Current Affairs 21st November 2016 - Banking, SSC, UPSC Affairs

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China has launched world’s longest super-secure quantum communication line connecting Hefei, capital of Anhui province to Shanghai, the country’s financial hub. The super-secure quantum communication line is 712-km in length. It boasts of ultra-high security making it impossible to wiretap, intercept or crack the information transmitted through them. Highlights : The 712-km line is part of a 2,000-km Beijing-Shanghai quantum communication. It has 11 stations and it took three years of construction. In one of its first test communication, it had transmitted a secure video conference between the two cities. The Beijing-Shanghai quantum communication line is expected to be completed at the end of the year 2016. It will be backbone highly secured communication network to be used in the fields of finance, electronics and government affairs. World’s first quantum satellite  : Earlier in August 2016, China had successfully launched the world’s first quantum satellite. It was nicknamed as Micius after a 5th century BC Chinese philosopher and scientist. The Micius quantum satellite will be connected with the Beijing-Shanghai quantum communication line through the line’s station in Beijing. It will enable the space-to-Earth highly secure hack-proof quantum communication network. Quantum communication :  Quantum communication uses subatomic particles to securely communicate between two points. These subatomic particles are mainly quantum entanglement of photons. It ensures that nobody taps into the line as a photon can be neither separated nor duplicated. Thus tapping the network will inevitably corrupt the signal. It has the ability to inform the two communicating users of the presence of any third party trying to eavesdrop. At the same time, the information being intercepted will self-destruct.

Scientists have developed Zika replicon system, a novel tool to replicate the Zika virus by stripping it of the genes that make the virus infectious. The Zika replicon system is considered as an advance novel tool that may pave the way for development vaccine to fight Zika virus. The Zika replicon system deleted some of the genes that give the Zika virus its structure. The system was engineered by attaching genes that allow researchers to tag certain parts of the Zika virus for making it a powerful tool for vaccine development. The system has made Zika virus no longer infectious and also lowered the safety risk involved in working with it. Replicons are basically segments of viral genome that can replicate on their own, independent of the cellular chromosome. They can be used to locate portions of the viral molecule that block or halt viral replication. They can also study potential antiviral agents by differentiating between when the virus is making copies of itself and when it’s altering its structure. Thus, they can be used for making a powerful tool for vaccine development. Significance :  Recent Zika virus outbreak has highlighted the urgent need to establish genetic tools for studying how the virus multiplies and causes disease in order to develop countermeasures. It has also become important to deal with Zika virus which is spreading rapidly and behaves differently than other viruses as it can be transmitted sexually and is associated with microcephaly and Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS).

The National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA) has launched the highly advanced geostationary weather satellite Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R (GOES-R). The Satellite was launched by NASA on behalf of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). It was launched on board of Atlas 5 rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. Highlights of the Satellite : It will boost the weather observation capabilities of the US, leading to more accurate and timely forecasts, watches and warnings.  It will be into the operations within a year after undergoing testing and validation of new instruments including the first operational lightning mapper in geostationary orbit. Its primary instrument Advanced Baseline Imager will provide images of Earth’s weather, oceans and environment with 16 different spectral bands.  It is also first satellite to carry a lightning mapper instrument to geostationary orbit.  It will photograph lightning activity throughout Western Hemisphere about 200 times every second. It will monitor the sun and relay crucial information to forecasters so they can issue space weather alerts and warnings.  It will also be a part of the Search and Rescue Satellite Aided Tracking (SARSAT) System, an international satellite-based search and rescue network operated by NOAA.

The Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh Akhilesh Yadav launched state-wide integrated emergency services UP-100. The service was launched on 19 November 2016 from Lucknow. UP-100 is the official name of the Police Emergency Management System of Uttar Pradesh. Earlier, it was known as dial 100 Project. The state government has allocated 2200 crore rupees for the project. Highlights of UP-100 project :  It is a high-tech centralised emergency system and was established with an aim to provide public safety across the state.It is a 24-hour service.  It will ensure that the police reach the venue of a caller in a maximum fifteen minutes in urban areas and twenty minutes in rural areas. The centralised contact centre of the service is located in Lucknow. This centre will receive the emergency calls from across the state. Initially, the UP-100 services will be available in 11 districts of the state and later it will cover all the remaining districts.  

Prime Minister Narendra Modi on 20 November 2016 formally launched the Housing for All scheme in rural areas under to provide an environmentally safe and protected pucca house to every rural household by 2022.  The scheme is also named as the Pradhan Mantri Awaas Yojana (Gramin).  Highlights of the Scheme : In the first phase, the target is to complete one crore houses by March 2019.  A minimum support of around 1.5 lakh rupees to 1.6 lakh rupees is now available to a household.   If the beneficiary desires, there is also a provision of Bank loan of up to 70000 rupees. All the beneficiaries are selected through a completely transparent process using the Socio Economic Census 2011 data. It provides for skilling 5 lakh Rural Masons by 2019 and allows over 200 different housing designs across the country based on housing typologies, environmental hazards and the household requirements.   It targets the poor households and uses ICT and space technology to confirm correct selection of beneficiaries and progress of work.  The entire payments will be done through IT/DBT mode with Aadhaar linked Bank accounts to ensure complete transparency and accountability.

