2 days ago
Untreated industrial wastewater flows into the rivers of Gujarat without control, leading to increase the pollution in Sabarmati, Mahisagar, Narmada, Vishwamitri and Bhadar
♦ According to data from the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF), Sabarmati is one of the most polluted rivers in the country.
♦ Gujarat is ranked fourth among the top five states with most polluted rivers with as many as 20 rivers in the critically polluted category.
♦ According to official parameters, if the chemical oxygen demand (COD) representing the load of organic pollutants is higher than 250 mg per liter, it should not be released into the river.
♦ Most of the wastewater in the Gujarat River is dumped into it, with a chemical oxygen demand level of 700 to 1,000 milligrams per liter.
♦ Although the Dissolved Oxygen (DO) level (indicating the health of the river) of a perennial river like Mahisgar should be in the range of 6 to 8 mg per liter, it is actually less than 2.9 mg per liter.
2 days ago
The Mahananda Wildlife Sanctuary in West Bengal will organize a bird festival. This holiday is the first time. It is organized by the Darjeeling Wildlife Department. Mahananda Wildlife Sanctuary is known as an important bird and biodiversity area.
♦ Important bird and biodiversity areas have been identified as an internationally recognized set of standards that are vital to bird protection. The important bird sanctuary concept was developed by Birdlife International.
♦ Currently, there are 12,000 important bird areas in the world. The thresholds for important bird sanctuaries are set by the corresponding national regulatory agencies. In order to be included in an important bird sanctuary, the site must meet at least one of the following conditions:
♦ A1: Species threatened globally - The site should be kept in the IUCN Red List as a critically endangered, vulnerable or endangered bird population.
♦ A2: Restricted range species - The site should be an endemic bird area. The International Bird Conservation Organization classifies endemic birds as those with limited habitat. The International Bird Conservation Organization has identified approximately 218 endemic bird sanctuaries. Endemic species means that the species is native to a single geographic location and cannot be found elsewhere.
♦ A3: Biome restricted range species - The site should retain restricted biome species. The location should constitute a selected group of appropriate representatives of all species in the biological community. In other words, the species living in that location should be endemic and should only be found in that specific biome (and not anywhere else in the world).
♦ A4: Congregation - This applies to shorebirds, seabirds and wetland birds. This was created in accordance with the Ramsar Convention.
♦ The location of Mahananda Wildlife Sanctuary is between the Teesta and Mahananda rivers which is foothills of the Himalayas. The status of the reserve is provided mainly to protect the Indian bison and the Royal Bengal tiger.
3 days ago
Semeru volcano erupted in East Java, Indonesia. Other volcanoes such as Merapi (Java) and Sinabung (Sumatra) have also erupted recently.
Key Facts about Semeru Volcano:
♦ Semeru (also known as "The Great Mountain") is the highest volcano in Java and one of the most active volcanoes. Previously erupted in December 2019.
♦ Indonesia has the largest number of active volcanoes in the world. As it is located on the Pacific Ring of Fire, it is prone to earthquakes.
♦ The Semeru volcano is part of the island arc. It is formed by the subduction of the Indo-Australian plate below the Sunda plate (part of the Eurasian plate). The trench formed here is called the Sunda trench, and its main part is the Java trench.
3 days ago
According to the Indian Meteorological Department (IMD), Western disturbance is likely to affect the Himalayas soon. These disturbances will cause mild to moderate snowfall and rainfall in the Plains of Jammu.
♦ Western Disturbance (WD) is marked as an extra-tropical storm originating in the Mediterranean. It is an area of low pressure that brings showers, heavy snow and fog in northwest India.
♦ The meaning of WD lies in its name. The disturbance travels from "west" to east direction.
♦ They travel eastward in high-altitude westerly jet streams-a large amount of fast wind traverses the earth from west to east.
♦ Disturbance refers to areas that are "disturbed" or where air pressure decreases. Equilibrium exists naturally, so the air in the area tries to normalize its pressure.
♦ The term "extra-tropical storm", refers to low pressure. "Extra-Tropical" refers to areas outside the tropics. Because WD originated outside the tropical region, the term "extra-tropical" is related to it.
♦ WD is related to rainfall, snowfall and fog in northern India. Rain and snow in Pakistan and northern India. The moisture carried by WD comes from the Mediterranean sea and/or from the Atlantic Ocean.
♦ WD brings winter and pre-monsoon rains, which are essential for the development of Rabi crops in the Northern subcontinent.
♦ WD is not always a sign of good weather. Sometimes, WD can cause extreme weather events, such as floods, flash floods, landslides, sandstorms, hail storms and cold waves, causing deaths, infrastructure damage and livelihoods.
3 days ago
Scientists from the Zoological Survey of India concluded that India is home to two (sub)species of Himalayan red panda (Ailurus fulgens) and Chinese red panda (Ailurus styani).
♦ The Siang River in Arunachal Pradesh divides the red panda into these two phylogenetic species.
♦ Until 2020, the red panda was considered a monotypic species, until scientists studied its genetic composition in terms of its geographic distribution and described the occurrence of these two species.
♦ The reason for the decrease in the population of Himalayan red pandas is due to geological and climatic oscillations, because during the last glacial period and the Pleistocene, repeated cycles of wetlands and dry periods exposed the landscape to more severe topographic and geological changes.
♦ It is considered to be an indicator of ecological changes. The red panda is a shy, lonely and arboreal animal. It mainly feeds on bamboo and avoids human activities.
♦ The comprehensive protection of this ecologically sensitive species requires the joint efforts of national and international stakeholders and the full awareness of local communities.
♦ The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is a mammal which is found in the eastern Himalayas and southwestern China. Listed as an endangered species in the IUCN Red List Threats: habitat loss and fragmentation, poaching and decline of close relatives. Despite its name, it has little to do with giant pandas
4 days ago
Bihar started the first state-level bird festival "Kalrav" in the Nagi-Nakti Bird Sanctuary in Jamui District of Bihar.This is a three-day event that is expected to attract experts and bird lovers from all over the country.
♦ Naji Dam and Nakti Dam are two sanctuaries, they are very close to each other, so they can be regarded as a bird sanctuary.
♦ The Nagi-Nakti Bird Sanctuary is the hometown of various birds and migratory birds, which appear in Eurasia, Central Asia, the Arctic Circle, Russia and northern China in winter.
♦ More than 136 species of birds have been found in these sanctuaries.
♦ According to the report of the International Wetlands Organization, there are about 1,600 bar-headed geese, which account for about 3% of the global population of this species. Due to this rare phenomenon, the Birdlife International, a global body, has held the Nagi Dam Bird Sanctuary to be globally important for conservation of birds' population and has declared it as an important bird area.
♦ Other major birds: Indian Courser, Indian Sandgrouse, Yellow-wattled Lapwing and Indian Robin.
♦ Major threats to the biodiversity of the sanctuaries: Agricultural runoff; Land dispute between Irrigation and Forest Departments; Leasing out of the site for fishing.
Other Bird Sanctuaries of Bihar:
♦ Gautam Budha bird sanctuary, Gaya
♦ Kawar Jheel bird sanctuary, Bigusarai
♦ Kusheshwar asthan bird sanctuary, Darbhanga
11 days ago
NCAVES (Natural Capital Accounting & Valuation of the Ecosystem Services) India Forum for the year 2021 is organized by the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation.
♦ The NCAVES project is funded by the European Union (EU). NCAVES is Jointly implemented by the subsequent agencies: United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD), United Nations Environment Programme -UNEP & Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity - CBD.
♦ In India, it's implemented by the subsequent agencies: the Ministry of Statistics and Planning and therefore the Ministry of Environment, Forests & global climate change (MoEF&CC) and therefore the National Remote Sensing Center (NRSC) in close cooperation.
