11 January 2019
According to the Henley Passport Index, Japan has retained its top spot as the world's most powerful passport this year, with its citizens able to enter 190 countries without requiring a visa.
India's passport was ranked 79th, having visa-free access to 61 destinations.
Singapore and South Korea come second with access to 189 countries each while France and Germany share the third spot with access to 188 countries each.
3 January 2019
Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI) reported that Sweden has been named the first best performing country in the CCPI 2019 list. CCPI evaluates the climate protection performance of 60 countries, responsible for over 90% of global energy-related CO2 emissions.
Morocco has been named second. Morocco, the North African country significantly increased the share of renewables over the past five years and increased new renewable energy capacity. Lithuania is in the third position in CCPI 2019.
The bottom five in the list are Saudi Arabia, U.S., Iran, South Korea, and Taiwan. With the connection of the world’s largest solar plant to the grid, Morocco is on track for achieving its target of 42% installed renewable energy capacities by 2020.
20 December 2018
This year, the Gender Gap Index as released by World Economic Forum (WEF), was topped by Iceland with a score of 0.858, holding the top spot in the index for the 10th consecutive year.
Norway ranked at 2nd, Sweden at 3rd, and Finland at 4th.
India was ranked 108th in the Global Gender Gap Index 2018, same as it was ranked in 2017.
Among other South Asian countries, India fetched fourth place with top 3 being Bangladesh (48th), Sri Lanka (100th) and Nepal (105th).
10 December 2018
HCL Tech Vice Chairperson Roshni Nadar Malhotra (ranked 51st), Biocon Chairperson Kiran Mazumdar-Shaw (ranked 60), HT Media MD Shobhana Bhartia (ranked 88th), and actress Priyanka Chopra (placed at 94) have been named in Forbes' World's 100 Most Powerful Women list.
The list, which featured four Indians, has been topped by German Chancellor Angela Merkel for the eighth consecutive year.
Others in the list include Serena Williams and Melinda Gates.
6 December 2018
Salman Khan has been named the highest-earning celebrity in India for the third time in a row by Forbes, with earnings of ₹253.25 crore.
The second spot was captured by Indian cricket team skipper Virat Kohli, with Rs 228.09 crore to his name, to become the first sportsperson to reach the position.
Akshay Kumar came third on the Forbes India Celebrity 100 2018 with Rs 185 crore, followed by Deepika.
The fifth spot went to former Indian cricket team captain Mahendra Singh Dhoni who earned Rs 101.77 crore during 2018.
6 December 2018
The 32-year-old Indian actress was placed fourth in the Forbes India Celebrity 100 list with her earnings reaching Rs 112.80 crore during 2018.
Other women to feature on the Forbes Indian Celebrity 100 include:
Actresses Alia Bhatt (Rank 12, Rs 58.83 crore),
Anushka Sharma (Rank 16, Rs 45.83 crore),
Katrina Kaif (Rank 21, Rs 33.67 crore),
Priyanka Chopra (Rank 49, Rs 18 crore),
Shuttlers PV Sindhu (Rank 20, Rs 36.50 crore) and
Saina Nehwal (Rank 58, Rs 16.54 crore), and
comedian Bharti Singh (Rank 74, Rs 13.95 crore).
5 December 2018
Team India captain Virat Kohli has featured as the highest-earning sportsperson in the 2018 Forbes India Celebrity 100 list with ₹228.09-crore earnings.
Kohli was also the top-paid sportsperson in 2016 and 2017 with ₹134.44 crore and ₹100.72 crore earnings respectively.
Former captain MS Dhoni follows Kohli as the second highest-paid sportsperson in the 2018 list with ₹101.77-crore earnings.
4 December 2018
As per the ratings released by Passport Index, the United Arab Emirates has topped the Global Passport Power Rank 2018, emerging as the country with the most powerful passport in world.
UAE passport holders can now fly to 113 countries without a visa, and 54 others with a visa-on-arrival.
Singapore and Germany ranks second with 166 countries.
India ranked 66th in Global Passport Power Rank 2018.
30 November 2018
Nearly one-third of the world's 150.8 million stunted children live in India, the 2018 Global Nutrition Report revealed.
