and replacing fossil fuel.
Nuclear power is the fifth-largest source of electricity in India after coal, gas, hydroelectricity and wind power.
India has 22 nuclear reactors in operation in 7 nuclear power plants
They have a total installed capacity of 6,780 MW.
The nuclear power produced a total of 35 TWh supplied 3.22% of Indian electricity in 2017.7 more reactors are under construction
They got a combined generation capacity of 4,300 MW.
The following information is given by the Union Minister of State (Independent Charge) Development of North-Eastern Region (DoNER), MoS PMO, Personnel, Public Grievances & Pensions.
The remarkable achievements in the nuclear power sector during the last three years included
Setting of World Record in the continuous operation of 962 days by Unit-1 of Kaiga Generating Station among nuclear power plants of all technologies.
Completion of 50 years of safe operation of Units 1&2 of Tarapur Atomic Power Station (TAPS-1&2) are currently the oldest reactors in operation in the world.
Nuclear Power Capacity
The nuclear power capacity of 1000 MW by the completion of KKNPP- 2 at Kudankulam, Tamil Nadu.
The First Pour of Concrete (FPC) in KKNPP-3&4 (2X1000 MW) at Kudankulam, Tamil Nadu.
Ground break for KKNPP-5&6(2X1000 MW) at Kudankulam, Tamil Nadu.
The environmental clearance from MoEF&CC for setting up nuclear power plants at Chutka in Madhya Pradesh.
The administrative approval and financial sanction of ten (10) indigenous 700 MW Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) to be set up in fleet mode & two (02) units of Light Water Reactors (LWRs)
The agreements with foreign countries for nuclear power corporation.
The 108.28 million tonnes of beach sand heavy minerals resources sand heavy mineral resources to 1173.07 million tonnes.
The 3,46,462 tonne Rare Earth Elements Oxide and 19,564t Nb2O5 (Niobium Oxide) is estimated in Ambadongar area, Chhota Udepur district, Gujarat.
Uranium Corporation of India Ltd. (UCIL) commissioned the Tummalapalle Uranium mining and milling project in Andhra Pradesh on January 2017.
July 25, 2019
China congratulated India after the successful launch of the Chandrayaan-2. China decided to work with India for upcoming outer space programs. China launched its five lunar exploration missions to the Moon. They made history landing on the far side of the Moon.
They looked for a launch of its own Mars mission by 2020.
China - Moon - History
China is the first spacecraft landed on the far side of the Moon.This is the lunar surface known as the dark side of the moon. The main aim is to explore lunar surroundings rover Yutu-2 then rolled off the lander.Chang'e-4 of China the first spacecraft that landed on the far side of the Moon on January 2019. It is the lunar mission to Change3, first spacecraft landing on the Moon.
The main objective of landing on the dark side of the Moon to explore the surface of the Moon . It is used to collect samples that are still unexplored.
Chang'e 6 mission
Chang'e 6 mission is expected to launch in 2023 or 2024
The Chang’e 7 and 8 will be launched in 2023 and 2027 respectively.
The Chang’e 8 will carry a lander, a rover, a flying detector, and a 3D Printer to build a small structure on the lunar surface.
They may conduct a brief ecosystem experiment on the Moon.
July 24, 2019
Digitization of archaeological museum is being done through a special software developed with this specific purpose, union culture minister Prahlad Singh Patel informed the Lok Sabha on July 22.
The National Portal and Digital Repository for Indian Museums is developed and hosted by Human Centres Design and Computing Group, C-DAC, Pune, as per the agreement with Ministry of Culture, Government of India.
JATAN is used for creating digital collections in various museums and digital archival tools that are used in background for managing National Portal and Digital Repository for Indian museums. The portal works through website- http://museumsofindia.gov.in/ wherein all digitised data on museums have been up-loaded for on-line viewing.
Digitalisation Episode 1:
Currently there are 48 Archaeological Site Museums under Archaeological Survey of India (ASI).Out of these 2 Archaeological Site Museums, namely Velha Goa and Nagarjunakonda, have been digitized during 1st phase through JATAN and data has been uploaded in public domain through National Portal and Digital Repository for Indian Museums.
