Environment Current Affairs 2021 - Current Affairs Today

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Last Updated: April 12, 2021 19 hours ago

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  • Volcano Erupts in South Caribbean

    19 hours ago
    After decades of inactivity, the La Sourfriere volcano on the eastern island of the Caribbean Sea recently erupted. The volcano forced thousands of people from surrounding villages to evacuate. Highlights: ♦ Since 1979, the volcano has been dormant. It began to show signs of activity in December 2020. When the volcano erupted in 1979, it caused $100 million in damage. Before the eruption in 1979, La Sourfriere erupted in 1902 and killed thousands of people. ♦ La Soufriere means "sulphur sale" in French. It has erupted five times since 1718. La Sourfriere volcano is a stratiform volcano. It is the youngest and northernmost volcano on the island. La Soufriere volcano is located in the Caribbean tectonic plate. ♦ The Caribbean Sea is a region of the Americas, composed of the Caribbean Sea. There are more than 700 islands in this area. Climate change poses a major risk to islands in the Caribbean. The name Caribbean comes from the Caribbean. Caribs are one of the main Native American groups in the region. ♦ The Caribbean tectonic plates are mainly oceanic tectonic plates. The Caribbean plate is adjacent to the Nazca plate, the Cocos plate, the North American plate and the South American plate. The boundary is an area of strong seismic activity. ♦ The Caribbean borders Mexico to the west and Central America to the southwest. In the north of the Caribbean Sea are the Great Antilles, and in the east are the Lesser Antilles. The second largest barrier reef in the world is called the Mesoamerican barrier reef, in the Caribbean Sea. Coral reefs travel along the coasts of Honduras, Gotemara, Belize and Mexico.  

    Three Migratory Birds Spotted in Coimbatore

    5 days ago
    Bird watchers spotted these birds for the first time in Nanjarayan Tank in Coimbatore. From the first week of October, migratory birds will arrive at the water tank from all over the world and depart at the end of March the following year. Bird Species: ♦ Pacific golden plover: Because its breeding habitat in the Arctic tundra extends from Alaska, USA to Russia, it usually migrates to South Asia in winter. IUCN status: least concerned ♦ Ruddy Shelduck: Also known as Brahminy Duck. It is a migratory bird that spends the winter in the Indian subcontinent and breeds in Southeast Europe and Central Asia. IUCN status: least concerned ♦ Gadwall: The Gadwall door is widely found in North America, and thrives in northern Europe, ancient North America, and central North America. It is rare in India. IUCN status: least concerned  

    Japan Sees The Earliest Cherry Blossoms Ever

    8 days ago
    The Japan Meteorological Agency recently announced that the cherry blossoms in Japan are in full bloom. Usually, Japanese cherry trees bloom in April. This time the cherry blossoms are ten days earlier. This is the first cherry blossom tree that bloomed earlier in Japan. In the past, the earliest cherry blossoms in Japan occurred before 1200. Highlights: ♦ According to Osaka University in Japan, the flowering time of cherry trees was in early 812 AD. This is mainly due to climate change and global warming. The average temperature in Japan has increased from 47.5 degrees Fahrenheit in 1953 to 51.1 degrees Fahrenheit in 2020. ♦ The appearance of the cherry blossoms in Japan usually marks the blooming in spring. Cherry blossoms in Japan are called sakura. ♦ During the cherry blossom season, Japan organizes flower viewing or flower viewing activities. Hanami has a long history in Japanese soil. Flower beauty began in 710 AD. ♦ The cherry blossom is a flower. The cherry tree is an ornamental cherry tree. They are different from edible cherry trees. ♦ The leaves of cherry trees secrete a hormone that prevents the flowers from blooming further. When the temperature rises, the secretion of this hormone stops. After the weather gets warmer, the flowers are in full bloom. This year, due to climate change, hormones stopped secreting, and flowers reached this stage earlier than usual. ♦ Sakura trees have been found all over the world. They are usually common in the northern hemisphere, especially in regions with mild climates. This includes Japan, India, Nepal, Pakistan, China, South Korea, the United States, the United Kingdom, Indonesia, etc. ♦ In India, sakura is common in Himachal Pradesh, Cha Jam and Kashmir, Sikkim, Uttarakhand, Mount Garo and Mount Kasi. India’s Cherry Blossom Festival is held in autumn (i.e. October and November). Shillong is famous for its cherry blossoms.  

    Amboli Named As Biodiversity Heritage Site Maharashtra

    10 days ago
    The government of Maharashtra State announced the establishment of an area in the Amboli region of the Ghats in the western Ghats of Sindhudurg region, where a rare freshwater fish has been discovered as a heritage of biodiversity.  Highlights: ♦ Tejas Thackeray, the son of Chief Minister Uddhav Thackeray, is a wildlife researcher. The team of Tejas discovered a new freshwater fish species named in Schistura Hiranyakeshi near Amboli in Sawantwadi tehsil, Sindhudurg region.  ♦ The state government issued a notice declaring the Amboli area as a biodiversity heritage. Schistura is a colorful little fish that lives in water and flows through it with a lot of oxygen. ♦ Previously, the state government of Maharashtra has declared the glory of Allapalli (Gadchiroli district), Landor Khori Park (Jalgaon), Ganesh Khind (Pune), and mystrica swamp vegetation in Sindhudurg district as biodiversity heritage. ♦ Tejas Thackeray and co-authors published the discovery of freshwater fish species in the October 2020 edition of the International Journal of Ichthyology.

    Forest Fire in Shirui Mountain

    12 days ago
    The Manipur state government has sought the help of the center to alleviate the forest fire at the top of Shirui Mountain in Ukhrul District, Manipur. Shirui Kashong Peak: ♦ Shirui Kashong Peak is one of the tourist attractions in the Ukhrul area of Manipur. It is 2835m above sea level. This mountain has two main attractions: Barry Lily and the river that traverses Ukhrul. Shirui Kashong Peak is located in the Ukhrul district of Manipur. ♦ Rare Lilium mackliniae (Shirui lily) and the river in Ukhrul district are the main attractions of Shirui Kashong Peak. Shirui is divided into two villages-Shirui ato and Shirui aze. There are 100 households in Antu Bairui with a total of 472 people; Azebai Rui has 184 households with a total of 793 people. ♦ The local people of Shirui speak Shirui dialect belonging to the Tibetan-Burman language family. The week-long festival held in Shirui is Shirui Lily Festival. It was declared a national holiday in 2017.  

    River Front Development Project Rejuvenation Of Sabarmati

    12 days ago
    River Front Development Project – Rejuvenation Of Sabarmati This is a project of environmental improvement, social progress and urban rejuvenation that will give Ahmedabad a new look. The project will reclaim about 200 hectares of land from the riverbed. About the Sabarmati river: ♦ It is one of the rivers that flows westward together with the Narmada River and the Tapti River. ♦ It originated in Aravalli Hill near Tepur Village in Udaipur District, Rajasthan. ♦ Mouth of the river: Gulf of Cambey ( Khambhat). ♦ Ahmedabad city is located on both banks of this river.  

    Nacaduba Sinhala Ramaswamii Sadasivan - Butterfly Species

    12 days ago
    A group of lepidopterists discovered a new butterfly species in India. Highlights: ♦ The species is named Nacaduba sinhala ramaswamii Sadasivan ♦ It was found in Agasthyamalais in the Western Ghats. ♦ The new taxa of Lycaenid butterflies belong to the genus Nacaduba. ♦ The blue line is a small butterfly belonging to the Lycaenidae subfamily. ♦ Their distribution ranges from India and Sri Lanka to the entire Southeast Asia, Australia and Samoa. ♦ This is the first time that an all-India research team has discovered a butterfly species from the Western Ghats.  