With 46.6 million children who are stunted, India tops the list of countries followed by Nigeria (13.9 million) and Pakistan (10.7 million).
Over 46 million Indian children aged under five years are stunted due to malnutrition and 25.5 million more are 'wasted', meaning they don't weigh enough for their height.
India is suffering from two forms of malnutrition– anaemia and stunting.
28 November 2018
According to the report the global average monthly gender pay gap was 21.2% in 2017, while Bangladesh gender pay gap was only 2.2%, the lowest in the world.
Pakistan topped the gap chart by 43.8%.
Nepal topped the low income group with 26.7% gap and the average gender pay gap is 21.2%.
28 November 2018
Shah Rukh Khan's wife and Renowned interior designer and co-owner of Red Chillies Entertainment, Gauri Khan debuts on the list of ‘Fortune India’s 50 Most Powerful Women’ in business’ this year.
Being the founder and chief executive office of Gauri Khan Designs, Gauri gained the 42nd spot.
The top five Fortune India's Most Powerful Women list 2018:
1. Zia Mody - Co-founder, AZB & Partners;
2. Kiran Mazumdar-Shaw - Chairperson and MD, Biocon;
3. Suneeta Reddy - Managing director, Apollo Hospitals Enterprise;
4. Alice G. Vaidyan - Chairman and managing director, General Insurance Corporation of India (GIC Re);
5. Mallika Srinivasan - Chairman and CEO, Tractors and Farm Equipment (TAFE).
21 November 2018
The report shows that the number of migrant and refugee school-age children around the world today has grown by 26% since 2000 and could fill half a million classrooms.
The literacy levels in rural households of India dip with seasonal migration.
About 80% of seasonal migrant children in seven cities lacked access to education near work sites.
21 November 2018
India has slipped two places to rank 53rd on a global annual talent ranking released by IMD Business School Switzerland.
While Switzerland has topped the global ranking for the fifth year in a row, it is followed by Denmark, Norway, Austria and the Netherlands in the top-five.
Within Asia, Singapore has topped the charts with a global 13th place on the list that ranks 63 countries in developing, attracting and retaining talent.
Among BRICS nations, Brazil is ranked 58th, South African 50th and Russia 46th.
17 November 2018
The Indian Institute of Science (IISc) in Bangalore (28th position) , Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Delhi (53rd position) and Bombay are among the top education institutions from India that have made it to the top 150 list of the 'Global University Employability Ranking'.
The Harvard University topped the list, followed by the California Institute of Technology and Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
3 November 2018
Kolkata tops in public transport index in terms of cleanliness and affordability of public transport.
New Delhi was rated highly in terms of safety and ranked the best among the big cities in affording parking space to its residents.
Patna and Bhubaneswar topped the list for growing and emerging cities.
2 November 2018
Pather Panchali, Satyajit Ray’s epic masterpiece, has been included in BBC’s list of 100 best foreign language films and is the only film from India to feature in it.
The film was released in 1955 and the first in Ray’s Apu trilogy was placed at number 15 in the list, which was topped by Akira Kurosawa’s Seven Samurai.
The list was culled out from a poll where over 200 critics from 43 countries picked a foreign language film they thought was the best. It was narrowed down to 100 films from 67 different directors, from 24 countries, and in 19 languages.
1 November 2018
According to the World Bank, India ranked 77th in the World Bank’s Ease of Doing Business Index 2018. The index ranks 190 countries based across the life-cycle of a business, from starting a business to resolving insolvency. The ranking is based on 10 different parameters. In the 2017 report, the country was ranked 100.
♦ Formation: July 1945
♦ Motto: Working for a World Free of Poverty
♦ Headquarters: Washington, D.C., U.S.
♦ Membership: 189 countries in IBRD, 173 countries in IDA
♦ Key people: Jim Yong Kim (President)
Kristalina Georgieva (CEO)
Shanta Devarajan (Chief Economist)
♦ Parent: World Bank Group
♦ The World Bank is different from the World Bank Group. The World Bank Group has five international organizations: International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), International Development Association (IDA), International Finance Corporation (IFC), Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA), International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID)
♦ The World Bank is a Monetary International Financial Organization
30 October 2018
World Health Organization’s (WHO) report on most polluted cities 2018 said 14 out of the 20 most polluted cities in the world are in India. WHO reported that Delhi topped the charts of bad air quality nationally.