Digitalization Episode 2:
Digitization in rest of the 46 archaeological museums through multi-user JATAN software is being done in a phase-wise manner.
July 24, 2019
NASA marked the 50th anniversary of the historic first Moon landing.
The US space agency is preparing to take its next giant leap with the ambitious Artemis program Artemis is named after the twin sister of Apollo.
She is the Goddess of the Moon and the hunt.
The program to return astronauts to the lunar surface is planned to launch by 2024.
NASA plans to explore regions of the Moon visited the mysteries of the universe and test the technology that will extend the bounds of humanity farther into the Solar System.
On the lunar surface water ice and other natural resources will further enable deep space travel.
It is an independent agency of the United States Federal Government responsible for the civilian space program as well as aeronautics and aerospace research. NASA established in 1958.
Headquarters: Washington, United States
Founder: Dwight D. Eisenhower
Founded: 29 July 1958, United States
July 23, 2019
Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), the Indian Space agency, has launched Chandrayaan-2 successfully into the elliptical Earth orbit from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota on 22 July. The spacecraft was carried by the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle GSLV MkIII-M1. It was India’s most challenging and ambitious mission. It is expected that Spacecraft will try to land a rover near the South pole of the Moon on 7 September 2019, in 48 days.
If the spacecraft lands softly on the Moon, India will be the fourth country to successfully carry out such mission. The three countries that have launched the spacecraft successfully are US, Russia and China.
The Chandrayaan-2 spacecraft weighs around 3.8 tonnes. The total estimated cost for the mission was Rs.978 crore, that is Rs.603 crore for the space segment and Rs.375 crore for the launch.
The space segment of Chandrayaan-2 includes
♦ an orbiter,
♦ a lander named Vikram
♦ a rover named Pragyan.
The orbiter is expected to seperate Vikram, the lander, on 7 September. After making a successful touchdown on the lunar surface it will begin its quest for water.
Team led by women scientist:
For the first time ever, an Indian space mission is being led by women scientists. Muthayya Vanitha, as a project director, has led the mission from the start.
GSLV Mk III:
ISRO's GSLV Mk III is a three-stage launch vehicle. The vehicle consist of two solid strap-ons, a core liquid booster and a cryogenic upper stage. The vehicle was designed, so that it can carry 4 ton class of satellites into Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO) or about 10 tons to Low Earth Orbit (LEO).
July 17, 2019
The US celebrated the 50th anniversary of Apollo 11 on July 16, 2019. On July 16, 1969, the Apollo 11 crew lifted off in a Huntsville-designed Saturn V rocket for a historic visit to the moon.
Inorder to mark the day, thousands of model rockets have been launched in Huntsville, Alabama. NASA Celebrated 50th Anniversary of Historic Moon Landing with Live TV Broadcast, Events.
Launch date: July 16, 1969
Launch site: Kennedy Space Center LC-39A
Landing date: July 20, 1969
Return launch: July 21, 1969
Landing date: July 24, 1969
Landing site: North Pacific Ocean
Crew members: Neil A. Armstrong, Michael Collins, Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr.
Apollo 11 spaceflight was the manned mission to land on the Moon. It was launched on July 16, 1969. Commander Neil Armstrong became the first person to step onto the lunar surface six hours later on July 21. Aldrin joined him 19 minutes later. The astronauts collected 47.5 pounds (21.5 kg) of lunar material to bring back to Earth.
July 17, 2019
Google India's 'Internet Saathi' programme aimed to empower rural women to use the Internet.
They added two more states namely Punjab and Odisha.
The programme reached 2.6 lakh villages in 20 states.
A pilot project in 2015 along with Tata Trusts, 'Internet Saathi' programme
The main focus is on on educating women on how to use the Internet.
These women impart training to other women in their community and neighbouring villages.