    Biosphere Reserve at Mahendragiri

    13 days ago
    The Odisha government has proposed the establishment of a second biosphere reserve in Mahendragri in the southern part of the state, which is a hilly ecosystem with rich biodiversity. Highlights: ♦ The Similipal Biosphere Reserve, covering an area of 5,569 square kilometers, was the first such reserve in Odisha and was notified on May 20, 1996. ♦ The proposed Mahendragiri Biosphere Reserve covers an area of approximately 470,955 hectares, distributed in the Gajapati and Ganjam areas of the Eastern Ghats. ♦ The hilly ecosystem is the transition zone between the flora and fauna of southern India and the Himalayas, making the area an ecological estuary for genetic diversity. ♦ This is based on the feasibility report prepared by the Biosphere Reserve Committee for the proposed project. ♦ Mahendragiri is inhabited by the Soura, a particularly vulnerable tribal group and the Kandha tribe. ♦ According to the report of the proposed ahendragiri biosphere reserve, the vegetation of these hills is diverse. The rich flora of Mahendragiri represents 40% of the reported flora in Odisha, with approximately 1,358 species of plants. ♦ According to the International Union for Conservation of Nature, 29 of the 41 endangered medicinal plants found in Odisha were found in the biosphere reserve.  

    Migratory Birds Found Dead in Himachal Pradesh

    14 days ago
    As many as 27 migratory birds are reported to have died from poultry. Since March 25, influenza has started in the Pong Dam Wildlife Sanctuary in Himachal Pradesh, Lower the alarm bell and force the authorities to close the shelter. Pong Dam Wildlife Sanctuary: ♦ The Pong Dam was built in 1975, on the opposite bank of the Bis River. The dam is called with other names like Pong Reservoir, Maharana Pratap Sagar. ♦ The entire reservoir was declared a wildlife sanctuary in 1983 by the Government. ♦ In 1994, the Indian government declared it a "national wetland importance". In November 2002, Pong Dam Lake was declared a Ramsar Wetland.  ♦ Migratory birds from the Hindu Kush Himalayas to Siberia Come here in winter. The protected area is covered with tropical and subtropical forests. The lake is composed of the Bis River and its many perennial tributaries (such as the Guy River, Neogal, Binwa, Uhl, Bangana and Baner. ♦ There are about 22 species of fish in the calm lake, including rare fish such as Sal and Gad. Adequate water level of the lake makes it an ideal destination for indulging in water sports. ♦ Flora: eucalyptus, gum arabic, jamun, shisham, mango, mulberry, ficus, Kachanar, Amra and Lee. ♦ Fauna: barking deer, sambar, wild boar, bo, leopard and oriental small-clawed otter. Fish: Labeo, rohita, mahasheer, singhara, sal, gad. ♦ Avian-fauna: black-headed gull, red-necked gull, tern, duck, waterfowl, egret, etc.  

    IUCN Status For African Elephants

    15 days ago
    The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) declared African Forest elephants and Savanna (or jungle) elephants to be "critically endangered" and "endangered" respectively. Earlier, African elephants were considered a single species and were classified as "Vulnerable." This is the first time that these two species have been individually assessed by the IUCN Red List. Highlights: ♦ The African elephant is the largest terrestrial animal on earth and they are slightly larger than Asian elephants. ♦ They have two finger-like features at the ends of their trunks, while Asian elephants have only one. ♦ Elephants are matriarchal, which means they live in female-dominated groups. ♦ African elephants are a key species, which means they play a vital role in their ecosystems. Elephants are also known as "ecosystem engineers" and can shape their habitat in many ways. ♦ The elephant's pregnancy time is nearly 22 months longer than that of any other mammal Since there are not enough calves to make up for the losses caused by poaching, the problem of protection is increased. ♦ There are two subspecies of African elephants: Savanna elephants (or jungle elephants) and Forest elephants.  African Savanna Elephant: ♦ Scientific Name: Loxodonta africana ♦ Decline: A decline of 60% in the past 50 years. ♦ IUCN Status: Endangered ♦ Habitat: Sub-Saharan Africa Plains African Forest Elephant: ♦ Scientific Name: Loxodonta cyclotis ♦ Decline: A drop of 86% in the past 31 years. ♦ IUCN Status: Critically Endangered ♦ Habitat: Central and West African forests.  

    Earth Hour Is On 27th March

    15 days ago
    Earth Hour will be observed on March 27, 2021. Highlights: ♦ "Earth Hour" is an annual initiative of the World Wildlife Fund for Nature (WWF) started in 2007. ♦ Every year it will be held on the last Saturday of March. ♦ Encourage people from more than 180 countries/regions to turn off the lights from 8.30pm to 9.30pm according to local time. ♦ The idea is to avoid unnecessary lighting in the symbolic environmental protection call to save energy. ♦ Impact: "Earth Hour" has become a catalyst for a positive impact on the environment. It uses the power of the people and collective actions to promote major legislative changes. World Wildlife Fund for Nature ♦ It is the world's leading conservation organization, working in more than 100 countries. ♦ World Wildlife Fund for Nature was established in 1961 and is headquartered in Gland, Switzerland ♦ In order to protect nature and reduce the most urgent threat to the diversity of life on earth. Other WWF initiatives: ♦ TX2 Goal ♦ TRAFFIC ♦ Living Planet Report  

    Tigress Relocated to Madhya Pradesh - Tiger Relocation Project

    15 days ago
    Tigress Sundari was moved back to Congress. This was mainly due to strong protests from villagers living on the edge of the reserve. Highlights: ♦ India’s first interstate tiger migration project was launched in 2018. Two big cats, a male cat (Mahavir) from Kanha Tiger Reserve and a female cat (Sundari) from Bandhavgarh in Madhya Pradesh were moved to Satkosia Tiger in Odisha Reserve to support the tiger population in the state. ♦ The purpose of relocation is for two purposes: 1) Reduce the number of tigers in areas where there are too many tigers to drastically reduce territorial disputes. 2) Re-introduction of tigers in areas where the population has been drastically reduced due to various reasons. ♦ Satkosia Tiger Reserve is located in Odisha. Satkosia belongs to a nature reserve, where the tiger population may increase. ♦ Satkosia was declared a tiger reserve in 2007, when the population was 12 tigers. This number was reduced to two in 2018. The purpose of the relocation is to relocate tigers in the reserve.  

    Poching Of Greater One-Horned Rhino Claim Of Assam Political Parties

    19 days ago
    In the Assam parliamentary elections, different political parties claimed to have greatly reduced the poaching of Greater One-Horned Rhino. According to the Assam Forest Department, poaching activities have been reduced by 86% in the past three years. Highlights: ♦ The Greater One-Horned Rhino  is one of five different kinds of rhinos. The other four rhinos are: black rhino, white rhino, Javan rhino and Sumatran rhino ♦ There are three types of rhinos in Asia: Greater one-horned (Rhinoceros unicornis), Javan and Sumatran. ♦ Only Great One-Horned Rhino are found in India. ♦ Also known as the Indian rhinoceros, it is the largest rhino species. ♦ Identified by a black horn and gray-brown hide with skin folds. ♦ Rhinoceros mainly eat grass, and their diet consists of entirely grass, leaves, branches of shrubs and trees, fruits and aquatic plants. ♦ Habitat - Indo-Nepal Terai and northern West Bengal and Assam. ♦ In India, rhinos are mainly distributed in Assam, West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh. ♦ Assam has an estimated 2,640 rhinos in four protected areas, namely Pabitora Wildlife Sanctuary, Rajiv Gandhi Orang National Park, Kaziranga National Park and Manas National Park. ♦ IUCN Red List: Vulnerable. ♦ The Wildlife Protection Act of 1972: Schedule I.  