Also, the WHO children’s health report released on 29th October said that 93% of the world’s children under 15 years breathe polluted air. Indian environmentalists analysed the same issue in 14 cities using the Central Pollution Control Board of India (CPCB) data and concluded the same.
Most cities, unlike Delhi, do not have an emergency response plan to tackle air pollution. Some of the cities like Patna and Varanasi have recently formulated action plans. There is no special governing body in place to issue advisories or mitigate the pollution at the source level instantly as in the case of the Graded Response Action Plan (GRAP).
16 October 2018
Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) World University Rankings, a think tank that is famous for bringing out world rankings of institutions, reported that Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, has topped the first-ever standalone ranking of Indian higher education institutions.
The top 8 Indian institutions in QS rankings are:
1. Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay
2. Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru
3. Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
4. Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi
5. Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur
6. Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur
7. University of Hyderabad
8. University of Delhi
The Centre is trying to facilitate more foreign faculty and foreign students’ intake in Indian institutions in order to improve global rankings of Indian institutions.
14 October 2018
The World Bank released the Human Capital Index (HCI) as part of the World Development Report 2019. The theme of the World Development Report (WDR) this year is “The Changing Nature of Work”. As part of this report, the World Bank has launched a Human Capital Project (HCP). The HCI has been constructed for 157 countries. The HCI for India has been estimated at 0.44. The Index was released at the World Bank-IMF Annual Meetings in Bali, Indonesia.
Singapore ranked first for its universal health care system, education exams results and life expectancy figures. It is followed by South Korea, Japan, Hong Kong and Finland. India was ranked at the 115th position.
14 October 2018
Oxfam International’s report, the UK-based charity, released Commitment to Reducing Inequality (CRI) Index. In the Index, India ranked 147th among 157 countries and was labelled as “a very worrying situation” with respect to the rising inequality in the country.
Out of 157 countries measured, Denmark topped first based on its high and progressive taxation, high social spending and good protection of workers. The top 10 countries are listed below:
4 October 2018
U.S. President Donald Trump ranked number 259 on the list released by Forbes’s wealthiest 400 billionaires. In 2017, he ranked number 248. Mr.Trump’s net worth has flatlined at $3.1 billion. In 2015, Forbes valued his net worth at $4.5 billion.
Forbes attributes his declining wealth to deeper reporting about his assets, the decline in brick-and-mortar retail, the slowdown in real estate, particularly in the luxury sector, and how being President affects the brand.
28 September 2018
As per the 2018 report on Economic Freedom in the World, released by the Centre for Civil Society (CCS) in conjunction with Canada’s Fraser Institute, India stands at 96th rank out of 162 countries in economic freedom. Last year, India’s rank was 98.
Hong Kong and Singapore again topped the index ranking first and second respectively.
The other countries in the top 10 were: New Zealand, Switzerland, Ireland, the US, Georgia, Mauritius, the United Kingdom, Australia and Canada (tied for 10th) respectively.
28 September 2018
Indian Institute of Science (IISc) Bangalore has been named the top Indian institute for the fifth straight year in the Times Higher Education World University Rankings and was placed in the 251-300 bracket.
IIT Indore (351-400) was placed second, ahead of IIT Bombay and IIT Roorkee.
Globally, Oxford University continues to hold the first place, followed by Cambridge, Stanford, and MIT.
28 September 2018
Badminton player and Olympian PV Sindhu is the only sportsperson featuring in the Forbes India's maiden 'tycoons of tomorrow' list of 22 young achievers in the fields of business, acting and sports.
Other prominent names in the list are
♦ Karan Adani, chief executive of Adani Ports & Special Economic Zone;
♦ Anant Goenka, group executive director of Indian Express;
♦ Ashni Biyani, managing director of Future Consumer;
♦ Birla scion Ananya Birla, founder of Svatantra Microfinance, co-founder, CuroCarte and co-founder of Mpower;
♦ Radha Kapoor Khanna, the daughter of Yes Bank CEO Rana Kapoor;
♦ Ritesh Agarwal of Oyo Rooms.