♦ India is one of five countries participating in this project. Other participating countries are China, Brazil, South Africa, and Mexico.
♦ Participation in the project will be helpful to compile Environment Accounts as per the UN-SEEA framework and also helps for publishing environmental accounts in its publication "EnviStats India" once a year from 2018.
♦ Under the NCAVES project, the India-EVL tool was developed.
♦ This is an inquiry tool that gives a snapshot of the worth of varied ecosystem services in several states of the country supported by approximately 80 studies conducted across the country.
14 days ago
Government of India along with SC-NBWL (Standing Committee of the National Board of Wildlife) approves advisory for management of Human-Wildlife Conflict across the country.
♦ The advisory has laid down important regulations for States/Union Territories to deal with conflicts between humans and wildlife, and seeks to speed up coordination and effective action between departments.
♦ In accordance with Article 11(1)(b) of the Wildlife Protection Act of 1972, the organization envisages empowering the gram panchayats to deal with problematic wildlife.
♦ It is also envisaged to use additional coverage under Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana to compensate crop compensation for crop damage caused by HWC and increase feed and water sources in forest areas.
♦ It also stipulates that the victim/family shall be paid a part of special temporary relief within 24 hours after the incident.
♦ The advisory also discussed the establishment of inter-departmental committees at the local/state level, the use of early warning systems, the installation of obstacles, and a special circulation control room with toll-free hotlines numbers, which can be operated on a 24X7 basis to identify hot spots and formulate plans and implement special plans to improve livestock breeding, etc.
♦ The National Board for Wildlife also approved the inclusion of Caracal on the list of Critically endangered species so that conservation work can be carried out under the funding of the centrally sponsored scheme- Development of Wildlife Habitat.
♦ This makes the entire number of ‘critically endangered’ wildlife species under the recovery programme for critically species to 22.
14 days ago
A meeting was convened between the CPCB (Central Pollution Control Board) and the officials of DPCC (Delhi Pollution Control Committee), HSPCB (Haryana State Pollution Control Board), DJB (Delhi Jal Board), Haryana and Irrigation, Irrigation & Water Resources Department, and Flood Control Department, Delhi.
♦ The main purpose is to discuss the recurring problem of Ammoniacal Nitrogen increase in the Yamuna River and the short-term and long-term remedial measures required.
♦ The long-term review of this issue identified and agreed that possible reasons may be:
- Lean flow in the Yamuna river and anaerobic decomposition of accumulated sludge on river bed.
- Discharge from industries, Common Effluent Treatment Plants (CETPs) & Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs)
- Illegal discharge from unsewered colonies in outer Delhi via tankers
- Untreated sewage discharge from upstream towns in Haryana;
♦ Formed a research team consisting of the Delhi Jal Board (DJB), Haryana State Pollution Control Board, Delhi Pollution Control Committee, Irrigation and Water Resources Department, Haryana, Irrigation and Flood Control Department, Delhi.
♦ The team will review:
(1) Unified monitoring protocol and requirements for enhanced monitoring mechanisms;
(2) Analyze past data and conduct field investigations to identify key hot spots and periods of high ammonia levels.
♦ It is also required to suggest short-term and long-term measures for continuous solutions and submit a report within one month.
14 days ago
The Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) recently issued a statement on India's climate in 2020. According to its data, 2020 is the eighth warmest year since 1901, but it is much lower than the highest warming in 2016.
♦ The past two decades (2001-2010 and 2011-2020) are also the warmest decade on record, with anomalies of 0.23 degrees Celsius & 0.34 degrees Celsius, respectively, indicating that the overall temperature has risen.
♦ 12 on 15 warmest years since 1901 were considered in the past 15 years itself – between 2006 and 2020.
♦ From 1901 to 2020, the annual average mean temperature in India showed an increasing trend of 0.62 degrees Celsius per 100 years.
♦ It also shows a clear increasing trend in the highest temperature (0.99 degrees Celsius/100 years), and a relatively low increasing trend (0.24 degrees Celsius/100 years) in minimum temperature.
♦ In the year 2020, the annual mean land surface air temperature is 0.29 degrees Celsius higher than normal (based on data from 1981-2010).
♦ The five warmest years on record are: 2016, 2009, 2017, 2010 and 2015.
♦ The 2020 Northeast monsoon season (October to December) for the entire country has normal rainfall (101% of LPA).
14 days ago
Ethiopia, Sudan, and Egypt recently agreed to resume negotiations to resolve a decade-long complex dispute over the hydropower project of the Great Renaissance Dam in the Horn of Africa. The Horn of Africa is the easternmost point of the African land, including Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, and Somalia, and other countries whose cultures are linked together in their long history. Ethiopia is building a Grand Renaissance Dam on the Nile River.
♦ The River Nile is the longest river in Africa. It is the middle of a decade-long complex dispute involving multiple countries that believe river waters.
♦ Grand Renaissance Dam: The 145-meter (475-foot-high) hydropower project initiated by Ethiopia was the cause of the conflict. Given the dam’s location on the Blue Nile tributary, it might allow Ethiopia to realize control of the flow of the river’s waters. The River Blue Nile may be a tributary of the Nile, which carries about two-thirds of the river's water and most of the silt. Ethiopia, Egypt and Sudan are the forefronts of this dispute.
♦ Ethiopia believes that the dam will generate approximately 6,000 megawatts of electricity and will support its industrial development. It can also export excess electricity to neighbouring areas to generate income.
♦ Egypt’s Concern: Egypt lies downstream and cares that Ethiopia’s control over the water could end in lower water levels within its own borders. About 97% of Egypt's drinking water and irrigation supplies depend on the Nile. The dam will endanger the food, water security and livelihoods of ordinary Egyptian citizens.
♦ Sudan’s Stand: Sudan is also worried that if Ethiopia gains control of the river, it will affect the water level that Sudan obtains. Sudan may benefit from the electricity generated by the dam. Regulated river flow will save Sudan from severe flooding in August and September. Therefore, it proposed joint management of the dam.
14 days ago
After confirming the avian influenza outbreaks in Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Kerala and Himalayas, the Ministry of Animal Husbandry has established control rooms.
♦ The control room will pay close attention to the situation and evaluate the preventive and control measures taken by the state governments on a daily basis. The control room will also comply with the National Avian Flu Action Plan.
♦ National Action Plan on Avian Influenza consists of the following parts:
♦ Advise states and federal territories on preventing bird flu outbreaks.
♦ The second part of the action plan specifies actions to be taken if an avian influenza outbreak is suspected.
♦ The third part describes the actions during the outbreak.
♦ The fourth part determines that people who have infected poultry with bird flu will be treated. The person will advise on biosafety and biosafety measures.
♦ Influenza viruses are categorised into types A, B and C. It is known that influenza A viruses only infect animals and are zoonotic. This means that type A can also infect humans.
♦ The subtypes of avian influenza are H5N1, H7N9 and H9N2. The subtypes are classified according to surface proteins called neouracilase and hemagglutinin.
♦ This is the global influenza surveillance and response system initiated by the World Health Organization in 1952. It monitors global seasonal trends and potential pandemic influenza. It is the backbone of the global flu alert system.
♦ Global Influenza Strategy was launched by the World Health Organization for 2019-2030. It aims to prevent seasonal influenza and control the spread of viruses from animals to humans.
15 days ago
An international research team led by Oxford University has developed a new method of investigating African elephants using satellite imagery and artificial intelligence.
♦ This method uses satellite orbits capable of capturing images of more than five thousand square kilometers in space. Then, the captured image is processed through a deep learning model, which will detect the elephant and eliminate other objects.
♦ The international team used a customized data set to cover thousands of elephants in South Africa.
♦ This method eliminates the risk of double counting. In addition, it can conduct repeated investigations in a short period of time.