    Exotic Species Found in the Lake

    19 days ago
    Alligators gar and red-eared water turtles were found in Lake Neknampur. Alligators are naturally predatory and can wipe out the biodiversity of the entire lake. Red-eared water turtles are aggressive in nature and will kill other water turtles, such as water turtles and skin turtles. Highlights: ♦ There is no control over which fish are taken from the outside and where they are left. They are the opposite of native species. ♦ They are plant and animal species introduced from other countries, and those that cannot be found elsewhere are called alien species. These introduced or alien species may have adverse effects on the ecosystem. ♦ Alligator finches naturally exist in the fresh waters of North America. It can grow up to 10 feet. They were brought to India to be sold as aquarium species. Although they look fierce, they do not pose a threat to humans, nor do they attack humans. ♦ Adult alligators mainly prey on fish, but they are opportunistic breeders and also eat blue crabs, small tortoises, waterfowl or other birds and small mammals. ♦ Neknampur Lake is a lake located in Telangana Hyderabad. It is often in the news due to pollution, and it is one of the famous lakes focusing on restoring biodiversity and aquatic health. It is also famous for its floating water treatment.  

    Water Crisis in Himachal Pradesh

    21 days ago
    The State Water Minister of the Himachal Pradesh has repeatedly warned the legislative assembly that the state may face severe water shortages Highlights: ♦ Insufficient rain and snow: This winter, there is less snow and rain in Himachal Pradesh. After winter, the melted water from glaciers and snow will regularly supply groundwater and other downhill water sources (such as springs, wells, rivers, etc.). However, due to insufficient snowfall, water sources have begun to dry up this year. 69% less than normal precipitation: According to the Indian Meteorological Department, the state received only 59 mm of precipitation this winter (January 1 to February 28), 69% less than normal. ♦ Increasing demand: In the past few decades, due to the population growth of the state, the demand for water has been increasing. People now rely more on tap water supply schemes than traditional water sources such as spring water and bawries water. ♦ Climate change: Rainfall patterns have also become unstable. During dry periods, water sources in certain areas are rapidly depleted, especially in Shiwalik hilly areas where soil water holding capacity is low  

    Ranthambore Tiger Sanctuary Rajasthan

    21 days ago
    The Ranthambore Tiger Sanctuary (Rajasthan) is missing six tigers. Highlights: ♦ The Ranthambore Tiger Reserve is located in the Karauli and Sawai Madhopur regions in eastern Rajasthan, at the junction of the Aravali and Vindhya mountains. ♦ It includes Ranthambore National Park and Sawai Mansingh and Kailadevi Reserves. ♦ It is said that the Ranthambore fort of forest origin has a long history of more than 1,000 years. It is strategically located on the top of a 700-foot-high mountain in the park. It is believed to have been built by the ruler of Chauhan in 944 AD. ♦ This isolated area with tigers represents the northwestern border of the Bengal tiger range and is an outstanding example of  Project Tiger’s conservation work in the country. ♦ According to the census results released in July 2020, there are 2,967 tigers in India, an increase of one-third from 2014. According to this survey, there are 55 tigers in Ranthambore. ♦ Other Protected Areas in Rajasthan: Alwar Sariska National Park Jaisalmer Desert National Park,  Bharatpur Keoladeo National Park Udaipur Sajjangarh wildlife sanctuary  National Chambal Sanctuary (three nodes in Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh)  

    Pilibhit Tiger Reserve - Uttar Pradesh

    25 days ago
    The carcass of a 5-year-old tiger was found in the Pilibhit Tiger Reserve of Uttar Pradesh. Highlights: ♦ It is located in the Pilibhit and Shahjahanpur districts of Uttar Pradesh. ♦ It was notified as a Tiger Reserve in 2014. ♦ It has won the international award TX2 for doubling the number of tigers in the past 4 years by the year of 2020. ♦ It is part of the Terai Arc landscape in the upper Gangetic plain. ♦ The northern edge of the reserve is along the India and Nepal border, while the southern border is marked by the Khakra and Sharada rivers. ♦ There are more than 326 species of birds, 127 species of animals and 2100 species of flowering plants. ♦ Wild animals include tigers, swamp deer, Bengal tigers, leopards, etc. ♦ There are several bodies of water in its high-paying forests, plantations and grasslands. ♦ Other Protected Areas in Uttar Pradesh: ♦ ♦ Dudhwa National Park ♦ ♦ National Chambal Sanctuary ♦ ♦ Chandraprabha Wildlife Sanctuary ♦ ♦ Hastinapur Wildlife Sanctuary  

    Seabuckthorn Plantation In The Cold Desert

    27 days ago
    Himachal government decided to start planting sea buckthorn in the cold desert areas of the state. Highlights: About Sea buckthorn: ♦ This is a shrub that produces orange-yellow edible berries. ♦ In India, it is usually found above the tree line in the Himalayas in arid areas such as the cold deserts of Ladakh and Spiti. ♦ In Himachal Pradesh, it is called chharma locally and grows in the wild in parts of  Kinnaur, Lahaul and Spiti. ♦ This plant covers most areas of Himalayas, Ladakh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh.  

    Replacement Of Floodgates Of Bhadar Dam Gujarat

    27 days ago
    The Central Water Commission’s dam safety organization recommended replacing the sluices of the Bhadar Dam that was damaged in the 2015 flash flood. Located in Rajkot, the Bhadar Dam is the second largest dam in the Saurashtra area, after Shetrunji Dam. Highlights: ♦ The Bhadar Dam is located on the Bhadar River in the Saurashtra region of Gujarat. Bhadar is one of the main rivers in the Saurashtra peninsula of Guaratat. It originated near Wadi in Rajkot Region, with an altitude of 261 m above mean sea level. ♦ The river flows through the Saurashtra region and finally merges with the Arabian Sea at Naviobandar (Porbandar). The total length of the river is 198 kilometers. Drainage occupies about 1/7 of the Saurashtra. ♦ Flash flood: Heavy rain is usually related to short-term high-intensity rainstorms. These are sudden water level surges during or after heavy rainfall. These are highly localized events in the short term, with high peaks, usually less than six hours between the onset of rainfall and the onset of the flood peak. When drainage pipes are blocked or natural water flow is blocked, the flood situation worsens. ♦ Central Water Commission (CWC): The Central Water Commission is the highest technical organization for water resources development in the country and an affiliated organization of the Ministry of Water Resources. The committee is responsible for consulting with state governments, initiating, coordinating, and promoting plans for the control, conservation, development, and utilization of water resources nationwide for irrigation, flood management, power generation, and navigation purposes.  

    Project RE HAB Launched in Karnataka

    27 days ago
    A pilot project RE-HAB (Reduction of Elephant-Human Attacks Using Bees) was launched in Karnataka, which requires the installation of beehives on the outskirts of forests and villages to reduce conflicts between humans and elephants. These attractions are located on the outskirts of Nagarahole National Park and Tiger Reserve (a known conflict zone). Highlights: ♦ The project is an initiative of Khadi and the Village Industry Council (KVIC). This is a subtask of the KVIC National Honey Mission. It aims to create "bee fences" to prevent bees from attacking elephants in human living environments. The beehive can dissuade the elephant without causing any harm to the elephant. ♦ KVIC initiated the "Honey Mission" to provide farmers with awareness, training and "bee hives" and "bee colonies". The mission was launched in August 2017 under the "Sweet Revolution". The ``Sweet Revolution'' was launched in 2016 to promote beekeeping and related activities. ♦ Khadi Village Industrial Committee: KVIC is a statutory body established under the Hardy and Rural Industry Commission Act of 1956. KVIC is responsible for coordinating, planning, promoting, organizing and implementing plans for the development of Khadi and other rural industries in rural areas when necessary with other institutions involved in rural development. It operates under the Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises. ♦ Nagarhole National Park: It is also called Rajiv Gandhi National Park. It was established as a wildlife sanctuary in 1955 and upgraded to a national park in 1988. It was declared as the 37th tiger reserve in the "Tiger Project" in 1999. There are 51 tiger reserves in India. The newest member on the list is Srivilliputhur Meghamalai Tiger Reserve in Tamil Nadu, which was approved in 2021. The park is located in the Western Ghats and is part of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve. The Nagarahole River flows through the park and merges with the Kabini River, which is also the border between Nagarahole and Bandipur National Park.  

