Current Affairs 11th October 2016 - Banking, SSC, UPSC Affairs

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Former Indian Foreign Service officer Ms. Renu Pall has been appointed as the next Ambassador of India to Austria.It was announced by Ministry of External Affairs. Austria is a German-speaking country in Central Europe, characterized by mountain villages and baroque architecture. Austria is a German-speaking country in Central Europe, characterized by mountain villages, baroque architecture, Imperial history and rugged Alpine terrain. Vienna, its Danube River capital, is home to the Schönbrunn and Hofburg palaces. It has counted Mozart, Strauss and Freud among its residents. The country’s other notable regions include the northern Bohemian Forest, Traunsee Lake and eastern hillside vineyards.

Union Minister for Steel Birender Singh on Sunday said India would become the second biggest steel manufacturer in the world by year-end. Currently, China is the largest steel manufacturing country followed by Japan and produces five times more steel than India. At present, about six lakh tonnes of steel is manufactured in old factories and private plants across India. Steel industry accounts for just two per cent share in the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the country and efforts are being made to increase it. Mr. Singh said a new steel manufacturing plant of one million tonne capacity would soon be set up in joint venture and the steel manufactured here would be exported. In order to put a check on corruption and provide better opportunities to the youth, he said it is essential to bridge the education gap between the urban and the rural areas. “The vision of a better India can only be realised after bridging the gap between the education facilities available in the rural and urban areas.

Foreign lender Standard Chartered Bank has announced a tie-up with Uber under which its credit cardholders, across six countries, will get a cash-back of up to 25 per cent for hailing cabs from the app. “We are confident that our customers will find value in this partnership as we continue to explore avenues to enhance our digitally enabled banking experience,” Standard Chartered retail banking head Shyamal Saxena said in a statement. In India, the cardholders will get a 20 per cent cash-back on all Uber rides, subject to a cash—back cap of ₹ 600 per month. Additionally, first-time Uber users will get a discount of ₹ 50 for the first three rides. Apart from India, the partnership has been activated in Singapore, Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam, the bank said in a statement, adding it will go live in the UAE as well. This is the first multi market partnership for the two companies, the statement said. The bank said that the tie up is a part of its agenda to deliver simple and convenient banking through digital channels for increasingly tech savvy clients.  

The Russian and Turkish leaders have agreed to intensify military and intelligence contacts after a meeting inIstanbul, Turkey.  After his meeting with Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan, Russian President Vladimir Putin said, they have agreed on the need for aid to get to the northern Syrian city of Aleppo. The two countries have also signed a deal to construct two pipelines to send Russian gas under the Black Sea to Turkey.  Ties were strained after Turkish forces downed a Russian war plane in November 2015. Speaking at a joint news conference with Mr Putin, Mr Erdogan said he was confident that the normalisation of relations would take place rapidly.

Madhya Pradesh government has decided to launch a scheme-'Lalima Abhiyan'- that will be effective from November 1. Under the campaign, free iron folic acid tablets will be provided in aaganwadis', academic institutions and hospitals. Madhya Pradesh Chief Minister Shivraj Singh Chouhanhas also urged the state's Health Minister, Jagat Prasad Nadda, to distribute ferrous escorbate tablets instead of ferrous sulphate tablets. The Center has assured full cooperation to the state government in the matter. The Minister for Women and Child Development, Archana Chitnis, said anaemia is a common health problem among women, teenage girls and children.  Acoording to National Family Health Survey data, 52.5 percent of women, aged between 15 to 49 years, are suffering from anaemia.  Minister of State for Women and Child Development Lalita Yadav has appealed to public representatives, non-governmental organisations and government officers and employees to cooperate for the success of the campaign. 

Union Power Minister Piyush Goyal said,India would have 100 per cent electrification for all by May 1, 2017. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Uttar Pradesh, Telangana and West Bengal are considered LWE or Maoist affected states. The state-run Rural Electrification Corporation (REC) is also formulating a scheme to extend soft loans to the states at a flat rate on long-term to achieve 100 per cent household electrification across the country. Power ministers and officials from 20 states and two Union Territories participated in the conference along with heads of state-run energy firms. The scheme aims to improve operational efficiency of all discoms, reduce cost of power, lower interest rates and enforce financial discipline, by allowing state governments to take over 75 per cent of their debt and pay back lenders by selling bonds. Goyal also launched the Urban Jyoti Abhiyaan Mobile (Urja) app, developed by the state-run Power Finance Corporation, to enhance consumer connect with the urban power distribution sector by providing information of IT-enabled towns on parameters like outage information, release of connections, addressing complaints and power reliability. Goyal also said that a new committee has been formed to revive the 22 stalled large hydro power projects with fresh investments to make them viable. The government will also aid the setting up of small solar units by farmers to power agricultural pump sets.