♦ This method can identify calves separately.
♦ The number of elephants in India is 27,312. The Indian elephant is one of the three subspecies of the Asian elephant.
♦ In 1986, Asian elephants were listed as "endangered" in the IUCN Red List. They have been included in Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora India launched the ♦ ♦ ♦ "Elephant Project" in 1992 to provide financial and technical support for wildlife management.
♦ The project plans to extend the life of elephants in their natural habitat by protecting their habitat and migration corridors.
♦ There are 138 elephant corridors in India. 28 of these states are interstate highways, and 17 are international state corridors.
♦ The Elephant Corridor is a narrow land that connects two large elephant habitats. They are essential to reduce animal deaths caused by accidents.
16 days ago
The Odisha Forest Department emphasized the need for stricter monitoring of social media platforms to check for pangolin poaching and trading.
♦ Pangolins are scaly anteater mammals and their skin has large protective keratin scales. They are the only mammals with this features.
♦ Pangolins are nocturnal and their diet is mainly composed of ants and termites.
♦ Among the eight species of pangolin, the Indian pangolin (Manis crassicaudata) and the Chinese pangolin (Manis pentadactyla) are found in India.
♦ In addition to arid regions, the Himalayas and the Northeast, Indian pangolins are widely distributed in India. This species has also been found in Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal and Sri Lanka.
♦ Chinese pangolins are found in the foothills of the Himalayas in Eastern Nepal, Bhutan, Northern India, North-East Bangladesh, and throughout southern China.
♦ Threats to Pangolins in India: Hunting and poaching for local consumptive use (e.g. as a protein source and traditional medicine) and international trade for its meat and scales in East and South East Asian countries, particularly ♦ ♦ China and Vietnam. Pangolins are found to be the most trafficked mammals in the world.
- Wildlife Protection Act,1972: Schedule I
- IUCN Red List: Endangered
- CITIES: Appendix I
16 days ago
The Kamrup (Metropolitan) District administration bans community fishing in Deepor Beel. This is a wetland on the southwestern edge of Guwahati. This is the only Ramsar site in Assam.
♦ This order is necessary to prevent fishing, excavation and construction in and around the wetlands that have been shrinking over the years.
♦ Deepor Beel was designated as a Ramsar site in 2002 to maintain multiple forms of aquatic life in addition to 219 species of birds.
♦ About Ramsar Convention: It was signed on February 2, 1971. This is one of the oldest intergovernmental accords signed by member countries.
♦ Goal: Maintain the ecological characteristics of wetlands of international importance. It is named after Ramsar, the Iranian city where the treaty was signed. The place selected for protection under it is marked as "Ramsar Site".
♦ The aim of the Ramsar List: To develop and maintain an international wetland network, which is essential for maintaining global biodiversity and maintaining the composition of its ecosystems, processes and benefits to sustain human life.
16 days ago
The census of Asian waterbirds is being conducted in the Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary and nearby wetlands in Andhra Pradesh.
♦ Every January, thousands of volunteers from Asia and Oceania visited the wetlands in their countries and counted waterbirds. The citizen science program is the Asian Waterbird Census (AWC).
♦ is the annual exercise since 1987.
♦ AWC is a component of the Global Waterbird Monitoring Program, International Waterbird Survey coordinated by Wetlands International.
♦ In India, the Ministry of Forestry and the Bombay Natural History Society (BNHS) supported the exercise.
♦ Therefore, the census covers the entire East Asia-Australia route and most of the routes in Central Asia.
♦ Objectives: During the non-breeding period (January) of most species, the annual information of the wetland waterbird population in the area is obtained as the basis for assessing locations and monitoring population. Annual monitoring of wetland conditions. Encourage citizens to have greater interest in waterfowl and wetlands.
22 days ago
The Karnataka Forest Service and the Bat Conservation Foundation of India (BCIT) are preparing to save the Koala leaf-nosed bat from extinction. BCIT is a non-profit organization whose mission is to protect bat species in India by protecting their habitat. Its headquarters is located in Bangalore, Karnataka.
Kolar Leaf-Nosed Bat:
♦ Scientific Name: Hipposideros hypophyllus
♦ It is endemic to India. It is presently known only from one cave in Hanumanahalli village in Kolar district, Karnataka.
♦ Threats: Habitat loss from land use change, hunting, and stone quarrying in the region. Until a few years ago, Koala leaf-nosed bats were only found in two caves in Hanumanahalli village. For unknown reasons, the bat was locally extinct in one of the two caves.
♦ Protection Status - IUCN Red List: Critically Endangered
- Wildlife Protection Act, 1972: It has not been accorded legal protection under the Act.
♦ The government has notified 30 acres around the cave as a protected area.
♦ Any development work here, including the construction of new infrastructure, requires permission from the National Wildlife Commission.
♦ The Bat Conservation Foundation of India has received a grant to conduct further research on the bat.
♦ It is carrying out awareness-raising campaigns in nearby communities. They have learned about the threats to species and are beginning to protect this area from harm.
23 days ago
The giant Antarctic iceberg A68 has become a cause for concern for South Georgia Island. The giant iceberg A68 is the largest free-floating ice block in Antarctica, covering approximately 5,800 square kilometres.
♦ The giant iceberg A68 is the largest free-floating ice block in Antarctica, covering an area of approximately 5,800 square kilometres. It has been drifting in the Atlantic Ocean since 2017.
♦ In 2020, icebergs were pushed into the South Atlantic Ocean due to ocean currents. Since then, it has been drifting towards the remote sub-Antarctic island of South Georgia, a British Overseas Territory (BOT).
♦ These raises concern that icebergs may have an impact on the island’s abundant wildlife.
♦ Icebergs travel with ocean currents and either get caught up in shallow waters or ground themselves.
♦ Recently, the US National Ice Center (USNIC) confirmed that there are two new icebergs cut from A68a that are large enough to name and track.
♦ They are called A68E and A68F.
24 days ago
The National Tiger Conservation Authority has requested Odisha to submit a status report on tourism's adverse effects on the Satkosia Tiger Reserve. Satkosia Tiger Reserve, Bhubaneswar includes two adjoining sanctuaries of central Odisha.
♦ Satkosia Tiger Reserve, Bhubaneswar includes two adjoining sanctuaries of central Odisha called Satkosia Gorge Sanctuary and Baisipalli Sanctuary.
♦ The two sanctuaries have a combined 963.87 square kilometres area and were notified as Tiger Reserves in December 2007.
♦ The Tiger Reserve is located in the transition zone between Chhota Nagpur Plateau and Deccan Plateau, showing the two biological provinces' unique life forms.
♦ The area supports moist deciduous forest, dry deciduous forest and moist peninsular Sal forest.
♦ The area is a habitat for tigers, leopards, elephants, Gaul, Chousingha, sloth bears, wild dogs, resident and migratory birds, reptiles, etc.
Satkosia Gorge Sanctuary:
♦ Its name is derived from the Mahanadi River's narrow stretch, the "Sat-Kosh River", or the seven-mile-long near Tikarpada, 60 kilometres south of Angul.
♦ The area became a sanctuary in 1976 and is distributed in four districts of Orissa, namely Angul, Budh, Cuttack and Nayagarh.
♦ Satkosia Gorge is a unique feature of the Indian landform, because Mahanadi cuts through the Eastern Ghats to form a magnificent gorge.
♦ Fauna: Famous for Gharials, Mugger crocodiles and rare freshwater turtles (such as Chitra indica and Indian softshell turtles).
♦ Baisipalli’s name comes from the 22 existing settlements within its range. It was given the status of sanctuary in May 1981.
♦ It is located where the Mahanadi River crosses the gorge of the East Ghats Mountains in Nayagarh District.