    Suggestion On Saving Great Indian Bustard SC

    27 days ago
    The number of birds that died due to collisions with power lines has increased over time, and the Supreme Court of India made recommendations on behalf of the endangered Great Indian mixed breed. These power lines pass through the diminishing natural habitats of Indian Ocean leopards in Gujarat and Rajasthan. Highlights: ♦ The bench, led by Chief Justice Sharad A. Bobde, will study whether underground cables can be used instead of overhead power lines to save the heaviest birds.  ♦ The court also found another mechanism, that is, installing a bird diverter to guide the bird away from the power cord is not a cost-effective method.  ♦ In fact, this kind of diverter has the nature of repetitive cost, and its cost will be higher than the cost of installing and maintaining underground pipelines. ♦ Great India bustard: The scientific name of the Indian bustard bird is Ardeotis nigriceps. This bus bird is found on the Indian subcontinent. This is a large bird with a level body and long bare legs. It has an ostrich-like appearance. It is one of the heaviest flying birds. This bird was once common on the arid plains of the Indian subcontinent. But it was reduced to 250 in 2011, and to 150 in 2018. The bird is listed as "critically endangered" and is protected by India's "Wildlife Protection Act 1972".

    Panel On Mythical Sarasvati River

    28 days ago
    The center has reorganized an advisory committee to develop a plan to study the fabulous Sarasvati River in the next two years after the earlier panel of experts ended in 2019. ASI established the committee for the first time on December 28, 2017, for a period of two years. About Saraswati: ♦ Saraswati river originated in Kapal tirith in Himalayas in the western part of Kailash, flows south to Mansarovar, and then turns west. ♦ The river flows through Haryana, Rajasthan and North Gujarat. ♦ It also flows through Pakistan, and then merges with the West Sea through the Rann of Kutch. ♦ This river has two branches: west and east. Satluj, in the Himalayas, flows through the current Ghaggar-Patialiwali creek, representing the western branch of the ancient river. ♦ On the other hand, Markanda and Sarsuti represent the western branch of Saraswati, namely Tons-Yamuna. ♦ The confluence of the branches is near Shatrana, 25 kilometers south of Patiala. Suddenly, it flows past dessert (Rann of Kutch) and meets the bay of the West Sea.  

    Heavy Sandstorm in Beijing - China

    28 days ago
    On March 15, 2021, Beijing, the capital of China, was shrouded in strong winds from Inner Mongolia and other parts of northwestern China.    Highlights: ♦ The China Meteorological Administration announced a yellow warning, stating that sand & dust storms have spread from Inner Mongolia to Gansu, Shanxi and Hebei provinces. Beijing's official air quality index also reached the highest level of 500.  ♦ In some areas, floating particles called PM10 reached 2,000 micrograms per cubic meter. Smaller particles called PM 2.5 that penetrated the lungs also reached readings of 300 micrograms per cubic meter. This reading is much higher than the 35 microgram standard set by China. ♦ In March and April of each year, the capital Beijing is often hit by sandstorms due to its frequent proximity to the Gobi Desert and deforestation throughout northern China. ♦ Gobi: It is a large desert or bushland area in East Asia. The desert covers parts of North China, Northeast China and southern Mongolia. The Gobi Desert Basin is surrounded by the Altai Mountains, the Mongolian grasslands and grasslands in the north, the Taklimakan Desert in the west, the Hexi Corridor and the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in the southwest, and the North China Plain in the southeast. The Gobi Desert is important because there are several important cities along the Silk Road. The desert is the "Rain Shadow Desert". The shadows are formed by the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, which prevents precipitation from the Indian Ocean from reaching the desert. The desert is the sixth largest desert in the world and the second largest in Asia.  ♦ Mongolia: It is a landlocked country located in East Asia. The area of the country is roughly equal to the historical territory of Outer Mongolia. The country is located between Russia in the north and China in the south. In the south, Mongolia borders the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. However, it has no common border with Kazakhstan, and the distance between the two countries is only 37 kilometers.  

    Fire in Shetrunjay Hills - Reserve Forest Area

    28 days ago
    A forest fire broke out in the Shetrunjay Hills Reserve in Gujarat. The forest area is the habitat of the Asian lion in the forest area of the Bhavnagar territory. The fire engulfed about 200 hectares and then bought it on March 14, 2021.  Highlights: ♦ Officials from the Forest Department of the Bhavnagar Territory emphasized that the fire broke out in the taxation area of the Kanjarda village in Palitana taluka. Later it spread to Shetrunjay Dungar to protect the forest. Shatrunjaya or Shetrunjaya hills are located in the Bhavnagar district of Ballitana, Gujarat.  ♦ These hills are located on the banks of the Shetrunji River and are considered sacred hills by Janas. Its altitude is 164 feet. These hills are similar to other hills where Jain temples were established in Gwalior, Mount Abu, Bihar and Gilnar. The hills are bounded by Combut Bay in the south and Bhavnagar town in the north. ♦ The sacred mountain of that Jain religion, Shatrunjaya, consists of 865 temples. When Liberal gave his first sermon on the top of the mountain, the mountains were consecrated. Rishabha (Rishabha) is the first tirthankara (tirthankara) of Ja. The ancient history related to these hills can also be traced back to Pundarika Swami, the chief Ganadhara and grandson of Rishabha. Swami achieved Nirvana or Moksha on the mountain.  ♦ The Shetrunji River is a river that flows eastward in Gujarat. The river (Shetrunji) rises in the northeast of Gir Hills. The maximum length of this river is 227 kilometers.  

    Eruption of Sumatra Volcanoes- Indonesia

    31 days ago
    Recently, the active volcano of Mt. Sinabung on the Indonesian island of Sumatra erupted. Earlier, other volcanoes in Indonesia-Merapi and Semeru-erupted. Highlights: Mt. Sinabung: ♦ Mountain. Sinabung (2,600 meters) is located in the Karo Regency District, North Sumatra Province. ♦ Mountain Sinabung is one of more than 120 active volcanoes in Indonesia. It is prone to earthquakes due to its location on the Pacific Ring of Fire. ♦ The volcano was dormant for 400 years and then exploded in 2010. ♦ It broke out again in 2014, 2016 and 2020. Ring of Fire: ♦ The Ring of Fire, as another name called Circum-Pacific Belt, is a trail along the Pacific Ocean, characterized by active volcanoes and frequent earthquakes. ♦ It traces the boundaries between several tectonic plates, including the Pacific plate, the Cocos plate, the India-Australia plate, the Nazca plate, the North American plate and the Philippines plate. ♦ The large number of volcanoes and earthquakes along the Ring of Fire are caused by the movement of tectonic plates in the area. ♦ 75% of the earth's volcanoes (that is, more than 450 volcanoes) are located along the Ring of Fire. 90% of earthquakes on the earth occur along their path.