A high altitude glaciological research station in Himalaya called Himansh (meaning a slice of ice) began functioning above 13,500 ft (4000 m) in a remote region in Spiti, Himachal Pradesh. Researchers will use this station as a base for undertaking surveys that would digitize the glacier motion and snow cover variations with exceptional precision. Himansh station will provide much needed fillip to the scientific research on Himalayan glaciers and its hydrological contribution.  The research lab has been established by the National Centre for Antarctic and Ocean Research (NCAOR) in Spiti Valley, one of the most uninhabited parts of the country  The station houses instruments to quantify glacier melting and its relation to changing climate. Some of the instruments available at this research facility include automatic weather stations, ground penetrating radars, geodetic GPS systems and other sophisticated facilities.  It will also serve as the base for Terrestrial Laser Scanners (TLS) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for undertaking surveys.  

The 4th BRICS Science, Technology and Innovation Ministerial Meeting was held at Jaipur, Rajastan. The purpose of the meeting was to further strengthen the collaboration amongst the BRICS countries in the areas of Science, Technology and Innovation (STI). The meeting adopted a five-pronged approach, viz. Institution Building, Implementation, Integration, Innovation and Continuity. In alignment with the theme of India’s Chairmanship of 8th BRICS Summit, Building, Responsive Inclusive and Collective Solutions, Jaipur Declaration was unanimously adopted.  The BRICS member countries have resolved to intensify, diversify and institutionalize STI cooperation through the BRICS innovation and research initiative.  India’s proposal to establish a BRICS Science and Technology driven Entrepreneurship and Innovation Partnership Programme to harness innovativeness of youth was also agreed.

Indian pharmaceutical companies have ranked low at 19th position with an overall score of 59 out of 100 among in the Biopharmaceutical Competitiveness & Investment (BCI) Survey.  The survey of 28 countries was commissioned by the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America and executed by the Pugatch Consilium. It was third edition of survey. Five metrics were used to determine rankings of countries. They are (i) scientific capabilities and infrastructure; (ii) clinical research conditions and framework; (iii) regulatory system; (iv) market access and financing; and (v) effective intellectual property protections. It had looked at biomedical innovation and its influencers, like intellectual property protection for investments in the pharmaceutical sector. It had categorized countries into two groups viz. mature markets like UK US, and Germany, and newcomers like China, India and Brazil. Highlights of Survey :  Mature markets provide advanced intellectual property protection, highly streamlined regulatory framework and favourable tax conditions with some exceptions. India, along with China, Argentina, Colombia, Russia, Turkey and Brazil based on their overall score were labelled as trailing markets.  Singapore which has placed in the newcomers category with a score of 85 is only a point behind the US, which is a mature market. India scores low on almost all metrics except in the clinical research conditions and framework and scientific capabilities and infrastructure. India’s IP regime, including Section 3(d) of IP Act requiring biopharmaceutical inventions to show ‘enhanced efficacy’, continues to affect its investment environment.

The first International Arbitration Centre of India was inaugurated in Mumbai, Maharashtra to provide an arbitration platform for Indian business houses to negotiate commercial disputes.  The Mumbai Centre for International Arbitration (MCIA) was launched by Maharashtra Chief Minister Devendra Fadnavis. With this Maharashtra becomes first state in the country to clear policy for institutional arbitration. It is also considered as a major step towards making Mumbai an International Financial Services Centre (IFSC) The MCIA will be an independent, not-for-profit organization (NGO) governed by a council comprising eminent national and international legal luminaries.  It will provide world-class infrastructure for arbitration, 24×7 functionality and live transcription services recording during arbitration proceedings for transparency. It will be in sync with the Make in India campaign and will provide a time bound and cost-effective facility to reinforce investor confidence. At present, in absence of an international arbitration centre in the country most of the business disputes involving Indian parties land in Singapore or London International Arbitration Centres. Indian parties make up an estimated 30% of the arbitration cases handled by the Singapore and London Arbitration Centres.  The total outflow of funds to resolve such cases along with logistics and other related expenditure is around $5 billion. MCIA will significantly bring down this cost.