♦ The entire area is part of the Deccan Peninsula Biogeographic Region, Eastern Plateau Province and Eastern Ghat sub-division.
♦ Flora and fauna: This is a sal dominated forest with a large number of tigers, leopards, elephants, and herbivores (such as Chousingha and water birds, reptiles, etc.).
24 days ago
India raised eight blue flags on the beach, once again demonstrating a national campaign to defend its coastal areas. The Blue Flag certification is a globally recognized eco-label.
♦ Environment Minister Prakash Javadekar - The certification is a global recognition of India's conservation and sustainable development efforts.
♦ India has become the first country to receive the blue flag certification of 8 beaches in a single attempt and hosted the Blue flags in all its beaches. Their outstanding efforts in raising the flag on all eight beaches was to be praised.
♦ The Blue Flag certification is a globally recognized eco-label provided by the Foundation for Environment Education in Denmark according to 33 strict criteria.
♦ The AIR correspondent report, a National level campaign integrated with the BEAMS (Beach Environment and Aesthetics Management Services) program, aims to continuously raise awareness and education of the Blue Flag certification journey.
♦ BEAMS is an integrated coastal zone management initiative that aims to promote the sustainable development of 13 coastal regions of the country. Its main goal is to protect the pristine coastal and marine ecosystems.
24 days ago
Scientists have discovered a new species called Portulaca laljii. This is a wild sun rose found in the Eastern Ghats. Portulaca lajii was found in the Prakasam area of Andhra Pradesh.
♦ The unique characteristics are as follows:
Tuberous root. The root is the storage root. It is enlarged and serves as a storage organ, No hair in its leaf axis, Reddish Pink flowers, Prolate-shaped fruits, Copper brown seeds, matt (soft light)
♦ It is named after Lal Ji Singh. He is a well-known botanist from the Botanical Survey of India. This species has been included in the "Insufficient Data" category of the IUCN Endangered Species List.
♦ The flowers of Portulaca lajii are pinkish-red, about 0.5 mm per minute. These plants were found in crevices in rocks at an altitude of 1800 meters. Because they bloom in bright sunshine, they are classified as "the sun rose".
♦ The flowers of these plants are very attractive and have high gardening value. They bloom between June and February.
♦ Portulaca lajii has tuberous roots and succulent properties that allow it to survive on the rock surface. Generally, plants with thickened parts that can retain moisture in dry soils or climates are called succulent plants.
♦ The sun rose plant is also called rock rose. There are 80 to 100 kinds of the sun rose plants. They are low-growing flowering plants. The plant bloomed in the sun. These plants are native to the Cape Province of South Africa. However, they are widely used as ornamental plants all over the world.
25 days ago
In a paper published in the journal Endangered Species Research, the author described a new whale song that hinted at previously unknown populations.
♦ Researchers have recorded this unique song on the coast of Oman in the northern part of the Arabian Sea, the Chagos Islands in the west and Madagascar in the southwestern Indian Ocean.
♦ Since this is the only blue whale song they have found in the western Arabian Sea, the researchers call it the "Northwest Indian Ocean".
♦ Researchers believe that the source may be a blue whale or a Brady whale, because both species have been previously recorded in Oman.
♦ Implications: Given that this type of song has not been reported before, its presence in a larger geographic area suggests that there may be a previously undefined blue whale population in the Western Indian Ocean.
♦ Not all whales are singing. Only some, such as the baleen whale, have been found to sing songs. Whales use songs to communicate and socialize.
♦ Their songs can be expressed as clicks, whistles, and pulsating sounds, or a combination of “moans, snores, chirps and cries”.
♦ When sound bounces off an object, the whale uses clicks to navigate and recognize its surroundings, thereby helping the whale determine its shape.
♦ These use whistle and pulse in social activities. Their songs can last 6-35 minutes, and some whales can sing for 22 hours.
♦ The whale songs' frequency is usually lower than 4 kHz, so human ears cannot hear it. The human hearing range is between 20 Hz and 20 kHz.
27 days ago
According to a study by the Council on Energy, Environment, and Water (CEEW), more than 75% of districts in India are home to 63.8 crore people and are hotspots for extreme climate events such as cyclones, floods, droughts, heatwaves, and cold waves.
♦ This is the first time that extreme weather event hotspots in the country have been mapped.
♦ In recent decades, the frequency, intensity, and unpredictability of these extreme events have continued to increase.
♦ Although India witnessed 250 extreme weather events in 35 years between 1970 and 2005, 310 such weather events have been recorded in only 15 years since then.
♦ In the past 50 years, the frequency of flood events has increased almost eight times.
♦ Flood-related events, such as landslides, heavy rain, hailstorms, thunderstorms, and cold bursts, increased by more than 20 times.
♦ In the past ten years, six of the eight most flood-prone areas in India were located in Barpeta, Darrang, Dhemaji, Goalpara, Golaghat, Sivasagar- are in Assam.
♦ Since 2005, the annual average of the drought-affected districts has increased by 13 times. Nearly 68% of the districts face drought and drought-like conditions.
♦ In the past ten years, the hot spots in India affected by drought are Ahmednagar, Aurangabad (both Maharashtra), Anantapur, Chittoor (both Andhra Pradesh), Bagalkot, Bijapur, Chikkaballapur, Gulbarga, and Hassan (all Karnataka).
♦ The study also found a shift in the pattern of extreme climate events, such as flood-prone areas becoming drought-prone and vice-versa, in over 40% of Indian districts.
27 days ago
The Ministry of Environment and the Wildlife Conservation Society, India have proposed a unique initiative-a "firefly bird diverter" for overhead power transmission lines in areas where the Great India Bustard (GIB) is found in the wild.
♦ Great India Bustard (GIB) is one of the most critically threatened species in India, with fewer than 150 birds left in the wild.
Listed as "Critically Endangered" in the "IUCN Red List".
♦ A report from the Ministry of Environment in 2019 pointed out that power lines, especially high-voltage transmission lines with multiple overhead lines, are the most important current threat to GIB in the Thar region and are causing unsustainably high mortality in about 15% of their population.
♦ The firefly bird diverters are flaps installed on power lines. They act as reflectors for birds such as GIB.
♦ Birds can spot them at a distance of about 50 meters and change their flight path to avoid collisions with power lines.
♦ Diverters are called fireflies because they look like fireflies in the distance and shine on the power lines at night.
28 days ago
In major progress in protecting biodiversity, India has added the Tso Kar wetland complex to the Ramsar site. The 42nd batch of internationally important wetland Tso Kar is located in the Changtang area of Ladakh above 4,500 meters above sea level.
♦ The complex includes two connected lakes, the freshwater Startsapuk Tso and the larger super-salinity Tso Kar, and shows famous examples of two adjacent lakes.
♦ The name Tso Kar refers to the white salt weathering on the edge of the lake caused by the evaporation of salt lake water.
♦ The local climate is arid, and glacial meltwater is the main source of water for the lake.
♦ The presence of lakes, especially freshwater, attracts biodiversity in areas where the organisms are sparse.
♦ The site is home to many endangered species, including the endangered falcon (Falco cherrug) and Asian wild dog (Cuon alpinus laniger), and the vulnerable snow leopard (Panthera uncia).
♦ This station is also an important transfer station for migratory birds along the Central Asia Line, and it is also one of the most important breeding grounds for Indian black-necked cranes (Grus nigricollis).
♦ The Ramsar Convention is an intergovernmental environmental treaty established by UNESCO and entered into force in 1975. The Ramsar Wetland is a wetland of international importance designated under the Ramsar Convention.
28 days ago
The Minister of Environment of the released the "State of the Leopard" report. The leopard population has been estimated using camera trapping methods.
♦ As of 2018, there were 12,852 leopards in India, compared with 7910 in 2014, an increase of 60% in four years.