    Olive Ridley Turtles Arrive At Gahirmatha Beach

    32 days ago
    Olive Ridley female tortoises have begun to migrate to Gahirmatha beach in the Kendrapara area of Odisha. They arrive at the beach to lay eggs, which is called the "arribada" phenomenon. Highlights: ♦ Arribada is a Spanish term that describes the unique natural heritage of these marine species that converge on nesting grounds to lay eggs. The annual large-scale nesting of marine species will begin on March 10, 2021 on the Nasi-2 beach of the Gahirmatha nesting site. Approximately 2,000 turtles appeared on the ground to lay eggs. The massive nesting process will last at least 10 days. Generally, during 2019-2020, approximately 7.3 million Olive Ridley turtles will gather for large-scale nesting. ♦ Gahirmatha Beach: This is a beach located in Orissa. It separates the Bhitarkanika mangrove forest from the Bay of Bengal. This beach is the most important olive turtle nesting beach in the world. This beach is part of the Gahirmatha Marine Wildlife Sanctuary. ♦ Olive Ridley Sea Turtle: The scientific name of the tortoise is Lepidochelys olivacea. This turtle is also called as the Pacific Ridley Sea Turtle. The tortoise belongs to the Cheloniidae family. It is the second smallest known species in the world. This species is also the most abundant of all sea turtles in the world. It is found in warm tropical waters, especially in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. This turtle is also found in the warm waters of the Atlantic Ocean. Olive Ridley tortoises and Kemp's Ridley tortoises are known for their unique large-scale nesting sites, known as arribadas. ♦ Ridley turtles in Kemp: It is also known as the Atlantic Ridley Sea Turtle. Turtles are the rarest species of sea turtles in the world and the most endangered species of sea turtles.  

    Warming Oceans Affects Metabolism Of Sharks

    32 days ago
    Scientists concluded in a recent study that due to climate change, global ocean warming may affect the metabolism of sharks. Scientists have worked at the New England Aquarium and studied "Epaulette sharks" that live near Australia and New Guinea. Highlights: ♦ In a recent study, scientists discovered that warm conditions promote the growth process of sharks. It means; these sharks hatch from their eggs earlier and are exhausted at birth.  ♦ Scientists have also discovered that baby sharks are in danger of getting smaller. They will also be born without the energy needed to survive. ♦ Scientists conducted this research using the shark breeding program in the aquarium.  Scientists first raised 27 sharks at the average summer temperature or about 27°C. They are also maintained at temperatures of about 29°C and 31°C. ♦ While doing so, it was found that the weight of sharks raised at the highest temperature was lighter than that of sharks raised at average temperature. They also exhibit reduced metabolic performance. About Epaulette Shark: It is a long-tailed carpet shark, belonging to the Hemiscylliidae family. It is found in shallow and tropical waters near Australia and New Guinea. Sharks have a large white-rimmed black spot behind each pectoral fin. The length of the shark is less than 1 m. The shark has a slender body, a short head, and pairs of paddle fins. Sharks have a habit of nocturnal activities. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) lists sharks as the "least concern" category.

    Gahirmatha Marine Sanctuary- Olive Ridley

    35 days ago
    A three-person team composed of the Orissa State High Court conducted a field visit to the Gahirmatha Marine Reserve to assess the measures taken to protect the endangered olive ridley sea turtles. Highlights: ♦ According to a report in the Environmental Journal, since January, 800 olive ridley turtles have died due to the negligence of the States Forest and Fisheries department. ♦ Every year, thousands of olive ridley turtles on the coast of the Orissa Sea build large-scale nests. ♦ Gahirmatha beach off the coast of the Bay of Bengal in Odisha is recognized as the world’s largest nesting site for these turtles.  

    Nike and Adidas Using Kangaroo Skin in Sneakers

    35 days ago
    The Center for Humanities and Economics calls on manufacturers such as Nike and Adidas to stop the world's largest commercial slaughter of terrestrial wild animals. Kangaroo: ♦ Kangaroos are marsupials of the Macropodidae family. Describe the largest species in the family, namely the red kangaroo, the Antigua kangaroo, the eastern grey kangaroo and the western grey kangaroo.  ♦ Kangaroos are native to Australia and New Guinea. The Australian Government estimates that in 2011, there were 34.3 million kangaroos living in Australia's commercial harvest areas, up from 25.1 million a year ago.  ♦ Like the terms "wallaby" and "wallaroo", "kangaroo" refers to a parasitic group of species. All three-term refers to members of the same taxonomic family Macropodidae and are distinguished by size. The largest species in this family is called "kangaroo" and the smallest species is usually called "wallabies". The term "wallaroos" refers to a medium-sized species.

    Whale Shark Rescued In Odisha

    35 days ago
    Fishermen in Odisha rescued a whale shark. Whale sharks are the largest sharks and the largest sharks of all fishes alive today.  Highlights: ♦ Whale sharks are the largest sharks and the largest sharks of all fishes alive today.  They travel long distances to find enough food to maintain their huge size and reproduce. ♦ The whale shark is a "filter-feeding shark", which means that it does not eat meat like other sharks. Whale sharks filter sea water and feed on tiny plankton. The maximum size of the whale shark is unknown, but it may be as high as 20m. ♦ Scientific name: Rhincodon typhoid fever. ♦ Habitat: Whale sharks have been found in all tropical oceans in the world. ♦ Threat: Oil and gas drilling, transportation routes, etc. ♦ IUCN Red List: Endangered. 

    Man-Eater Cub Avni released in Pench Tiger Reserve

    36 days ago
    In the "Pench Tiger Reserve of Maharashtra" (PTR), a female "man-eater" cub Avni was released into the wild. Highlights: ♦ It is located in the Nagpur district of Maharashtra and is named after the original Pench River. ♦ PTR is the common pride of Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra. ♦ In 1975, the government of Maharashtra declared it a National Park and awarded it the name of a tiger reserve in 1998-1999. ♦ It is designated as the Important Bird Areas (IBA) of India. Flora: ♦ The green protective layer is thickly distributed throughout the reserve. ♦ There is a mixture of Southern dry broadleaf teak forests  and tropical deciduous tree forest. ♦ Shrubs, climbers and trees also frequently appear. Some of them are unique varieties and have medicinal and healing properties. ♦ There are also bamboo plantations near the waterfront. Fauna: ♦ Mammals: These include – sloth bear, jackal, nilgai, wild dog etc. ♦ Birds: This include peafowl, magpie robin, pintail, drongo, unia, myna etc.  

    Dumping Inert Waste in Asola Bhatti Wildlife Sanctuary

    36 days ago
    The Ridge Management Board authorized by the Supreme Court has decided to form an expert committee to study the proposal to dump inert (non-reactive) waste in the mines of the Asola Bhatti Wildlife Sanctuary (Delhi). Highlights: ♦ Inert wastes are neither biologically nor chemically reactive, and inert wastes will not decompose or decompose very slowly. ♦ Inert waste includes: construction and demolition materials such as metal, wood, bricks, masonry and cement concrete; asphalt concrete metal; tree branches; bottom ash from coal-fired boilers; and waste coal powder from air pollution control equipment Asola Bhatti Wildlife Sanctuary: ♦ The 32.71 square kilometer Asola-Bhatti Wildlife Sanctuary is located on the southern Delhi Ridge of the Aravalli Mountains, one of the oldest mountain systems in the world, on the Delhi-Haryana border. ♦ The Asola Bhatti Wildlife Sanctuary in Gurugram and Faridabad is 1 km around and is an ecologically sensitive zone. ♦ Commercial exploitation, establishment of industries and establishment of large-scale hydropower projects are prohibited. ♦ Asola Wildlife Sanctuary has both floral and animal diversity in the form of ♦ A variety of trees, shrubs, herbs and grasses. ♦ A large number of mammals, reptiles, amphibians, butterflies and dragonflies. ♦ The Sanctuary includes approximately 200 species of resident and migratory birds. ♦ The wildlife habitat in the reserve provides water replenishment areas for Delhi, Faridabad and Gurugram.  

    GI Tag for Pochampally Ikkat

    36 days ago
    Pochampally Ikkat has been granted Geographical Indiaction (GI) Status. Pochampally Ikkat: Pochampally Ikat or resist dyeing involves a sequence of tying and dyeing the bundled yarn parts into a predetermined color scheme before weaving. During the Nizam era, they were exported to Myanmar (Burma), West Asia and East Africa, where they are called Asian rumors. The word "Ikat" is derived from the Malay-Indonesian mangikat, which means to bind, tie or entangle.  