26 September 2018
Mukesh Ambani, chairman of India’s second most valued firm Reliance Industries, has topped the “Barclays Hurun India Rich List 2018”. His total net worths Rs.3,90,500 crore. This is his seventh consecutive year in holding that position.
Every year Barclays Hurun India Rich List 2018 lists out a compilation of the richest individuals who have a net worth of Rs.1,000 crore or more in India. The compilation featured 831 Indians. Last year it has 617 members.
The report also highlights the most successful business families in India. The top position in this list is dominated by the Ambani family with a combined wealth of Rs.3,90,500 crore, while the next four positions are held by the Godrej family with a wealth of Rs.2,23,000, the Hinduja family with Rs.1,59,000 crore, the Mistry family with Rs.1,38,800 crore, and the Shanghvi family with Rs.92,400 crore, respectively.
17 September 2018
India climbed one spot to 130 among 189 countries in the latest Human Development Index (HDI) released by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
India's HDI value for 2017 moved to 0.640, up from 0.624 in 2016.
HDI measures the progress in key dimensions of human development such as education, health and living standards.
The top five countries in the global HDI ranking were:-
♦ Norway (0.953),
♦ Switzerland (0.944),
♦ Australia (0.939),
♦ Ireland (0.938) and
♦ Germany (0.936).
13 September 2018
Kolkata has topped OpenSignal's list of 4G availability with over 90.7% coverage, across all of India's 22 telecom circles for the May-July period this year.
It is followed by Punjab (89.8%), Bihar (89.2%), Madhya Pradesh (89.1%) and Odisha (89%).
The Jammu and Kashmir circle comes at the last spot with 80.23 percent 4G availability.
7 September 2018
Nuclear Security Index (NSI) published a report on theft rankings of ‘weapon-usable’ nuclear materials, in which India holds a score of 46 out of 100. It is followed by Pakistan on the 20th position with 44 points.
Australia and Switzerland are on the first position with a score of 94 each, followed by Canada with 89, Germany and Japan with 88 out of a total of 100.
The report noted that except in North Korea, all the other countries had shown improvement in minimizing and eliminating the world’s deadliest materials.
24 August 2018
India Captain Virat Kohli, who had become the top-ranked Test batsman for the first time on August 5, reclaimed the spot after scoring 200 runs in the third (Trent Bridge) Test against England.
Kohli also reached a personal best of 937 rating points, which is the 11th best ever in terms of rating points.
Cheteshwar Pujara remains the second highest ranked India batsman in the list, in sixth position.
MRF Tyres ICC Test Player Rankings (as on 23 August, following the Trent Bridge Test):
24 August 2018
According to Forbes magazine, Akshay Kumar has emerged as the seventh highest-paid actor in the world by earning USD 40.5 million in 2018.
Salman Khan ranked ninth place with USD 38.5 million.
Hollywood star George Clooney tops the list of 'World's Highest-Paid Actors 2018' with $239 Million.
Forbes list of the World's best-paid male actors 2018:
George Clooney - $239m;
Dwayne Johnson - $119m;
Robert Downey Jr - $79m;
Chris Hemsworth - $64.5m;
Jackie Chan -$45.5m;
Will Smith - $42m;
Akshay Kumar -$40.5m;
Adam Sandler - $39.5m;
Chris Evans - $34m;
Salman Khan - $33.5m.
23 August 2018
As per the RoutesOnline company report, Kempegowda International Airport (KIA), Bengaluru is next to Tokyo's Haneda Airport which is the world's fastest growing airport, in terms of actual growth in number of passengers.
KIA opened in May 2008 was initially named Bangalore International Airport.
The Government of India has granted Bangalore International Airport Limited (BIAL) to operate KIA airport for 30 years.
22 August 2018
Mukesh Ambani-led telecom company Reliance Jio secured the top spot in Fortune's global 'Change the World' list released on August 20.
American pharma company Merck ranked second while Bank of America ranked third on the list.
Chinese group Alibaba is ranked 5th on the list.
22 August 2018
With earnings of $8.5 million (nearly ₹60 crore), Rio Olympic silver medallist PV Sindhu is the only Indian to feature in Forbes' list of top 10 highest-paid female athletes of 2018.