The Union Government has extended anti-dumping duty on import of certain Chinese products, used in garment, toys and footwear manufacturing, for another five years i.e. till 2021. Decision in this regard was taken by Central Board of Excise and Customs (CBEC) based on recommendations of the Directorate General of Anti-Dumping and Allied Duties (DGAD).  This extension will protect domestic industry from the harm caused by dumping (import) of the cheap Chinese products. The DGAD made the case for continuation of the anti-dumping duty on Chinese products after its second sunset review of the anti-dumping duty in force on the imports.  Earlier in October 2010, the Revenue Department of the Unio Finance Ministry had extended the levy (anti-dumping duty) till October 2015.  

The Union Government is going to soon float tenders to invite bids for the development for 36 inland waterways projects in the first phase. This move will help to tap the huge potential in the so-far-untapped inland waterways transport segment despite India being endowed with natural rivers suitable for it. Earlier, Parliament had enacted a legislation allowing 106 rivers across the country to be converted into National Waterways (NWs) in addition to the existing 5 such NWs.  The law was enacted in a bid to boost movement of goods and passengers via rivers and reduce transportation costs substantially. It is environment-friendly and cost-effective mode of transportation. It will reduce the logistics costs significantly which are currently as high as 18% in India. India has huge natural geographical potential for inland waterways as 14,500 km of river channels are navigable.  Development inland waterways can spur industrial growth and tourism potential along the waterway especially in plain areas of North India.  The statutory status to the inland waterways would pave for investments in inland waterways transportation sector which has been neglected in the past. It would provide a cheaper mode of transport and reducing traffic burden and congestion on roads and railways.

The International Energy Agency (IAE) is going to partner with India to implement its Unnat Jyoti by Affordable LEDs for All (UJALA) initiative globally for energy savings.  IAE has been impressed with performance of India’s UJALA programme in terms of vastly improving access to LED lighting while reducing their cost drastically. The UJALA scheme is implemented by the Energy Efficiency Services Limited (EESL), a joint venture of PSUs under the Union Ministry of Power.  The price at which EESL has been purchasing LED lights to distribute under UJALA scheme has been consistently falling over the last couple of years Along with this, production has also been ramped up to about 4 crore per month from the 10 lakh a month in 2014 to support the implementation of scheme. Unnat Jyoti by Affordable LEDs for All (UJALA) scheme  :  UJALA scheme is LED-based Domestic Efficient Lighting Programme (DELP) that aims to promote efficient lighting, reducing energy consumption and energy savings.  It was launched as National LED programme by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in January 2015. It was renamed UJALA in March 2016. Under it, every grid-connected consumer having a metered connection from their respective Electricity Distribution Company will get the LED bulbs at subsidized rates.

As per the new study Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) has played important role in reducing ‘socioeconomic disparities’ existing in maternal care.  The study was conducted by researchers from Delhi based National Council of Applied Economic Research. This is for first time study has shown JSY has reduced socioeconomic inequalities in maternal care compared to earlier studies which showed impact of JSY in reducing maternal mortality. JSY has led to reduction of prevalent differences in access to maternal care between individual people of higher or lower socioeconomic status. It has led to enhancement in utilisation of health services among all groups especially among the poorer and underserved sections in the rural areas. Utilisation of all three maternal healthcare services was remarkably higher among illiterate or less educated and poor women.  Usage of all three maternal healthcare services by the Dalit, Adivasis, OBC and Muslim women increased between the surveys. However, inequalities still exist in access to maternal care but JSY has narrowed gap in access to healthcare between the marginalised group of women and financially better-off. Women in their early 20s more likely avail maternal health care services as compared to their older women.  The incidence of women availing maternal healthcare decreases with the increase in the number of children.