♦ It is estimated that the highest concentration of cheetahs is concentrated in Madhya Pradesh (3,421), followed by Karnataka (1,783) and Maharashtra (1,690).
♦ A recent meta-analysis of the status and distribution of leopards shows that the range loss of African species is 48-67%, and that of Asian species is 83-87%.
♦ In India, leopards have experienced a population decline of 75-90% that may be caused by humans in the past 120-200 years.
♦ In the Indian subcontinent, poaching, loss of habitat, depletion of natural prey and conflict are the main threats to leopard populations.
♦ All of these have caused the IUCN to change the status of the species from "near threat" to "vulnerable".
♦ As for the regional distribution, central India and the Western Ghats have the largest number of leopards at 8,071. In the hilly area of the northeast, there are only 141 leopards.
♦ Leopards are estimated to be found in forest habitats in the Tiger Mountains region of the country, but other leopard-occupied areas (such as non-forest habitats, higher elevations in the Himalayas, arid landscapes and most of the northeast landscape) have not been sampled.
♦ Therefore, population estimates should be considered as the minimum number of leopards in each landscape.
29 days ago
The NCR and the Air Quality Management Committee of the adjacent area together with the Delhi NCT government, GAIL and Indraprastha Gas Limited reviewed the progress of the conversion of the industry operating in Delhi to pipeline natural gas (PNG).
♦ Although a considerable number of industries are using PNG, the committee emphasized that considering that the industrial sector is one of the main factors causing air pollution in Delhi and the National Capital Region, all identified industries in Delhi must switch to PNG.
♦ The committee was established in November 2020 in accordance with the Air Quality Management Act of the National Capital Region (NCR) and adjacent areas.
♦ In terms of air pollution mitigation, it replaced all existing agencies including the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) and the National Pollution Control Boards of Delhi, UP, Haryana, Punjab and Rajasthan.
♦ Through this decree, the center disbanded NCR's Environmental Pollution Prevention and Control Agency (EPCA). The committee is a permanent body and will be chaired by a government official in the position of secretary or chief secretary. It is a statutory body.
♦ A representative of the Minister of the Environment, five secretarial officials will serve as ex officio members, and two joint secretarial officials will become full-time members.
♦ Three representatives of CPCB, ISRO, air pollution experts and non-governmental organizations - NGOs.
♦ As associate members, the committee will have representatives from other ministries and commissions, including the Ministry of Agriculture, Petroleum, Electricity, Road Transport and Highways, Housing and Urban Affairs, and ♦ ♦ Industry and Commerce.
Powers of the committee:
♦ In order to protect and improve the air quality in the capital region and surrounding areas, it can issue instructions and file complaints, and it is also responsible for taking all such measures to protect and improve air quality.
♦ The committee can take measures to reduce air pollution and regulate or prohibit activities that may cause or increase pollution in the NCR and adjacent areas.
♦ It has jurisdiction in NCR, including Punjab, Haryana, UP and Rajasthan regions.
♦ The committee has the power of punishment including imprisonment and severe punishment. Cases involving the committee can only be tried by the National Green Tribunal, not by the civil court.
31 days ago
The Anthropological Survey of India (AnSI) policy document warns that commercial activities may pose a threat to endangered groups. According to ANSI, any exploitation of the Andaman’s North Outpost Island for commercial and strategic benefits is dangerous to its occupier Sentinese.
♦ Anthropological Survey of India (ANSI) reported that any exploitation of the Andaman’s North Outpost Island for commercial and strategic benefits is dangerous to its occupier Sentinese.
♦ It also stated that the rights of the people on the island are non-negotiable, inviolable and inviolable.
♦ The primary duty of the state is to protect these rights for eternity and sacredness.
♦ There should be no commercial or strategic interests on their island.
♦ The document also called for the establishment of a knowledge base in Sentinese.
♦ Since tribal communities cannot conduct "field research", anthropologists recommend "distant cultural research".
♦ The Sentinelese are the most secluded tribe, and the particularly vulnerable tribe (PVTG) is completely isolated on the Andamans. It has a population of about 50 to 100 on North Qianshao Island.
♦ They are not only one of the most isolated countries in the country’s nearly 70 PVTGs, but also one of the five countries in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, including the Andaman, Angers, Galawa and Champence.
♦ Although both Sentinese and Great Andamanese are classified as PVTG, the tribe lives in two completely different contact environments.
♦ As far as the Sentinels are concerned, their contact with the outside world is almost zero, while the Greater Andaman has been in contact with the world outside the island for decades.
35 days ago
The Indian Bison became the focus of the news because it was visible in the urban landscape of Pune, leading to its arrest and death due to injuries. The tragic news of its death brought the conflict between the people of the country and Gaur into the focus of attention.
Scientific name: BosGaurus.
It is one of the largest cattle in existence. It is one of the largest species among the wild cattle.
Habitat: Gaurs appear in forest hills and grasslands from South Asia to Southeast Asia.
They exist in India, China, Thailand, Malaysia, Bangladesh, Bhutan and Nepal. The Western Ghats in southern India is one of the most extensive Gaul fortresses in existence, especially in the Wayanad, Nagarhole, Mudumalai, Bandipur complex.
Gaur is the state animal of Goa and Bihar.
IUCN status: Vulnerable
The Indian government has included it in Schedule 1 of the Wildlife Protection Act 1972.
It is listed in CITES Appendix I.
35 days ago
In the cold Himalayan desert area of Spiti, Himachal Pradesh, Himalayan Serow was first seen. Wildlife officials believe that this particular animal may have escaped from the Rupi Baba Wildlife Sanctuary into the Spiti Valley.
Scientific name: The Himalayan serow, or Capricornissumatraensisthar
It is a subspecies of the mainland serow (Capricornissumatraensis). It is similar to a cross between goat, donkey, cow and pig.
This is a medium-sized mammal with a large head, thick neck, short limbs, long m-shaped ears and black hair.
There are several species of serows, all found in Asia. The Himalayan serows are usually found at altitudes between 2,000 and 4,000 meters.
They are known to be found in the eastern, central and western parts of the Himalayas, but not found in the Trans Himalayan region. It is a herbivores.
IUCN Red List status: Vulnerable
Himalayan serows are listed in Schedule I of the Wildlife Protection Act 1972, which provides absolute protection.
38 days ago
India reaffirmed its commitment to the Paris Climate Accord, prior to the Climate Ambition Summit which will start on December 12, 2020, in Glasgow, Scotland. The Climate Ambition Summit 2020 will commemorate the 5th anniversary of the Paris Agreement. It will provide a platform for government and non-governmental leaders to demonstrate their commitment to the Paris Agreement and multilateral processes.
Climate Ambition Summit 2020:
Goal: To formulate new, ambitious commitments based on the three pillars of the Paris Agreement, namely mitigation, adaptation and financial obligations.
Scope: The summit will provide a meaningful platform for companies, cities, and other non-state actors to work together and cooperate to support the government and accelerate the systemic changes required to reduce emissions and build resilience.
Organizer: United Nations, United Kingdom and France in cooperation with Chile and Italy.
Paris Climate Accord:
- Legal status: This is a legally binding international treaty on climate change.
- Adoption: At the Conference of Parties COP 21 held in Paris in December 2015, 196 countries passed the agreement.
- Target: Compared with the pre-industrial level, limit global warming to below 2 degrees Celsius, preferably below 1.5 degrees Celsius.
- Goal: In order to achieve long-term temperature goals, the purpose of all countries is to reach the peak of global greenhouse gas emissions as soon as possible to achieve a climate-neutral world before the middle of this century.