    Night Safari Introduced in Madhya Pradesh

    36 days ago
    Madhya Pradesh has introduced night safari tours in three national parks in Madhya Pradesh on March 4, 2021. Highlights: ♦ With the introduction of night safaris in the three national parks of Madhya Pradesh, wildlife lovers can now experience majestic animals at night.  ♦ The three parks include Bandhavgarh National Park, Kanha National Park and Pench National Park.  ♦ Usually, day trips are carried out during the day, because tourists feel safer during the day. But because of the day trip, tourists missed the opportunity to witness nocturnal animals in their natural habitat.  ♦ Therefore, the state now hopes to organize hunting activities in a controlled manner. Under the safari park, the route will be determined by the state. They will ensure that neither animals nor tourists are harmed.  ♦ Reservation for Night Safari  can be booked on the Wildlife Safari Reservation portal. The portal is operated by the State Forestry Department. ♦ Bandhavgarh National Park: This national park located in the Umaria district (Madhya Pradesh). The park covers an area of 105 square kilometers. The Bandhavgarh park was declared a national park in 1968. It was designated as a tiger reserve in 1993. Currently, the core area covers 716 square kilometers. The tiger population density in Bandhavgarh is 8 tigers per square kilometer, which is the highest known population density. The park is also known as Panch National Park  ♦ Pench National Park: This national park was established in Madhya Pradesh in 1975. The area is 257.26 square kilometers. The name of the park is taken from Pench River. The park was designated as a refuge in 1965, a national park in 1975, and a tiger reserve in 1992. The park will conduct night hunting between 5.30 pm and 8.30 pm. Visitors can spot animals such as jack wolves, wild boars and nocturnal birds. ♦ Kanha National Park: In this park, safari activities will take place between 7:30 and 10:30 in the evening. The park is the seat of Barasingha (Barasingha) and visitors can discover it during night tours. This park is also known as Kanha–Kisli National Park and it is the largest national park in Madhya Pradesh.  

    WWF Conservation Drive on 3rd March

    38 days ago
    On the occasion of World Wildlife Day on March 3, the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) called on multiple stakeholders including the European Union (EU) to save the last old tree forest in Europe. Highlights: ♦ The European Old Growth Forest (OGF) is a primeval forest, dominated by natural processes. These include the primitive, near primitive, and untouched forests of humans, such as the Białowieża forest in Poland. ♦ So far, 350,000 hectares of old and virgin forests have been identified in Central and Southeast Europe. Of these, only 2.8 million hectares are protected by law. ♦ Europe (outside Russia) has the largest area of surviving OGF and forest habitats, mainly in Romania, Ukraine, Slovakia and Bulgaria. ♦ They are home to the largest carnivorous population in Europe and thousands of other plant and animal species. ♦ These forests provide important ecosystem services, such as filtering and storing fresh water to regulate the climate, and are therefore vital to humans and the economy. ♦ World Wildlife Fund (WWF): WWF was established in 1961 and is headquartered in Grande, Switzerland. Its mission is to protect nature and reduce the most urgent threats to the diversity of life on earth. ♦ World Wildlife Day: Since 2013 the World Wildlife day has been celebrated on March 3 every year. The selected date coincides with the signing of the 1973 Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).  ♦ Theme: Forests and Livelihoods: Sustaining People and the Earth ♦ In India: On this occasion, the Environment Ministry announced its commitment to reintroducing the cheetah, which went extinct in 1952.

    Massive Fire in Similipal Biosphere Reserve

    38 days ago
    A fire broke out in the Similipal Biosphere Reserve in Odisha. The fire did not touch the core area of the biosphere, but the fire threatened the destruction of its rich biodiversity. Highlights: ♦ The name of Similipal comes from the "Simul" (silk cotton) tree. It was officially designated as a tiger reserve in 1956 and was included in the "Tiger Project" in 1973. ♦ In June 1994, the Indian government declared it a biosphere reserve. Since 2009, it has become part of the UNESCO World Biosphere Reserve Network. ♦ It is part of the Similipal-Kuldiha-Hadgarh Elephant Sanctuary, commonly known as the Mayurbhanj Elephant Sanctuary, which includes 3 sanctuaries, namely the Similipal Tiger Sanctuary, the Hadagarh Wildlife Sanctuary and the Kuldiha Wildlife Sanctuary. ♦ It is located in the northern part of the Mayurbhanj district of Odisha. Geographically, it is located at the eastern end of the Eastern Ghats. ♦ Similipal has 1,076 flowering species and 96 orchids. It has tropical semi-evergreen forests, tropical humid deciduous forests, dry deciduous mountain forests, high-grade Saar forests and dense grasslands. ♦ The two tribes of Erenga Kharias and Mankirdias live in the forests of the reserve and engage in traditional agricultural activities (collecting seeds and wood). ♦ In addition to 304 species of birds, 20 species of amphibians and 62 species of reptiles, Similipal also has a variety of wild animals including tigers and elephants.  

    Nag River project has approved

    39 days ago
    Union Minister Nitin Gadkari announced that the Nag River pollution reduction project has been approved, costing more than 21.17 billion rupees. Highlights: ♦ The Nag River, which passes through the city of Nagpur, is named after the city and has now become a highly polluted waterway for sewage and industrial waste. ♦ The project approved under National River Conservation Plan will be implemented by the National River Conservation Directorate, (NRCD). ♦ From the perspective of untreated sewage, solid waste and other impurities flowing into the Nag River and its tributaries, this will reduce pollution levels. About the National River Conservation Directorate: ♦ National River Conservation Directorate (NRCD) is implementing the Centrally Sponsored Schemes of National River Conservation Plan (NRCP) and the National Plan for Conservation of Aquatic Eco¬systems (NPCA) to protect the country’s rivers, lakes and wetlands. ♦ NRCD is under Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change. ♦ NRCD only provides financial assistance to state governments/local bodies for the establishment of infrastructure to reduce river pollution in the river section under the National River Conservation Plan (NRCP). ♦ The goal of NRCP is to improve the water quality of rivers (the country's main water source) by implementing pollution reduction projects.

    Rediscovery of Black-Browed Blabber

    39 days ago
    A black-browed Blabber (Malacocincla perspicillata) was rediscovered in southeastern Kalimantan (part of Indonesian Borneo). Background: In the 1840s, a mysterious bird was discovered during an expedition to the East Indies. It is called black browed blabber. This species has never been seen in the wild again, and a filled specimen with bright yellow glass eyes is the only evidence of its existence. Until the black-browed long bird in Indonesia, no Asian bird has been missing. It has been gone for the past 170 years. This bird is often referred to as "the biggest enigma in Indonesian ornithology".  Black-Browed Blabber: It has strong bank bill, chocolate color and unique black eyeliner stripes, and its iris has a striking maroon color. It has brown wings and black stripes on its eyebrows. IUCN Status: Data Deficient.

    Five New Shrub Frogs Found in Western Ghats

    39 days ago
    Researchers from India and the United States have discovered five new species of bush frogs. These frog species were discovered from the Western Ghats, which is a globally recognized biodiversity hotspot. Highlights: ♦ Five species of frogs belong to the old-world tree frog family (Rhacophoridae). These species were discovered by researchers belongs to the Kerala Forest Research Institute, the University of Delhi and the University of Minnesota.  ♦ The discovery is part of a long-term comprehensive study of shrub frogs of the genus Raorchestes in the Western Ghats.  ♦ The study was conducted for 10 years. Based on several criteria, including the frog's external morphology, calling pattern, DNA and behavior, these new species were identified and unique. ♦ The results of this study were published in an article titled "A Comprehensive Method to Infer the Systematic Relationships of Bush Frogs and Define Species Groups, and describe five new species from the Western Ghats of India."  ♦ This research was conducted under the leadership of Professor Biju from the University of Delhi. ♦ The report emphasized that the new species of shrub frog, Raorchestes drutaahu, was discovered in the Kadhalar area of the Idukki area of Kerala and the Siruvani area of the Palakkad area. Another species named Raorchestes kakkayamensis or Kakkayam bush frog was only found near the Kakkayam dam. A third species of bush frog called Raorchestes keirasabinae or Keira was found in the Agasthyamalai and Anamalai Mountains of the Western Ghats. The fourth species called Raorchestes sanjappai is a green bush frog. It was found in the Wayanad area in northern Kerala. It is named after Dr. M Sanjappa, an Indian botanist and former director of the Botanical Survey of India. The last species found was Raorchestes vallikkannan or silver-eyed shrub frog. It is found in the area around Siruvani Hills and Silent Valley National Park.