The words Aiyoh and Aiyah were on 4 October 2016 added to the Oxford English Dictionary (OED). They are credited to Mandarin and Cantonese dialects of Chinese. The words aiyah and aiyoh are interchangeable. Like many Indian words, Aiyoh and Aiyah can mean many things depending on context and tone like irritation, disgust, surprise, dismay, pain, lament, disappointment. The variants are also there in Tamil, Sinhalese and are widely used in many South East Asian countries, specially Singapore and Malaysia. Oxford English Dictionary : The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is 150 years old and has up to 600000 entries and its publisher is the Oxford University Press.  The OED is considered as the Bible of correct English for many children in the English-speaking world. It is widely regarded as the accepted authority and guide on the English language.  It makes four updates every year in the Dictionary.

NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope in the first week of October 2016 detected Great Balls of Fire. These superhot blobs of gas, each twice as big as the planet Mars, were being ejected near a dying star. These plasma balls are moving so fast through space that it would take only 30 minutes for them to travel from Earth to the moon. The observations suggest that these balls of fire have been appearing every 8.5 years for at least the last four centuries. The gas balls were observed near a red giant called V Hydrae that is about 1200 light-years away from Earth. If scientists can discover where these balls come from, it could also explain other weird shapes seen in the cloud of gas around dying stars, some of which have been difficult for scientists to explain. Hubble Space TelescopeThe Hubble Space Telescope is a space telescope that was launched into low Earth orbit in 1990. It remains in operation. It could last until 2030–2040. It is one of the largest and most versatile vital research tool and a public relations boon for astronomy.It is named after the astronomer Edwin Hubble, and is one of NASA's Great Observatories, along with the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Spitzer Space Telescope. With a 2.4-meter mirror, its four main instruments observe in the near ultraviolet, visible and near infrared spectra. It was built by the United States space agency NASA, with contributions from the European Space Agency. The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) selects Hubble's targets and processes the resulting data, while the Goddard Space Flight Center controls the spacecraft. It is the only telescope designed to be serviced in space by astronauts.Its scientific successor, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), is scheduled for launch in 2018.

Luo Zhaohui was appointed as China's Ambassador to India on 8 October 2016, in accordance with a decision of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress, the top legislature of China. His appointment was approved by Chinese President Xi Jinping. He succeeds former Chinese Ambassador to India Le Yucheng, who left the position in April 2016.Luo Zhaohui Luo was China's ambassador to Canada from 2014 to 2016.  Before that, Luo served as director general of the Department of Asian Affairs of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs from 2011 to 2014.  He had a four year stint as Ambassador to Pakistan starting from 2006.He is familiar with India as he worked as Second Secretary in Chinese Embassy in India from 1989 to 1993.

Sprinter Srabani Nanda won the 24th Ekalabya Award for the year 2016 in recognition of her sporting excellence on 8 October 2016. With this, she will get a cash price of 5 lakh rupees along with a citation at the Ekalabya Award function.Athlete Dutee Chand won the award in the year 2015. Srabani Nanda :  Nanda is an Indian woman sprint runner athlete from Odisha specialized in 4x100m relay, 100 metre and 200 metre sprint events. She belongs to Kandhamal District of Odisha.  She made it to Rio Olympics 2016 in the women's 200m category.Srabani won gold in 200m, silver in 100m and 4x100m relay in 12th South Asian Games held in Guwahati in February 2016.  She had also won bronze in 100m and 4x100m relay in Asian Grand Prix Athletics in Thailand in June 2015.  Ekalabya Award :  Ekalabya Award, which was instituted in the year 1993 by Indian Metals Public Charitable Trust (IMPaCT) of IMFA group of companies. It is given every year to young sportspersons of Odisha in recognition of their outstanding performance in the preceding two years. It was instituted to promote, encourage and recognise Odia Sports personalities in the State.  

For the first time, Indian researcher has successfully produced a stable, high-efficiency, all-inorganic perovskite nanocrystal solar cells.  It was produced by Abhishek Swarnkar, a research scholar from the Department of Chemistry at Pune’s Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER). The new inorganic perovskite nanocrystal material has 10.77% efficiency to convert sunlight to electricity. It used cesium to produce the material of cesium lead iodide.  The nanocrystals of cesium lead iodide were reduced to nanometre range. It allowed the material to absorb visible sunlight till 700 nm at ambient temperature.  These nanocrystals were found to be stable from —196 degree C to about +200 degree C. It also converted sunlight to electricity by producing a high voltage of 1.23 volts. These nanocrystals were assembled as a thin film. The thin film was used for making both solar cells and red LEDs. This research on inorganic perovskite nanocrystal moves away from traditional research based around a hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskite material.  Though, this traditional hybrid material has high efficiency of over 22% but organic component in it volatile. This material becomes completely unstable under ambient conditions within a short span of time which renders it unsuitable for commercial photovoltaic applications.