In the four-year journey, trained 70,000 "Internet Saathis" are using the Internet to drive positive change in their communities already benefited over 2.6 crore fellow women.
There are also those who are driving awareness for issues like girl child education, menstrual hygiene and more.
In Punjab, the programme covers around 5,000 villages.
In Odisha, it will cover over 16,000 villages.
Raman Kalyanakrishnan, Head of Strategy at Tata Trusts
The women in rural India are provided with adequate opportunities and knowledge.
This has been made possible through the Internet Saathi programme.
About Google Interview
Google interviewed over 2,500 people across rural India to understand the impact that providing access has on their livelihood.
The study showed that about 70 percent of Internet Saathis are seen as a source of information in their village people are coming to them consistently for answers to help children with schoolwork
Eight in 10 Saathis and their beneficiaries believe people in their village respect them more.
Three in 10 Saathis and two in 10 beneficiaries have set up some form of business. This, in turn, has provided economic growth, with the business often earning between Rs 3,000-Rs 5,000 every month.
July 16, 2019
A partial eclipse of the Moon occurs tonight and it will be visible in India.
It begins at 1:31 am.
The maximum partial eclipse will occur at 3:01 am
It is a little more than half portion of the Moon will be covered by the Earth's shadow.
It will end at 4:30 am.
The eclipse will be visible from beginning to end from all places in India.
The extreme northeastern part of Arunachal Pradesh.
It will also be visible in the region covering Australia, Africa, Europe except for northernmost Scandinavia and most of South America.
July 15, 2019
ISRO Scientists a few days to assess the seriousness of the problem.
The launch in the current window of opportunity is available only till Tuesday (July 16).
The next launch date could be months later.
A technical snag detected in the GSLV-MkIII rocket, less than an hour ahead of the scheduled launch aborted the planned flight of Chandrayaan-2, India’s first attempt at landing a spacecraft on the moon.
They indicated that it could take up to a few days to assess the seriousness of the problem.
Reason for Call off
The countdown to the launch stopped at 56 minutes ahead of the scheduled time after scientists detected a problem in the rocket.
ISRO did not specify it but there were indications that the problem was detected in the upper stage of the rocket having the cryogenic engine where liquid hydrogen fuel had been filled less than half an hour earlier.
About GSLV MK - III
GSLV-MkIII is the most powerful rocket built by ISRO
It is designed to carry heavier payloads, weighing up to 4000 kg, into the geosynchronous transfer orbit,
At least 35,000 km from the earth.
It is supposed to be the rocket for the future.
Two successful flights of GSLV Mk-III D1 in June 2017 that carried the GSAT-19, a communication satellite weighing more than 3000 kg.
GSLV Mk-III D2 launched the 3423-kg GSAT-29 communication satellite.
The proposed human mission to space, to be launched by 2022,
It is also planned to be carried on GSLV Mk-III rocket.
About Chandrayaan - I
Chandrayaan-1 and Mangalyaan, India’s first mission to Mars, launched in 2013, PSLV has a capacity to deliver payloads only up to 1500 kg in the sub-GTO orbits.
PSLV has 48 successful launches
It is not suitable for launching heavier payloads, like Chandrayaan-2 which weighed close to 4,000 kg.
The mission initially slated to be launched last year but was postponed at least twice due to unavailability of a suitable window of opportunity to land on the moon.
July 14, 2019
Twitter is one of the most important parts of the day to day life.
It helps too many people to check instant updates live when it gets updated instantly.
The dehumanization on the religious reason is one of the frequent instances on social media.
Twitter is the land for such religion-based dehumanizing conducts.
Twitter expanded its rules against hateful conduct to include language on its platform that dehumanizes others on the basis of religion.
Actually, the main aim of the twitter is to primary focus is on addressing the risks of offline harm, and research shows that dehumanizing language increases that risk.
Twitter asked for feedback from different communities and cultures to ban hateful content based on religion.
But many people also raised concerns about Twitter's ability to enforce its rules fairly and consistently.