    Himalayan Serow Spotted in Assam State

    41 days ago
    Himalayan mammals are the latest creatures discovered in Assam. The serow in the Himalayas looks like it is somewhere between the goat and the antelope.  Himalayan Serow: It was found in the Manas Tiger Reserve with an area of 950 square meters. It will reach 2 kilometers on December 3, 2020. This animal is a high-altitude animal, usually found at an altitude of 2,000 to 4,000 meters. The Himalayas are a subspecies of continental birds. This species is native to the Himalayas. The opium of the Himalayas was previously called Capricornis thar. It and the sides and hindquarters are mostly black. The thighs of this species are rusty red, while the calves are white. This species has been listed in CITES Appendix I. The scientific name of the mainland serow is Capricornis sumatraensis. The row people are native to China, the Himalayas and Southeast Asia. The sewn coat has bristle or coarse guard hair. The hair covers the fur layer closest to the sutured skin. The animal's bristles are sewn between the shoulder cap bones covering the skin from the horns to the middle of the back. Males are characterized by horns and light in color. It is six inches in length and is slightly curved toward the animal's back. The continental seam grows to six feet long. The weight of an adult se is about 150 kg. Manas National Park is a national park and is listed as a World Natural Heritage by UNESCO. It is also the Tiger Project Sanctuary, Elephant Sanctuary and Biosphere Reserve. It is located in Assam in the foothills of the Himalayas. The reserve is adjacent to the Royal Manas National Park in Bhutan. It is known for its rare and endangered endemic wildlife, including Himalayan hares, Assam tortoises, pygmy pigs and golden leaf monkeys.

    Study on Snow Leopard in Himachal Pradesh

    42 days ago
    A new study based on the scientific enumeration of this elusive animal indicates that up to 73 snow leopards (Panthera uncia) may be hidden in the high-altitude hills of Himalayas. Conservation of Snow Leopard: ♦ India has been protecting snow leopards and their habitats through the Project Snow Leopard (PSL). Since 2013, India has been a party of the Global Snow Leopard and Ecosystem Protection (GSLEP) program. In order to protect, India has identified three major landscapes, namely Hemis-Spiti across Ladakh and Himalayas; Nanda Devi-Gangotri in Uttarakhand, And Khangchendzonga-Tawang, which straddles Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh. ♦ The Snow Leopard Project (PSL) was launched in 2009 to promote an inclusive and participatory approach to protecting snow leopards and their habitats. According to the restoration plan of the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change, snow leopards have been included in the list of 21 critically endangered species. ♦ Habitat: Snow leopards inhabit the high landforms of the Himalayas and trans-Himalayas in five states of Jammu and Kashmir, Himalayas, Uttarakhand, Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh. In Himachal Pradesh, the snow leopard habitat covers most of Lahaul-Spiti and Kinnaur. Its potential habitat also extends to the upper areas of Shimla, Kuru, Camba and Kangra. Most of these areas are remote areas, and winter also limits accessibility challenges. ♦ IUCN Status: Vulnerable

    State of Environment Report 2021 - CSE

    45 days ago
    The Center for Science and Environment (CSE) released the " State of Environment Report, 2021 ". Highlights: Impact by Covid 19: ♦ The biggest concern: India will usher in a "pandemic generation", 375 million children (from newborns to 14 years old) may suffer long-term effects. ♦ Challenges can range from underweight, stunting and rising child mortality, to a decline in education and work efficiency. ♦ More than 500 million children are forced to drop out of school globally, and India accounts for more than half of them. ♦ The epidemic may plunge another 115 million people into extreme poverty, most of whom live in South Asia. ♦ In terms of sustainable development, India ranks 117th out of 192 countries, which is currently second only to all South Asian countries except Pakistan. State of environment: ♦ Between 2009 and 2018, India's air, water and land pollution became more serious. ♦ Among the country’s 88 major industrial clusters, 35 showed deterioration in the overall environment, 33 showed deterioration in air quality, 45 had serious water pollution, and in 17 had land pollution worsened. ♦ Tarapur in Maharashtra has become the most polluted area. ♦ These data clearly show that for many years, even in areas that have been identified as severe or severely polluted, there has been a lack of actions to control and reduce pollution. Performance of various states: ♦ When ranking based on achieving the Sustainable Development Goals: ♦ The best performing States are Kerala, Himachal Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Telangana. ♦ The worst performing states are Bihar, Jharkhand, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya and Uttar Pradesh.  

    Report by Central Team on Odisha Elephant Deaths

    46 days ago
    From January to February, six elephants died in the Karapat Wildlife Sanctuary in Kalahandi. Since then, the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change has established a central team. In its preliminary report, the research team emphasized that elephants died of hemorrhagic septicemia, which is caused by the bacterium Pasteurella multoceda. Highlights: ♦ The report further emphasized that elephants may have been infected with bacteria from cattle living in Tentulipada village. ♦ Tentulipada Village is a small village with 12 families in Odisha. ♦ The team has conducted an autopsy and RNA extraction test at the Orissa State Veterinary College to reach a conclusion, however, the sample has been sent to the Indian Veterinary Research Institute in Bareilly, UP for final confirmation. ♦ These elephants should die between January 29 and February 14, 2021. Their bodies were found near a body of water. There are a total of 7 elephants, including 5 adult elephants and 2 calves. All of them died and were females. ♦ Preliminary tests confirmed that all of them have high levels of Pasteurella multoceda. ♦ Pasteurella multoceda is a Gram-negative, nonmotile, penicillin-sensitive coccobacillus that belongs to the Pasteurella family. The strains of this species are divided into five serogroups, namely A, B, D, E, and F. They are subdivided into five serogroups based on capsule composition and 16 somatic serovars. This bacterium causes many diseases in mammals and birds. Some of these diseases include fowl cholera in poultry, bovine hemorrhagic septicaemia in cattle and buffalo, and atrophic rhinitis in pigs. It can also cause zoonotic infections in the human body due to bites or scratches from domestic pets. Birds and mammals such as domestic cats and dogs hide it under their normal respiratory microbiota. ♦ The Karapat Wildlife Sanctuary is located in the Kalahandi district, which is the most popular tourist attraction in the Indian state of Orissa. It is 15 kilometers away from Bhawani Patna (regional headquarters). Covers an area of 175 square kilometers. It is located in the humid deciduous forest of the eastern plateau. There are leopards, tigers, sambar, mouse deer, barking deer, etc. in the shelter.  

    Rainfall Decreased in Cherrapunji Study in Environmental Research Letters

    47 days ago
    A recent study published in "Environmental Research Letters" studied the rainfall patterns of the past 119 years and found that the rainfall trend in Cherrapunji has decreased and Mawsynram (both in Meghalaya) is now the wettest place. The team is currently studying changes in rainfall patterns across India. Highlights: ♦ The team analyzed the daily rain gauge measurements from 1901 to 2019 and pointed out that changes in the temperature of the Indian Ocean had a huge impact on rainfall in the northeast. ♦ They also analyzed satellite data and added that in the past two decades, the vegetation area in northeastern India has decreased, which implies that human influence also plays an important role in changing rainfall patterns. ♦ The analysis shows that the vegetation is reduced and 104.5 square kilometers is lost every year. On the other hand, during the period 2001-2018, arable land (182.1 square kilometers per year) and urban and construction land (0.3 square kilometers per year) have increased significantly. ♦ Nowadays, the traditional farming method called Jhum farming or crop rotation has been reduced and replaced by other methods. In addition, previous studies have pointed out that there is a lot of deforestation in the area.