Two economists Oliver Hart and Bengt Holmstrom have won the 2016 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences. Both of them will share 8 million kronor, or about $930,000.  Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has selected them for their contributions to contract theory which tells how contracts help people deal with conflicting interests.  Their individual theories on contract theory are valuable to the understanding of real-life contracts and institutions, as well as potential pitfalls in contract design. For example, contract theory can be used to analyze performance-based pay for CEOs or deductibles and co-pays for insurance. Oliver Hart: He was born in 1948 in London, UK.  He holds Ph.D. from Princeton University, US. Presently, he is Andrew E. Furer Professor of Economics at Harvard University, US. Oliver Hart : He was born in 1948 in London, UK. He holds Ph.D. from Princeton University, US. Presently, he is Andrew E. Furer Professor of Economics at Harvard University, US. Bengt Holmström : He was born in 1949 in Helsinki, Finland. He holds Ph.D. from Stanford University, US. Presently he is Paul A. Samuelson Professor of Economics and Professor of Economics and Management at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), US. Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences In 1968, Sweden’s central bank had added the economic sciences prize as a memorial to Nobel. Thus, economics award is not a Nobel Prize as the others prizes which were established by Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel in 1895.

Badminton champion and Rio silver medallist P V Sindhu was on 8 October 2016 appointed as the Brand Ambassador of Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Limited which is also popularly known as Vizag Steel.The company will have its brand logo on Sindhu's playing jersey in international and domestic tournaments under the aegis of Badminton World Federation and Badminton Association of India. The deal was facilitated by Baseline, a sports marketing and a brand licensing firm. Sindhu, currently amongst the top 10 ranked players in the world, became the first Indian female athlete to win an Olympic silver medal at Rio Olympics 2016. She is also the first athlete to win back-to-back medals at the World Badminton Championships. Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Limited or Vizag Steel  :  It is the corporate entity of Visakhapatnam Steel Plant and a Navaratna PSE under the Union Ministry of Steel. Visakhapatnam Steel Plant ¬ popularly known as Vizag Steel is the first Shore based Integrated Steel Plant in the country and is known for its Quality Products.  A market leader in long Steel products, it caters to the requirements of the Construction, Manufacturing Automobile, General Engineering and Fabrication sectors.  It is the first integrated Steel Plant to be certified for ISO 9001:2008, ISO 14001:2004 and OHSAS 18001:2007 standards.  

Andy Murray won the 2016 China Open Men's Singles title at the National Tennis Center in Beijing, China on 9 October 2016. World Number two Murray defeated Grigor Dimitrov by 6–4, 7–6. China Open : The China Open is an annual professional tennis tournament held in Beijing, China. The men's singles and doubles events were first held in 1993, as the ATP opened a series of new tournaments in Asia. In 1998, the tournament was dropped from the ATP tour calendar, but was reinstated in 2004. In 2006, the China Open became the first tournament outside of the United States to use the Hawk-Eye system in match play.Novak Djokovic is the only player to have won the title six times. He also holds the record for consecutive wins with four titles. In doubles, the Bryan Brothers are the only doubles pair to have won consecutive titles. Agnieszka Radwanska, Svetlana Kuznetsova and Serena Williams hold the record for most titles won in the women's tournament, with two titles each.Novak Djokovic was the winner of the 2015 China Open Men's Singles.  

Poland’s Agnieszka Radwanska won the 2016 China Open Women's Singles at the National Tennis Center in Beijing, China on 9 October 2016. Radwanska defeated Johanna Konta 6-4, 6-2 to grab the title.  Agnieszka Radwanska : Agnieszka Radwańska is a Polish professional tennis player. She achieved a career-high singles ranking of world No. 2 in July 2012 and is currently ranked world No. 3 by the Women's Tennis Association (WTA). She is the first Polish player in the Open Era to reach a Grand Slam singles final (the 2012 Wimbledon Championships), the first Polish to win the WTA Finals (in 2015), and the first Polish to claim a WTA singles title (the 2007 Nordea Nordic Light Open). China Open : The China Open is an annual professional tennis tournament held in Beijing, China. The men's singles and doubles events were first held in 1993, as the ATP opened a series of new tournaments in Asia. In 1998, the tournament was dropped from the ATP tour calendar, but was reinstated in 2004.  In 2006, the China Open became the first tournament outside of the United States to use the Hawk-Eye system in match play. Novak Djokovic is the only player to have won the title six times. He also holds the record for consecutive wins with four titles.  In doubles, the Bryan Brothers are the only doubles pair to have won consecutive titles.Agnieszka Radwanska, Svetlana Kuznetsova and Serena Williams hold the record for most titles won in the women's tournament, with two titles each.Garbine Muguruza was the winner of the 2015 China Open Women's Singles.