Current Status of Global Emissions:
Five years after the signing of the Paris Agreement, all states have submitted their national contributions to mitigate and adapt to climate change. The contribution is not enough to reach the limit of less than 2 degrees Celsius and are even much higher than the temperature limit of 1.5-degree celsius set by the Paris Agreement. Except for India, only Bhutan, the Philippines, Costa Rica, Ethiopia, Morocco and Gambia comply with the agreement. China is the highest greenhouse gas emitter of nearly 30% while the US accounts for 13.5% and the EU accounts for 8.7%.
India's Current Emissions:
The United Nations report released earlier this year stated that India’s per capita emissions are actually 60% lower than the global average. The country's emissions increased by 1.4% in 2019, which is far below the average annual level of 3.3% over the past decade.
Some of the Measures taken by India to Control Emissions:
Bharat Stage (BS) VI specifications: These are the emission control standards established by the government to check air pollution. National Solar Energy Mission: This is a major initiative of the Indian and state governments to promote sustainable ecological growth while addressing India’s energy security challenges. National Wind-solar Hybrid Policy 2018: The main goal of this policy is to provide a framework to promote the development of large-scale grid-connected wind-solar photovoltaic (PV) hybrid systems for optimal and efficient utilization of wind and solar resources, transmission infrastructure and land. All these and many other initiatives have helped India reduce 164 million kilograms of carbon dioxide emissions.
38 days ago
The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development praised India's efforts in river rejuvenation.
♦ The National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG) and the Center for Ganga River Basin Management and Studies (cGanga) organized a discussion at the 5th India Water Impact Summit.
♦ The India Water Impact Summit is an annual event where several stakeholders gather to discuss, debate and develop model solutions for some of the biggest water-related problems in the country.
♦ The International Bank for Reconstruction & Development stated that it is very proud of all the work has done in India, especially in curbing open defecation.
♦ IBRD also highlighted that the way to deal with open defecation problems has changed. Emphasis on education and awareness of the dangers of open defecation, as well as attention to infrastructure, has always been the key to success.
River cleaning exercise:
At the "Digital Water" conference, India clearly stated its intention to cooperate with the United States to establish India's digital foundation for the water sector.
A US representative who participated in the discussion said that water "equity" is significant and shared the success story of the "US Clean Water Act."
US companies hope to cooperate with their Indian peers to accelerate the entry of innovative technologies and solutions into the Indian market, and propose areas ranging from artificial intelligence to the most advanced infrastructure development methods. Interestingly, India also launched the "Jal Jeevan Mission", the goal of which is to distribute water equally to all people. It is noteworthy that the Namami Ganges Mission has the advantages of policy and financial factors. The discussion was part of the 5th India Water Impact Summit organized by the National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG) and the Center for Ganga River Basin Management and Studies (cGanga).
38 days ago
The Myristica Swamp Tree frog was recorded for the first time in the Thrissur area of Kerala. These are unique to the Western Ghats. The scientific name of Myristica Swamp Tree frog is Mercurana myristicapalustris
Myristica Swamp Tree frog:
♦ Myristica Swamp Tree frog is a Rare arboreal species (and walking around, living in or between trees). The frog will be only active for a few weeks during the breeding season.
♦ Unlike other frogs, the breeding season begins in the pre-monsoon season (May) and ends before the monsoon is fully active in June. Before the end of the breeding season, the female and male frogs descend to the forest floor together.
♦ The female digs mud and lays eggs in shallow caves. After reproduction and spawning, they retreat to the high canopy of the tree and remain elusive until the next breeding season.
♦ The Myristica swamp is a tropical freshwater swamp forest with a large number of nutmeg trees. The Myristica tree is the most primitive flowering plant on earth.
♦ Evergreen, water-tolerant trees have stilted roots, which help them stand upright in thick black moist alluvial soil. The trees formed a dense forest with a closed canopy. Swamps are usually found in valleys, making them easily submerged during monsoon rains.
♦ Studies have shown that the swamps that once occupied large areas of dense Western Ghats are now restricted to less than 200 hectares of land in the country.
♦ Besides, the Myristica swamps of the Western Ghats have become fragmented, and Kerala occupies a significant share of this habitat.
♦ Except for other areas in Karnataka and Goa, this special wetland has almost disappeared from the Indian subcontinent due to climate change in the past 18,000 to 50,000 years (late Pleistocene).
41 days ago
Scientists have discovered that aerosols such as black carbon and dust that make the Indo-Ganga Plain one of the most polluted areas in the world have led to an increase in high rainfall events in the foothills of the Himalayas.
♦ Department of Science & Technology, Government of India under DST Climate Change program supported a team of researchers from the Rulkella National Institute of Technology, the Leipzig Institute of Meteorology (LIM), the University of Leipzig, Germany, the Indian Institute of Technology Madras, and the Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur.
♦ This plan emphasizes the critical role of direct aerosol radiation effects on high precipitation events in the Himalayas.
♦ The Indo- Gangetic Plain is also known as the Indus Ganges and the North Indian River Plain. It is located between the great northern mountains and the peninsula plateau and consists of three main rivers: Ganges, Indus, Brahmaputra and its tributaries.
♦ It occupies approximately 7,000 square kilometres in the north and east of India.
♦ The area is known for high aerosol content, a large part of which is black carbon and dust, which is mainly caused by stubble burning and vehicle emissions.
♦ This provides an opportunity to analyze how aerosols affect extreme rainfall events, especially when air masses are forced from a low elevation to a higher elevation as it moves over rising terrain technically called orographic forcing.
41 days ago
In the Western Ghats region of Goa, scientists discovered a new species of Indian Muraingrassesthat is known for its ecological and economic importance, such as fodder.
♦ The discovered novel species was named Ischaemumjanarthanamii from plateaus of Western Ghats of Goa.
♦ It is named in memory of Professor M. K. Janarthanam, Professor of Botany at the University of Goa, for his contributions to the Indian grass taxonomy and documentation of the floristic diversity of Goa state.
♦ It grows on the low-altitude red soil plateau on the outskirts of Bhagwan Mahavir National Park in Goa.
♦ This species has adapted to harsh conditions, has low nutrient utilization and blooms in every monsoon.
♦ From Ischaemum is known to have 85 species in the world, of which 61 species are only found in India.
♦ There are 40 species in the Western Ghats, with the highest concentration among the genus.
42 days ago
The six-member team formed by the National Green Court recently violated the coastal control zone regulations in the coastal area between Karavaka and Antala State, East Godavari, Antalvidi Palipalem. A field investigation was conducted on his behaviour. The expert group sought necessary data related to the nature of aquaculture and beach sand mining permits.
♦ According to Article 3 of India's Environmental Protection Act of 1986, the coastal control zone notice was issued for the first time in February 1991.
♦ In 2018-19, new rules were issued to remove certain restrictions on buildings, simplify the approval process, and encourage tourism in coastal areas.
♦ They restrict certain activities to activities within a certain distance from the coastline, such as large-scale construction, the establishment of new industries, storage or disposal of hazardous materials, mining, reclamation and bundling.
♦ These restrictions depend on criteria such as the area's population, ecological sensitivity, distance from the coast, and whether the area is designated as a natural park or wildlife area.
♦ The latest rules have a 20m restricted area for all islands close to the mainland coast and all backwater islands on the mainland. For so-called CRZ-III (rural) areas, two separate categories are defined.
♦ According to the 2011 census, the population density of densely populated rural areas (CRZ-IIIA) was 2,161 per square kilometre, and the undeveloped area was 50 m away from the high tide level, compared to the previously prescribed 200 m.
♦ CRZ-IIIB (rural areas with a population density of less than 2,161 per square kilometre) areas still have no exclusion zone extending from the high tide line to 200 m.
♦ Although the CRZ rules are formulated by the Union's Ministry of Environment, the state government should ensure its implementation through its coastal management agencies.