    New Alpine Plant Species Founded in Arunachal Pradesh

    47 days ago
    A group of scientists from three research institutes discovered a new alpine plant in the Tawan area of Arunachal Pradesh. Detailed information is published in Biodiversity: The Journal of Biodiversity. Highlights: ♦ The new species of plant belongs to the Himalayan sunflower family. It has been named Cremanthodium indicum. This plant usually blooms from July to August. It is unique to Penga-Teng Tso Lake in Tawang District. ♦ According to the IUCN guidelines, this alpine plant species has been listed as a critically endangered species. ♦ Plants that grow in alpine climates. Many plant species and taxa grow as plant communities on such alpine tundra, including perennial grasses, Forbs, sedges, mosses, cushion plants, and lichens. These plants are adapted to harsh alpine climatic conditions such as dryness, low temperature, wind, drought, ultraviolet rays, poorly-nourished soil and short growing seasons. ♦ Typical weather in the area above the forest line. Also called mountain climate or plateau climate. ♦ The tree line is the edge of the habitat where trees can grow. Tree lines can be found at high altitudes and high latitudes. Trees cannot tolerate environmental conditions beyond this range, such as extreme snow, low temperature, or lack of moisture. ♦ Tawang District is the smallest district among the 16 administrative districts in Arunachal Pradesh. Its population is 49,977, making the state the eighth least populated region in India. This area is where the Mongpa people live.

    Suo Motu Consigance For Olive Ridley Turtles

    47 days ago
    The Odisha High Court has conducted a collective investigation into the death of approximately 800 Olive Ridley turtles due to the negligence of the Odisha Forest and Fisheries Department.  Highlights: ♦ Of all the sea turtles found in the world, the Olive ridley sea turtle is the smallest and most abundant.  ♦ These tortoises are carnivores, named after their olive-colored carapace.  ♦ Habitat: They are found in the warm waters of the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans. The Gahirmatha Marine Sanctuary in Odisha is known as the largest sea turtle colony (breeding fauna) in the world. ♦ IUCN Red list: Vulnerable. Gahirmatha Marine Sanctuary: Gahirmatha is a large-scale nesting site in the Indian Ocean region and the only sea turtle sanctuary in Orissa. It is the nesting beach of the world's largest Olive Ridley Sea Turtles. Considering the ecological importance of Gahirmatha and as part of the rescue of sea turtles, it was declared as a sea turtle refuge by the Odisha government in 1997. Gahirmatha Marine Reserve is one of the three parts of Bhitarkanika National Park. The other two include the Bhitarkanika National Park area and the Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary.  

    Renewal of Hydropower Project - Affects Black Necked Crane

    47 days ago
    A group of monks in Thawang District opposed the new promotion of hydropower projects by the Arunachal Pradesh government. The proposed project will not only affect the nesting sites of the endangered black-necked cranes, but also threaten some pilgrimage sites in the area. Highlights: ♦ The gender of Black Necked Crane is almost the same, but the male is slightly larger than the female. The upper long neck, head, primary and secondary flying feathers and tail are completely black, while the plumage is light grey/light.  ♦ The head is decorated with a striking red crown. The head and neck of juveniles are brown, and their feathers are paler than those of adults.  ♦ The Monpas (the main Buddhist ethnic group in Arunachal Pradesh) regarded the bird as the incarnation of the sixth Dalai Lama (Tsangyang Gyatso).  ♦ The Monpas people live in the West Kamengand Tawang areas and are essentially Buddhists who follow the Mahayana sect. ♦ Habitat and Breeding: The high-altitude wetlands of the Tibet Plateau, Sichuan(China) and eastern Ladakh (India) are the main breeding grounds for this species, and birds spend the winter at lower altitudes. In Bhutan and Arunachal Pradesh, it only appears in winter. In Arunachal Pradesh, it can be seen in three areas: Sante Valley in Sikamon. Zemithang in Tawang District. Chug is in Tawang District.  ♦ The World-Wide Fund for Nature in India (WWF-India), in cooperation with Jammu and the Kashmir Wildlife Conservation Department, has been committed to protecting high-altitude wetlands. Black-necked cranes are a priority species in Ladakh. In Arunachal Pradesh, WWF is working to protect the wintering population. ♦ IUCN Red List: Near threatened   

    Vulture Toxic Drugs Banned in Bangladesh

    48 days ago
    Bangladesh has become the first country to ban the painkiller ketoprofen. This painkiller is widely used to treat cattle. But this painkiller is poisonous to vultures. Highlights: ♦ As early as ten years ago, veterinarians had banned diclofenac. This is a landmark move aimed at saving the remaining global threatened vultures. ♦ Experts say that India, Pakistan, Nepal and Cambodia also need to take similar steps to save the bald eagle population. ♦ The SAVE report of the Condor from Extinction in Asia states that ketoprofen is now widely used as a major anti-inflammatory drug by veterinarians in Bangladesh. However, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as diclofenac and ketoprofen are the main threats to South Asian condors. These drugs caused a catastrophic decline of 99.9% in the area. ♦ The Indian government banned the use of diclofenac for veterinary purposes in 2006. However, due to the use of other toxic drugs, this step is not effective. In December 2020, Oman became the first country on the Arabian Peninsula to ban the use of diclofenac in the animal kingdom to protect endangered species such as baldness. About Indian Vulture: The scientific name of Vulture is Gyps indicus. This type of Indian vulture is native to India, Pakistan and Nepal. It breeds in the hilly areas of central India and the peninsula. In the mid-1990s, the populations of 3 out of 9 species of vultures in India decreased by 90%. These vultures were white-billed vultures, bald eagles with long bills, and bald eagles with slender bills. Since 2002, the condor has been listed as "critically endangered" on the IUCN Red List.

    Black-Footed Ferret Cloned Successfully

    49 days ago
    Scientists have successfully cloned an endangered black-footed ferret using frozen cells. Highlights: ♦ Scientists have successfully cloned an endangered black-footed ferret using frozen cells from dead wild animals. This is the first time that the United States has cloned any endangered native species. This species is the only native ferret in North America. The species was considered extinct until seven species were discovered in 1981.

    Blue Earthworms Mass Migrating in Meghalaya

    49 days ago
    The Zoological Survey of India (ZSI) has compiled a report on the two-way spread of the blue earthworms in Meghalaya. Highlights: ♦ The 1.6-foot-long blue earth migrates up or down to 300 meters on the East Cassie Hills in the state. ♦ April’s uphill migration started from April to May. As the monsoon erupts, they emerge from rivers and streams. ♦ Downhill migration occurs from September to October, when vegetation begins to dry out and temperature and humidity drop. ♦ Locals in the state beat them while observing these earths because they play an important role in enhancing soil fertility. ♦ In addition, it helps to enable local people to switch to ecologically sustainable organic agriculture. ♦ In some areas of the state, unsustainable land use practices have greatly reduced the number of the earthworms. The damage was mainly caused by quarrying and heavy soil logging. ♦ Various factors including development activities, unstable weather patterns, predation and climate change have led to the large-scale migration. ♦ The scientific name of blue earth is Perionyx. It is also called Compost Worm, Blues or Indian Blues. This species is known for being able to make high-quality worm castings so quickly. This species has recently become popular in North America for composting. Scientists believe that its origin is in the Himalayas. It is also suitable for vermi composting in tropical and subtropical regions.  

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