Placed seventh, Sindhu is the only badminton player in the list, which features eight tennis players and one race car driver- Danica Patrick.
Twenty-three-time Grand Slam champion Serena Williams tops the list, with $18.1-million total earnings.
16 August 2018
Smitha V. Crishna, a third-generation heir of the Godrej family, ranks first in the Kotak Wealth Hurun-Leading Wealthy Women 2018 list with an estimated wealth of ₹ 37,570 crore.
Roshni Nadar, CEO and executive director at HCL, ranks second in the list with an estimated wealth of ₹30,200 crore.
Indu Jain, the chairperson of the Times Group, ranks third in the list with an estimated wealth of ₹26,240 crore.
14 August 2018
Of total 111 cities ranked under the 'Ease of Living Index 2018' which was released by Union Minister Hardeep Singh Puri, Pune has been ranked first while Navi Mumbai has surfaced as the second preferred spot in terms of 'liveability'.
Top 10 cities in 'Ease of Living Index' 2018 list are:
♦ 1- Pune;
♦ 2- Navi Mumbai;
♦ 3- Greater Mumbai;
♦ 4- Tirupati;
♦ 5- Chandigarh;
♦ 6- Thane;
♦ 7- Raipur;
♦ 8- Indore;
♦ 9- Vijaywada;
♦ 10- Bhopal.
12 August 2018
According to the World Economic Forum (WEF) ranking, India has been placed 177th rank out of 180 countries on the Environmental Performance Index 2018. The Union Environment Ministry has rejected the score by considering it as arbitrary and unscientific. India slipped 36 points from 141 in the 2016 report, prepared by Yale and Columbia Universities along with the WEF.
WEF said that India’s remark was linked to the poor performance in the environmental health policy and deaths due to air pollution categories. Mahesh Sharma, Minister of State for Environment, Forest and Climate Change said that the reason for India’s decline is because of the change in parameters between two editions of the report.
2 August 2018
Seven Indian companies feature in the US magazine Fortune 500 list of the world's largest firms, with state-run Indian Oil Corp (IOC) remaining the top-ranked Indian company and 137th position in World Level in the 2018 rankings.
American retail giant Walmart tops the latest Fortune listing.
Reliance Industries Ltd was the most profitable Indian firm on the list. On the globally most profitable list, it secured the 99th position. This list was topped by Apple.
Other Indian companies feature in the Fortune 500 list are:
1) Reliance Industries Ltd - 148th rank;
2) Oil and Natural Gas Corp (ONGC) - 197th rank;
3) State Bank of India (SBI) - 216th rank;
4) Tata Motors - 232nd rank;
5) Bharat Petroleum Corp Ltd (BPCL) - 314th position;
6) Rajesh Exports - 405th rank.
23 July 2018
Other Indians in the Variety magazine's list of 500 most influential business leaders shaping the global $ 2 trillion entertainment industry, include writer-director Karan Johar, Star India CEO Uday Shankar, Essel Group Chairman Subhash Chandra, Aditya Chopra of Yash Raj Films, Balaji Telefilms' Ekta Kapoor, Zee Entertainment CEO Punit Goenka and Siddharth Kapur of The Film and Television Producers Guild of India Ltd.
Walt Disney Company Chairman and CEO Robert Iger tops the list.
World's richest person Jeff Bezos and Facebook's Mark Zuckerberg also featured on the list.
22 July 2018
For those coming to Australia on the skilled visa, India with 2,34,395 individuals (19 per cent) bagged the top rank, followed by England and China at 160,558 (13 per cent) and 146,842 (12 per cent) people, respectively.
According to a data released by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), 1,54,012 Indians have acquired Australian citizenship.
Under the family visa programme, China with 95,532 immigrants (14 per cent) ranked first, followed by UK at 60,108 (8.8 per cent) and India at 56,406 (8.3 per cent).
20 July 2018
The heritage city of Udaipur has been ranked third among a list of 15 best cities in the world by Travel + Leisure. The first two cities on the list are San Miguel de Allende and Oaxaca, both in Mexico.
Rajasthan's Udaipur city is also known as "City of Lakes" and the "Venice of the East".
17 July 2018
American Boxing champion Floyd Mayweather has been named the world's highest paid celebrity by Forbes with earnings of $285 million in the last 12 months.