The respondents also asked the company to use clearer language when defining policy violations and to be more consistent in its enforcement of the rules.
Founded: March 21, 2006
Headquarters: San Francisco, California, United States
July 12, 2019
NASA has awarded a contract to SpaceX to launch NASA’s Imaging Xray polarimetry explorer (IXPE) mission, a groundbreaking astrophysics mission. The mission aims to uncover the mysteries behind black holes and neutron stars.
The cost estimated for the mission is $50.3 million. The mission plans to launch three space telescopes. These telescopes will be capable of analyzing the polarization of cosmic X-rays. The IXPE mission is expected to be launched from the Kennedy Space Centre in April 2021.
The Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer (IXPE) will get information regarding the polarization state of light from astrophysical sources. This will provide insight into the X-ray production in objects such as neutron stars and pulsar wind nebulae, as well as stellar and supermassive black holes.
The launch mass of IXPE is 320 kilograms. IXPE will be launched over SpaceX FALCON 9 which is capable of launching 22,800 kilograms to low Earth orbit (LEO). There will also be excess payload capacity at launch.
NASA and SpaceX:
The IXPE mission is a part of the US space agency’s Launch Services Program (LSP). SpaceX has previously launched two LSP missions namely Jason-3 and TESS. It has also been awarded three other missions, SWOT, Sentinel-6A, and Dart by NASA earlier.
IXPE will be sixth contracted mission of SpaceX under NASA’s LSP. Two of the missions were successfully launched in 2016 and 2018, increasing the agency’s scientific observational capabilities.
July 12, 2019
According to the research conducted by the Indian Institute of Public Health (IIPH), Gurugram
The size and composition and distribution of human resource for health in India: new estimates using the National Sample Survey (NSSO) and Registry data.
India has an adequate number of healthcare professionals, though they are unevenly distributed between rural and urban India and across different states.
It addressed the issues of distribution of Human Resource for Health (HRH)
It used the 2011-12 NSSO data, projected Human Resource for Health (HRH) number for 2016 using census projection and worker participation rate along with the survey of 2017 registry data of health professionals- Medical Council of India. The density of the total health workers estimated to be 29 per 10,000 population.
It is based on NSSO and 38 per 10,000 population based on the registration data.
It is close to the World Health Organization’s (WHO) minimum threshold of 22.8 health workers per 10,000 population.
The number of doctors in Kerala and Union Territories higher compared to larger states such as Rajasthan, Jharkhand and Bihar.
About Indian Institute of Public Health (IIPH), Gurugram
It is an autonomous foundation located in New Delhi, India.
The foundation was created as a public-private initiative
The main aim of enhancing the capacity of public health professionals in the country over five to seven years.
President: K. Srinath Reddy
Founder: Rajat Gupta
Founded: 28 March 2006
July 9, 2019
World’s largest burn and plastic surgery institute named Sheikh Hasina National Burn and Plastic Surgery Institute.
It started functioning in Dhaka, Bangladesh.
The Outpatient Department (OPD) inaugurated by the Health and Family Welfare Minister of Bangladesh Zahid Maleque.
About Sheikh Hasina National Burn and Plastic Surgery Institute
There are about 6 lakh people suffer burn injuries in Bangladesh
They will be benefited from the institute.
This institute facilitated with 500-bed hospital .
There are around 50 ICU and 12 operation theatres
They provide advanced treatment to burn patients in Bangladesh.
The institute built at a cost of over 500 crore.
The 12-story institute provide advanced treatment to burn patients physicians and nurses get training to enhance their professional skills
The institute has 500 beds, 50 intensive care units, and 12 operation theatres,
There are three blocks in the institute hosting the burn unit, plastic surgery unit, and academic wing.
July 6, 2019
The Planetary Society said that its crowdfunded spacecraft LightSail 2 sent its first signals to Earth on July 2. They also said that the spacecraft is running various tests. The Planetary Society is an American non-governmental, non-profit foundation
LightSail 2 Spacecraft:
LightSail 2 CubeSat is about the size of a loaf of bread and weighing 5 kilograms. The Solar sailing spacecraft is powered just by the physical force exerted by solar photons. It was launched on June 25 aboard SpaceX's triple-booster Falcon Heavy rocket. It is orbiting on its own. It was delivered to space aboard Space X's Falcon Heavy.