Supreme Court in its decision on 6 October 2016 held that a Hindu son can divorce his wife if she tries to separate him from his elderly parents. The apex court held that it is 'pious obligation' of a son to maintain his parents. It held that a Hindu son can’t separate himself from his parents on getting married at demand of his wife, at least when he is the only earning member in the family. The observation was made by a bench comprising Justice Anil R Dave and L Nageshwara Rao while confirming the decree of divorce sought by a Karnataka-based man. As reported, the apex court allowed the man to annul a 24-year old marriage, while setting aside Karnataka High Court judgement which had dismissed the decree of divorce granted by a Bangalore family court in 2001. Highlights of the observation : A woman becomes part of the husband’s family and thus she cannot seek to separate him from his parents just to enjoy his income. It held that insisting husband to live separately from his parents is a western thought which is alien to our culture and ethos.It held that a son who was brought up and given education by his parents has a moral and legal obligation to take care and maintain his parents when they become old and when they have either no income of have a meager income. A woman, who becomes an integral part of husband’s family after being married, should have a justifiable reason to separate his husband from his family.

World Mental Health Day was observed on 10 October 2016 with theme ‘Psychological First Aid’. The day is annually observed with an aim to raise awareness about mental health issues around the world and mobilising efforts in support of mental health. The year’s theme focuses on basic pragmatic psychological support by people who find themselves in a helping role whether they are health staff, teachers, firemen, community workers, or police officers. The day was first observed in 1992 at the initiative of the World Federation for Mental Health, a global mental health organization with members and contacts in more than 150 countries. This comprehensive mental health action plan was adopted by the 66th World Health Assembly. The plan focuses on international attention on a long-neglected problem and is firmly rooted in the principles of human rights. The four major objectives of the action plan are to: Strengthen effective leadership and governance for mental health.Provide comprehensive, integrated and responsive mental health and social care services in community-based settings.Implement strategies for promotion and prevention in mental health.Strengthen information systems, evidence and research for mental health. Each of the four objectives is accompanied by one or two specific targets, which provide the basis for measurable collective action and achievement by Member States towards global goals. A set of core indicators relating to these targets as well as other actions have been developed and are being collected via the Mental Health Atlas project on a periodic basis.

The 2016 International Day of the Girl Child (IDGC) was observed across the world on 11 October 2016 with the theme Girls' Progress = Goals' Progress: What Counts for Girls. The theme for the 2016 IDGC asks for a call for action for increased investment in collecting and analyzing girl-focused, girl-relevant and sex-disaggregated data. Globally, one in seven adolescent girls aged 15 - 19 are currently married or in union. In developing countries (excluding China), one in every three girls is married before reaching age 18.Girls who are married early often face a cascade of other human rights abuses. They are more vulnerable to physical and sexual violence. They are often pulled out of school to take on domestic responsibilities. They are less able to advocate for themselves and their rights.Child marriage is often followed by pregnancy, even if a girl is not yet physically or mentally ready. Every day, over 20000 girls under age 18 give birth in developing countries. Across the globe, rates of child marriage are highest in sub-Saharan Africa, where around 4 in 10 girls marry before age 18; about one in eight were married or in union before age 15. International Day of the Girl Child : It was created by the United Nations through a resolution in 2011. Its objective is to promote the rights of girls and address the unique challenges they face.It was held for the first time on 11 October 2012.