43 days ago
Nepal and China announced that they would adjust the height of Mount Everest to 8,848.86 meters. The new height is 86 cm higher than the previous height.
♦ According to the survey conducted by the Bureau of Investigation of India in 1954, the new height of 8,848.86 meters replaced the long-term associated 8,848 meters.
♦ The joint statement means that the two countries have long-standing differences in mountain heights-China's declared elevation is 8844 m, and Nepal is 8847 m.
♦ Solving this three-meter difference is the goal of a joint project, which is attributed to China and Nepal using the "snow height" of snow including snow caps to calculate the "rock height" under snow.
♦ Mount Everest is also known as Sagarmatha in Nepal and Mount Everest in China.
♦ This mountain is suited on the border between Nepal and Tibet, and the summit can be accessed from both sides.
♦ Its English name comes from the colonial geographer Sir George Everest (Sir George Everest), who served as the chief surveyor of India in the mid-19th century.
♦ In 1953, Tenzing Norgay from India and Nepal and Edmund Hillary from New Zealand scaled it for the first time.
♦ The first survey of Mount Everest: The first effort was made in 1847 by a team led by Andrew Waugh, chief surveyor of India. The survey is based on triangulation calculations and is called the Indian Triangle Survey.
♦ The research team found that "Peak 15" (called Mount Everest at the time) was the highest peak, which was the highest peak at the time, contrary to the Kanchenjunga Mountain (8,582 m, currently the third highest peak in the world). world.
♦ K2 Mountain is 8,611 meters above sea level and is the second highest mountain in the world.
44 days ago
The National Green Tribunal (NGT) instructed the Orissa state government to prepare action plans for 14 identified elephant corridors.
Elephant Corridors: They are narrow land connecting two large elephant habitats. They are essential to reduce animal deaths due to accidents and other causes. The fragmentation of the forest makes it even more important to maintain the migration corridor. This movement of elephants helps to increase the survival rate and birth rate of the species. According to the National Elephant Corridor Project, the Wildlife Trust of India has identified 88 elephant corridors.
Concern: The overall development of human settlements, roads, railway lines, power lines, canals and mining industries are the main reasons for the fragmentation of the corridor.
Reasons for Protecting the Corridors:
The activities of elephants are essential to ensure that their populations are genetically viable. It also helps regenerate forests that other species depend on, including tigers.
Almost 40% of elephant sanctuaries are vulnerable because they are not in protected parks and reserves. Besides, there is no specific legal protection for migration corridors.
Forests turned into farms and uncontrolled tourism are blocking animal paths. Therefore, animals are forced to find alternative routes, leading to increased conflicts between elephants and humans.
Inadequate regulation of ecotourism is severely affecting essential habitats. It especially affects animals with larger livestock, such as elephants.
Elephants: Elephant is a key species. There are three subspecies of Asian elephants-Indian, Sumatran and Sri Lankan. The Indian elephant has the widest distribution, making up the majority of the rest of the elephants on the continent.
Conservation Status of Indian Elephants:
- Wildlife Protection Act,1972: Schedule I
- IUCN Red List: Endangered
- CITES Appendix I
India accounts for 50% of the Asian elephant population. According to the 2017 Elephant Census, the country has 27,312 elephants, which is nearly 3,000 fewer than the 2012 census.
India's Initiatives for Conservation of Elephants:
GajYatra: A nationwide elephant protection campaign was launched on the occasion of World Elephant Day 2017.
Elephant Project: This is a plan initiated by the central government and started in 1992.
44 days ago
The central government recognized the Rajgir Zoo Safari Park in Nalanda, Bihar and Shaheed Ashfaque Ullah Khan Prani Udyaan in Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh.
Rajgir Zoo Safari:
It is located in Nalanda, Bihar. The established zoo is only composed of safari fences. Unlike traditional fences, zoos provide more space for animals in captivity. The zoo proposes to house lions, bears, tigers, leopards and a mixed safari of common herbivore species such as spotted deer, sambar among others.
Shaheed Ashfaque Ullah Khan Prani Udyaan:
It is located in Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh. This zoo brings the total number of zoos in UP to 9. The zoo has a fence that can accommodate various birds, herbivores and carnivores.
45 days ago
Pakistan has given special permits to Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman and two other royal family members to hunt the internationally protected Houbara bus during the 2020-21 hunting season.
♦ Houbara bustard lives in an arid climate. It belongs to two different species recognized by the IUCN.
♦ One species lives in North Africa (Chlamydotisundulata), and the other species live in Asia (Chlamydotismacqueenii), and is usually called McQueen's bustard.
♦ The population of the Asian Houbara bustard extends from Northeast Asia to Central Asia, the Middle East and the Arabian Peninsula and reaches the Sinai Desert.
♦ According to data from the International Fund for Houbara Conservation (IFHC), there are approximately 33,000 houbara bustards remain today.
♦ After breeding in the spring, the Asian bustard migrates south in Pakistan, the Arabian Peninsula and nearby Southwest Asia to spend the winter.
♦ Some Asian Houbara bustards live and breed in the southern part of their mountains ranges, including parts of Iran, Pakistan, and Turkmenistan.
♦ IUCN Red List Status: Vulnerable
46 days ago
The International Union for Conservation of Nature - IUCN has emphasized that Australia's Great Barrier Reef is in a critical state and deteriorating as climate change warms up the waters in which it lies.
Great Barrier Reef:
It is the most extensive and spectacular coral reef ecosystem in the world, consisting of more than 2,900 individual reefs and 900 islands. The reef is suited in the Coral Sea (Northeast Coast) off the coast of Queensland, Australia. It can be seen from outer space. It is the largest single structure of living organisms in the world. This reef structure is made up of billions of tiny organisms and is called as coral polyps.
The reef are made up of genetically identical organisms called polyps. They are tiny soft organisms. At their bottom is a hard protective limestone skeleton called a calicle, which forms the structure of a coral reefs. Polyps have microscopic algae called phycoxanthellae in their tissues. Corals and algae have a mutual (symbiotic) relationship. It was selected as a World Heritage Site in 1981.
46 days ago
A recent study conducted by the ZSI - Zoological Survey of India predicts that by 2050, the number of Malayan squirrels (Ratufa bicolor) may drop by 90%.
♦ According to ZSI, habitat destruction may limit squirrels to southern Sikkim and North Bengal by 2050.
♦ India now only accounts for 43.38% of the original habitat of squirrels. By 2050, favourable areas may shrink to 2.94% of the area that this species should live in.
♦ The Malayan squirrel is one of the largest squirrel species in the world. Its upper body is dark, the lower half is pale, and its tail is long and bushy.
♦ IUCN status: Near Threatened. It is protected by India's Wildlife Protection Act.
♦ The Malayan squirrel is found in India: West Bengal, Sikkim, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya and Nagaland. Other countries: South China, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Myanmar, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra and Java.
♦ It is found in evergreen and semi-evergreen forests, from plains to hills at an altitude of 50 m to 1,500 m.
♦ India is the hometown of three squirrels. The other two-the Great Indian Squirrel and the Great Grey Squirrel-are found on the Indian Peninsula.
♦ Unlike night-flying squirrels, giant squirrels are diurnal, but arboreal (tree-dwelling) and herbivorous animals are just like squirrels.
50 days ago
Kiwis that are wild in the Ziro Valley of Arunachal Pradesh, India are the only certified organic fruit of this type in India. Ziro Valley is located in the Subasili region.
♦ Arunachal Pradesh is the 1st state in India to obtain the organic certification of kiwifruit under the "Missions of the Northeast Region Organic Value Chain Development" (MOVCD-NER).
♦ Mission of Northeast Region Organic Value Chain Development (MOVCD-NER) is a central department plan.