Actor George Clooney take the No. 2 spot with the highest annual pay of his career.
Reality star Kylie Jenner, 20, came in third on the annual Forbes Celebrity 100 list.
Lionel Messi (ranked 8th with $111 million) and Cristiano Ronaldo (ranked 10th with $108 million) were the only other athletes in the top 10.
12 July 2018
Diane Hendricks, cofounder and chairman of ABC Supply, reclaims the top position on Forbes 2018 list of America's most successful women entrepreneurs, with a net worth of $4.9 billion.
♦ 20-yr-old Kylie Jenner youngest among US richest self-made women, with a net worth of $900 million.
♦ Two Indian-origin women featured on this list are Computer networking company Arista Networks CEO, Jayshree Ullal (ranked 18th with a fortune of $1.3 billion) and IT consulting firm Syntel Co-Founder Neerja Sethi (ranked 21st with $1-billion).
♦ The 60 women on the list have a record combined fortune of $71 billion.
12 July 2018
This year, India ranked as the 57th most innovative nation in the world, and has improved its ranking from 60th position last year.
Since 2011, Switzerland has been ranked at the top every year.
Top 10 Countries in Global Innovation Index 2018 are:
2. The Netherlands,
4. The United Kingdom,
6. United States of America,
11 July 2018
The Western Ghats, one of India’s Hottest Biodiversity Hotspots and UNESCO World Heritage site, has been marked fourth in the Lonely Planet’s top five ‘2018 Best in Asia’ list.
Older than the Himalayas and well known for its rich and unique flora and fauna, the Western Ghats supports the life of 7,402 species of flowering plants, 1814 species of non-flowering plants, 139 mammal species, 508 bird species, 179 amphibian species, 6000 insects species and 290 freshwater fish species.
One of the flowering plant species, Neelakurinji (Strobilanthes kunthiana) which blooms once every 12 years and has started to bloom in the famed hill station of Munnar, has been mentioned in the report.
8 July 2018
There are four lenders from India that now rank among the world's 500 most valuable companies. HDFC Bank is followed by its housing finance cousin Housing Development Finance Corporation (HDFC), Kotak Mahindra Bank and State Bank of India.
♦ There are now 11 Indian companies among the world's 500 biggest firms in terms of market cap. Tata Consultancy Services (TCS) tops the chart with a market cap of $103 billion, followed by Reliance Industries.
♦ HDFC Bank has gone past Russia's Sberbank to become the most valuable bank in the emerging market outside China. HDFC Bank’s current market capitalisation is $78.4 billion against Sberbank's $74.4 billion.
♦ Industrial & Commercial Bank of China topping the list with a market cap of $273.4 billion, followed by China Construction Bank ($225.1 billion).
29 June 2018
India has emerged as one of the top 10 countries to have registered maximum improvement in transparency in real estate over last two years, showed JLL’s Global Real Estate Transparency Index (GRETI) 2018.
According to the survey, UK is at the top position followed by Australia and the US. France, Canada, Netherlands, New Zealand, Germany, Ireland and Sweden are in top 10 in the list of 100 countries.
Venezuela is the least transparent market with 100th rank.
29 June 2018
According to Mercer's 24th annual Cost of Living Survey, Mumbai is India’s most expensive city, followed by New Delhi and Chennai.
Kolkata and Bengaluru are the least expensive Indian cities ranked.
Mercer’s survey reveals that Hong Kong took the top spot as the world’s most expensive city for expatriates.
Tokyo and Zurich are in second and third positions, respectively, with Singapore in fourth.
29 June 2018
According to research firm SmallBusinessPrices.co.uk, Bengaluru has claimed the second spot in the list of best locations for launching tech startups.
The first place was secured by Boulder city in the US while the third best location was Johannesburg in South Africa.
The research measured the average internet speed, the average business valuation, and cost of living, among other metrics.
27 June 2018
According to the Thomson Reuters Foundation survey on women's issues, India is the world's most dangerous country for women due to the high risk of sexual violence and being forced into slave labour.
The list of the 10 countries ranked as the most dangerous for women by the survey, conducted between March 26 and May 4:-
5. Saudi Arabia
7. Democratic Republic of Congo
10. United States