Russia has vetoed a UN Security Council draft resolution demanding an end to the bombing of Aleppo city in Syria on 8 October 2016. The draft text proposed by France and Spain won 11 votes in favor, Russia and Venezuela voted against the resolution, while China and Angola abstained. It was the fifth time that Moscow used its veto to block the UN action to end the five year war in Syria. UN estimates say, the Syrian conflict has driven more than 4.8 million refugees to neighbouring countries, hundreds of thousands in Europe, and displaced 6.6 million people inside the Syria against a pre-war population of over 20 million. It says that the war had claimed at least 200000 lives. French Foreign Minister Jean-Marc Ayrault had urged the Security Council to take immediate action to save Aleppo from being destroyed by the Russia-backed Syrian bombing campaign. Earlier, Russia presented its own draft text that urged for a separation of moderate and extremist forces in Syria but making no mention of a bombing halt in the besieged city of Aleppo. The draft, put forward by Moscow failed to get the support of minimum nine votes. This text received 4 votes in favour, 9 against (France, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Senegal, Spain, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States), and 2 abstentions (Angola and Uruguay). It is reported that Russia's introduction of a rival resolution yesterday took Western supporters of the French draft by surprise. Several diplomats privately called it a brilliant move by Moscow because it will force Western powers to veto as well.

World Post Day 2016 was on 9 October 2016 observed across the world with the theme Innovation, Integration and Inclusion. The purpose of World Post Day is to bring awareness to the Post's role in the everyday lives of people and businesses, as well as its contribution to global social and economic development.  World Post Day is celebrated each year on 9 October, the date of anniversary of the establishment of the Universal Postal Union (UPU) in 1874 in the Swiss Capital, Bern. 9 October was declared World Post Day by the UPU Congress held in Tokyo, Japan in 1969. Since then, countries across the world participate annually in the celebrations. Approximately 150 countries take part in celebrating the World Post Day every year. Some of the countries promote their new postal services at this special day.  

Jeremy Corbyn, Leader of the Labour Party and Leader of the Opposition, on 7 October 2016 appointed Indian-origin barrister Shami Chakrabarti to the UK’s shadow cabinet. Baroness Chakrabarti’s appointment as a member of the Lords was met with criticism from prominent Jews and Labour MPs. Corbyn also handed a major promotion to his long-time ally Diane Abbott, making her shadow home secretary. Other appointees include Sir Keir Starmer, who has been invited back as shadow Brexit secretary. Shami Chakrabarti : Sharmishta "Shami" Chakrabarti is a member of the British House of Lords and a British Labour Party politician.She was the Director of Liberty from 2003 to 2016. When she was the director of Liberty, she campaigned against excessive anti-terror legislation.She studied Law at the London School of Economics. After graduating, she was called to the Bar and then worked as an in-house legal counsel for the Home Office.The Times described her as probably the most effective public affairs lobbyist of the past 20 years. In April 2016, she was invited by Labour Party leader Jeremy Corbyn to chair an inquiry into anti-semitism in the Labour Party.In August 2016, she was nominated by Corbyn to receive a life peerage in the Prime Minister's Resignation Honours. Shadow Cabinet : The Shadow Cabinet is a feature of the Westminster system of government. It consists of a senior group of opposition spokespeople who, under the leadership of the Leader of the Opposition, form an alternative cabinet to that of the government. Members of a shadow cabinet are often but not always appointed to a Cabinet post if and when their party gets into government.It is the Shadow Cabinet's responsibility to criticise the policies and actions of the government, as well as offering an alternative program.

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Try to answer the 11th October 2016 Current affairs quiz questions, after going through 11th October 2016 current affairs news. 11th October 2016 current affairs Quiz questions are designed in an endearing and better way to revise all the important points of current events. Correct answers are shown at the end of the Quiz to scale up the candidate’s grasping level of General Knowledge.

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Nowadays, in most of the competitive exams and interviews, there is a separate section for current affairs which plays a major role in final merit listing of Candidates. Make use of this precious 11th October 2016 current affairs updates and quiz material for preparing Top competitive exams like UPSC, SSC CGL, SSC CHSL, SSC MTS, LIC AAO, RBI Grade 'B' & Assistants, NABARD Grade A & B, SBI PO & Clerk, IBPS PO & Clerk, IBPS RRB Officer Scale 1 & Assistants, CAPF, etc,.

On checking this page frequently, you can't miss any Current Affairs news of 11th October 2016. Go through all the current affairs news updated in this page and practice with Quiz right now to succeed in your competitive exam as well as interview.

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