♦ It is a sub-task of the National Sustainable Agriculture Mission (NMSA).
- Initiator: Ministry of Agriculture and Farmer Welfare
- Implemented in Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura
♦ If no chemical fertilizers or pesticides are involved in the farming process, the agricultural practice/product is considered an organic product.
♦ In India, such certification can be obtained through a rigorous scientific assessment by the regulatory agency Agriculture and Processed Food Export Development Agency (APEDA).
50 days ago
Scientists at the Agharkar Research Institute in Pune have used zebrafish as a research model and identified genes that promote heart regeneration.
♦ The zebrafish is a tiny freshwater fish only 2-3 cm long. It can effectively regenerate the damaged heart in a short time. Zebrafish are located in tropical and subtropical regions.
♦ This fish is native to the Indo-Ganga Plain in South Asia and is common in rice fields and even stagnant water and streams.
♦ It is a popular aquarium fish, often sold under the trade name Danio.
♦ Zebrafish is an important and widely used vertebrate model organism in scientific research, for example, in drug development, especially in preclinical development.
♦ Its regenerative ability is also outstanding, and researchers have modified it to produce many genetically modified strains.
51 days ago
The Transboundary Manas Conservation Area receives the Conservation Excellence Award for the year 2020.
Conservation Excellence Award recognises one site that has achieved excellence in two or more of these five themes:
- Tiger and prey population monitoring and research;
- Effective site management;
- Enhanced law enforcement & protection & ranger welfare improvement;
- Community based conservation, benefits and human-wildlife conflict mitigation;
- Habitat and prey management.
Transboundary Manas Conservation Area (TraMCA):
- Established in 2011.
Vision: Jointly develop and manage a transboundary protected area between Bhutan and India for the benefit of humans and wildlife.
♦ The TraMCA landscape forms an important mosaic of the entire protected area in the eastern Himalayas. It covers the entire Manas Tiger Reserve in India, four reserves in Bhutan and two biological corridors.
♦ The Manas Tiger Reserve in India and the Royal Manas National Park in Bhutan form the core of this biologically outstanding transboundary area.
♦ This is home to tigers, elephants, rhinos and more than 1,500 mammals, birds and vascular plants. The Manas River also flows through them.
♦ The number of tigers in the Manas Mountains in India increased from 9 in 2010 to 25 in 2018. In Manas, Bhutan, this number has increased from 12 times in 2008 to more than 26 times in 2018.
51 days ago
The Pilibhit Tiger Reserve (PTR-Uttar Pradesh) recently won the international award TX2 for doubling the number of tigers in the past 4 years. Since 2010, the TX2 Award has been
Pilibhit Tiger Reserve (PTR):
PTR is located in Uttar Pradesh. The northern edge of the reserve is along the India-Nepal border, while the southern border is marked by the Sharada and Khakra rivers. PTR is one of the best examples of the extremely diverse and productive Terai ecosystem. There are more than 127 species of animals, 326 species of birds and 2100 species of flowering plants in the habitat Wild animals include tiger, swamp deer, bengalflo, ho deer, leopard, etc. There are several bodies of water in its high sal forests, plantations and grasslands.
TX2 goal is a worldwide commitment to double the number of wild tigers in the world by 2022. The World Wildlife Fund (WWF) has set goals through the Global Tiger Initiative, the Global Tiger Forum and other important platforms. Tiger Ridge countries: India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Russia, Thailand and Vietnam.
- IUCN Red List Status of Tiger (Panthera Tigris): Endangered
- It is listed under Appendix I of CITES.
- It has been included in the ‘Schedule I’ of the Wildlife Protection Act, 1972.
51 days ago
Peacock Soft-Shelled Turtle (a vulnerable species of turtles) have been rescued from the fish market in Silchar, Assam. Scientific Name of Peacock Soft-Shelled Turtle is Nilssonia hurum.
♦ Turtles heads are large, their mouths are bent downward, and the low olive-coloured oval carapace is dark olive green, turning almost black, sometimes with yellow edges.
♦ The head and limbs are olive-green; the forehead has a dark mesh structure and large yellow or orange spots or spots, especially behind the eyes and above the nose. The tail of the male is longer and thicker than the females.
♦ This species is restricted to India, Bangladesh and Pakistan. In India, it is widely distributed in the northern and central parts of the Indian subcontinent. These substances exist in rivers, streams, lakes and ponds with muddy bottoms.
♦ The flesh and (the outer cartilage edge of the shell) of this species are heavily used. The threat to species from the Ganges is a common threat faced by all large river turtles, including overfishing, pollution, increased river traffic and sand mining, which lead to a decrease in fish populations.
- Wildlife Protection Act, 1972: Schedule I
- IUCN Red List: Vulnerable
- CITES Appendix I
52 days ago
There has been insufficient rainfall in the southern peninsula of India, indicating that the northeast monsoon is still flat this year.
♦ La Niña increases the rainfall brought by the southwest monsoon, but it has a negative impact on the northeast monsoon
♦ Inter-Tropical Convective Zone (ITCZ): The current location of the ITCZ has also contributed to insufficient rainfall during the monsoon season. Currently, ITCZ is located in the north of its normal location.
♦ The Northeast monsoon or Winter monsoon occurs from October to December.
♦ It is confined to the Southern peninsula.
♦ The Northeast monsoon is important for Karaikal, Yanam, coastal Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Puducherry, Kerala, north interior Karnataka, Mahe and Lakshadweep.
♦ Tamil Nadu recorded approximately 48% of the annual rainfall during these months, making it a key factor in agricultural activities.
♦ Some of the South Asian countries (such as Maldives, Sri Lanka and Myanmar) also recorded rainfall from October to December.
La Niña is called "little girl" in Spanish, which means the large-scale cooling of the surface temperature of the central equator and the eastern Pacific Ocean, well as changes in the tropical atmospheric circulation. It usually has the opposite effect on weather and climate as El Niño, which is the warm phase of the so-called El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO).
ITCZ is a zone of low pressure, and its movement north and south along the equator determines precipitation in tropical regions.
53 days ago
In the past few days, tourists on the beaches of Maharashtra have witnessed the blue fluorescence emitted by waves hitting the coastline.
♦ This phenomenon is called the "blue tide".
♦ Appears when luminous sea creatures make the ocean appear dark blue shades.
♦ This happens when phytoplankton (tiny marine plants) (often called flagellate algae) glow through a chemical reaction in proteins.
♦ Waves interfere with these single-celled microorganisms and cause them to release blue light.
♦ Bioluminescence is the property of a living organism to produce and emit light.
♦ Animals, plants, fungi and bacteria show bioluminescence. A large number of marine animals and microorganisms can produce their own light.
♦ It is found in many marine organisms, such as bacteria, algae, jellyfish, worms, crustaceans, starfish, fish and sharks.
♦ Luminescence is generally higher in deep-living and planktonic organisms than in shallow species. This is an anti-predatory response.
♦ Bioluminescence is believed to surprise predators and make them hesitate.
53 days ago
The Union Minister of Environment, Forests and Climate Change released a single source of information on climate action known as the "Indian Climate Change Knowledge Portal".
♦ The portal will provide information on the different climate initiatives adopted by the various ministries, allowing users to access the latest status of these initiatives
♦ The portal captures sector-wise adaptation and mitigation actions that are being taken by the various line ministries in one place including updated information on their implementation.
♦ The knowledge portal will help to disseminate knowledge among citizens about all the major steps that governments have taken to address climate change issues at the national and international levels.
♦ The eight components of the portal are India’s climate profile, national policy framework, India’s NDC goals, adaptation actions, mitigation actions, bilateral and multilateral cooperation, international climate negotiations, reports and the public.
♦ The portal can be accessed at https://www.cckpindia.nic.in/.