According to the spacecraft's telemetry, all of its major systems appear to be operating normally. Over the next few days, a time will be set for LightSail 2 to deploy its signature solar sails which will propel it forward. Unlike traditional spacecraft which rely on rocket engines, LightSail 2's design is powered by photons from the sun. If successful, it will be the first controlled light sail ever to enter and maintain Earth orbit.
July 6, 2019
NASA has launched an incredible new atomic clock into orbit on a SpaceX Falcon Heavy. It was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The mission aims to revolutionise how mankind explores the cosmos.
The new Deep Space Atomic Clock will be used to navigate distant planets like Mars. A huge improvement would be made in the spacecraft navigation. It is a space-ready upgrade to the atomic clocks which is used on Earth and to the clocks that already fly on satellites like those that provide GPS.
The Deep Space Atomic Clock to allow spacecraft travelling in deep space to navigate more autonomously, with less reliance on communication with Earth.
Generally, Navigation works by sending a signal to the spacecraft, which it then beams back to Earth. The time of the round trip tells scientists the spacecraft's distance from Earth. As the signal travels at the speed of light, so armed with the time it took to go to the spacecraft and back, finding distance is only a simple calculation away. By sending multiple signals over time the spacecraft's trajectory can be calculated, both where it was and where it's going.
To measure the locations of spacecrafts in deep space, astronomers require an accurate atomic clocks better than a billionth of a second over long periods. The error in older atomic clocks are because of the environmental changes such as temperatures fluctuations. But, the cutting-edge Deep Space Atomic Clock will not be subject to environmental changes, and will be 50 times more stable than the clocks that are used on GPS satellites.
July 5, 2019
For the first time in India Hyderabad’s Rajiv Gandhi International Airport is set to launch the face-recognition facility under the Centre's Digi Yatra Policy. Trials began on July 1 and will continue for a month. The face-recognition technology will remove the Central Industrial Security Forces (CISF) physically checking passengers’ government issued identification documents at the airport entrance.
How it works?
♦ Initially, the passengers should submit the documents and then a face-recognition camera will capture the image of your face.
♦ The image along with the details of the documents will be stored in a database.
♦ The passengers will be provided aunique Digi Yatra ID.
♦ The passengers, then, should go through the security check points at the airport by just looking into the camera to record and identify themselves via biometrics.
♦ This facility will also mean passengers may not have to show travel documents, boarding pass and identity proof at checkpoints.
♦ Once the face ID and document are registered, during subsequent entries the system will be able to recognise the passengers' face and document details from the database via a face recognition camera placed at the entry.
♦ Passengers will also be able to use unique Digi Yatra ID as documentation while buying tickets in the future.
Benefits of the technology:
There will be convenience and Privacy inherent in facial recognition than the prospect of giving up your identity to clear through security faster. This benefit comes at a low cost. Time wastage is less. Passegenrs need not want to carry all documents. They can travel hassle-free and with tension.
Digi Yatra Policy:
Introduced by: Ministry of Civil Aviation
It is a biometric based digital processing of passengers at Airports.
The policy aims to provide a connected ecosystem enhancing the seamless travel experience for the passengers and simultaneously improving the security.
July 4, 2019
NASA, UN Space Agency, has successfully carried out Ascent Abort-2, a test of a launch-abort system, for the Orion capsule designed to take U.S. astronauts to the Moon. The three-minute test exercise was carried out at Cape Canaveral in Florida.
Ascent Abort-2 was aimed to test in almost real-life conditions the evacuation of astronauts from the capsule in the event of an explosion or rocket booster failure.
In the test, an unmanned Orion capsule was launched by a mini-rocket, a re-purposed first stage of an intercontinental ballistic missile. After 55 seconds of the launch, a rocket-powered tower on top of the crew module ignited its engines to quickly pull the Orion away from a hypothetical rocket experiencing problems. It was tested at an altitude of 9,500 m. The capsule gained two miles of altitude in just 15 seconds. Then the tower reoriented the capsule to prepare it for its descent and disengagement from the tower. In this test parachutes were not used as they are very expensive. Also, parachutes have been tested successfully. The parachutes would open to ease the manned capsule's fall toward the Atlantic Ocean.
About Orion spacecraft:
NASA's Orion spacecraft has been built to take humans far in space. Orion is an exploration vehicle. It will carry the crew to space. It is built to provide emergency abort capability, sustain the crew during the space travel, and provide safe re-entry from deep space return velocities. NASA's Orion spacecraft has been planned to carry the first woman and the next man to the moon in 2024.
July 3, 2019
Dipankar Banerjee A solar physicist from Indian Institute of Astrophysics selected by NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) for its PUNCH mission.
He is also the co-Chair of India's Science Working Group
India planning to send up its own satellite Aditya-Ll, A mission to study the Sun's corona.
He will study the acceleration of the solar wind.
He will focus on the polar regions of the Sun.
The team will observe the Sun using joint observations from PUNCH and Indian mission Aditya.
PUNCH is an acronym for "Polarimeter to Unify the Corona and Heliosphere", image the Sun.
The main objective of the mission is to understand the transition of particles from the Sun's outer corona to solar wind that fills interplanetary space.
Corona is the atmosphere of the Sun connecting with the interplanetary medium.
The mission is expected to be launched in 2022.
The missions for Sun's atmosphere: NASA's Parker Solar Probe and ESA-NASA joint project, Solar Orbiter
They launched in 2020.
July 3, 2019
IIT Madras launched a platform recently named as Integrated Database for the Infrastructure development in order to develop the efficiency of Government Infrastructure Development.
They help in effective decision-making among different stakeholders involved in the infrastructure sector.
The development partner for the project is Akara Research and Technologies.
It was launched on May 29, 2019 at the 15th World Conference on Transport Research (WCTR)
It is held at IIT Bombay in a special session on Public-Private Partnership(PPP) in Indian Transport Sector.
This session is held by Prof G Raghuram, Director of Indian Institute of Management (11M) Bangalore
The project is done in the presence of Prof Thillai Rajan A,IIT Madras, Prof Swapnil Garg, Associate Professor, Indian Institute of Management Indore and Co- ordinator of PPPINDI
Initially, 'DIP's focus on the road sector due to its highest allocation of funds among other projects and highest private investment through PPP.
IDIP will collect data from National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) EPC (Engineering, Procurement, and Construction) projects and other sources to cover projects undertaken by State and National governments along with their PPP.
June 30, 2019
NASA announced a new mission to explore this fascinating world with a helicopter drone. The mission, called Dragonfly is the latest in NASA’s New frontier program. NASA has earlier launched explorations of Pluto, Jupiter, the asteroid Bennu, and now, Titan.
Titan, the largest moon of Saturn, has a lot in common with Earth. It has a thick, nitrogen-dense atmosphere and features like rivers, lakes, mountains, and, potentially volcanoes. The atmosphere of Titan is four times as dense as the Earth’s and there’s less gravity which makes it a prime location in the solar system to deploy a drone.
Dragonfly is planned to launch in 2026 and arrive at Titan in 2034. With its eight rotors, Dragonfly will be able to fly tens of miles in a given day. It is powered by a plutonium battery.
Two-year mission, Dragonfly will travel hundreds of miles across the surface. sampling the chemistry of the moon and studying its geology and atmosphere. It will also look out for signs of life.
The study on Titan’s methane cycle is interesting as Methane (the primary ingredient in natural gas) actually forms clouds and rains down on the surface of Titan, a lot like how water rains on Earth.
By studying the weather pattern on Titan, a better picture about the greater reaches of the cosmos, and help scientists understand what makes a planet or moon habitable or not.