The United Nations’ (UN) World Television Day was observed in countries across the world on 21 November 2016. The day is aimed at recognizing the important role television plays in presenting issues that affect people globally. It is also meant to honor the role Television plays as the pillar of freedom of expression and as a promoter of cultural diversity.  On 17 December 1996, during the United Nations General Assembly , it was decided that 21 November will be globally observed as World Television Day to commemorate the date on which the first World Television Forum was held in the same year.  The universal body, UN then invited all its member states to observe the day by encouraging a global exchange of television programs focusing on global issues like peace, security, cultural exchange and economic and social development. UN also acknowledged Television as one of the most influential forms of media for communication and broadcast of information and also as an important medium for imparting education to people across the globe.

Germanwatch and Climate Action Network Europe released the Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI) 2017 on 16 November 2016. The CCPI confirms that there is a boost for renewable energy and positive developments in energy efficiency. The index ranks India at the 20th position and says that countries like India are making efforts in fields of renewable and energy efficiency. Highlights of CCPI 2017 It says that the historic Paris Agreement that was reached in 2015 has helped in encouraging the trends in switching towards the renewable energy, but the revolution in switching at the global level is very slow. The index says that many countries lack in ambition in switching towards the renewable energy. Morocco: Morocco, the host for the COP 22, was ranked at 8th position. The index says that due to its investments in renewable energy and mid and long-term targets, Morocco continued its upward trend. It is the frontrunner in Africa.  Emerging Economies: They improved their improvement in 2017 CCPI by showcasing positive trends in shifting towards the renewable energy. Ranks of few emerging economies are India (20), Argentina (36) and Brazil (40). Countries rated as Very Poor: Rank of Countries that were rated as very poor include Canada (55), Australia (57) and Japan (60). They were ranked in the bottom group. Ranks of the world’s two largest emitters are USA (43) and China (48).  France, which was ranked at the fourth place, leads the list for the first time. It was ranked fourth for the diplomacy that helped in enabling the Paris Agreement in 2015.  France is followed by Sweden (5) and the United Kingdom (6). Concern Area: The top three positions in the CCPI 2017 were left empty because no big emitter is acting in line with the 1.5 to 2°C limit.  

India was elected as Vice Chair of Kimberly Process Certificate Scheme (KPCS) 2018 and as the Chair for 2019 of KPCS. The announcement was made during the KP Plenary Meeting 2016 at Dubai. Earlier, this position of KP Chair was held by India in 2008.  India's position in Kimberly Process Certificate Scheme : The Kimberley Process Certification Scheme imposes widespread requirements on its members to enable them to certify shipments of rough diamonds. India is one of the founding members of Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS).   The Department of Commerce under Union Ministry of Commerce and Industry administers the scheme. The Gem and Jewellery Export Promotion Council (GJEPC) is the Import and Export Authority within the meaning of Section IV(b) of the Scheme.  

Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s decision of demonization of 500 and 1000 rupee notes has taken a new turn. It has given birth to a new kind of economy that thrives on the old illegal tender. The new parallel economy welcomes the old notes, but at a price- at a discounted value- that often amounts to about 30%. Despite demonetisation, old illegal currency is still being accepted at several local departmental stores, private chemists, small eateries, vegetable vendors and local retailers.  The acceptance of the notes comes at a price. The consumer will only be able to purchase goods amounting to about 80% of the currency’s total value, that is, if you give a 1000 rupee note, you can only get goods worth around 800 Rupees.  The places that are not taking any cut from the price, expect the consumer to buy goods worth the entire domination. This holds true for small retailers and privately-owned pharmacies.  Even those having the new 2000 notes face the same problem. They have to buy goods worth the entire amount as no change is being given in return.  Repercussions of this rise :  With takers still being there for old notes, the black income still continues to flow. Savings of the middle class affected, as they have to now pay more in order to purchase daily utility goods. The resurrection of Black economy. Parallel Economy : Parallel Economy, also known as Black economy is an economy that functions on the basis of black money or unaccounted money. The transactions conducted under this system are kept hidden from the government and hence, go unrecorded and untaxed.

The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) in a letter to the finance ministry has put forward a proposal to open an ‘Islamic window’ in conventional banks. The move is a stepping stone to its consideration of introducing Islamic banking in the country.  The RBI and the Union Government have been exploring the possibility of  introducing the Sharia-based foundation since quite long in order to include even those sections of the society that remain outside the banking circuit due to religious reasons.  The information was revealed when a copy of the letter was sent to Press Trust of India, in response to an RTI filed by it.   Response of RBI to the RTI query Islamic banking may be introduced in the country in a gradual manner, considering the inexperience of Indian banks in the sphere and complexities of Islamic finance. At first, only products similar to those of conventional banking will be considered for introduction through an Islamic window at the conventional banks. The full-fledged introduction of Islamic banking will be considered at a later stage, based on the experience gained during the time.  Islamic Banking :  It is a financial institution that is based on the principles of the Islamic law (Sharia). It is also known as Sharia compliant finance.   All its dealings, transactions, investment focus and business approach are derived from the Sharia law.   Its governing principles are as follows:  Absence of interest–based transactions  Introduction of Islamic tax, zakat Avoidance of economic activities involving oppression and speculation  Discouragement of production of goods and service that go against the Islamic value In order to introduce Islamic banking, RBI still has to put a lot of things into place. For instance: Operationalisation of Sharia boards and committees  Exploring feasibility of extending deposit insurance to Islamic banking deposits.   Identifying the financial risks in such a framework Formulating appropriate criteria for Islamic products.  The plan, however, of introducing the Sharia-based banking structure has found stiff opposition from certain political and non-political groups.  

Indore-Patna Express derailed on 20 November 2016 at Pukhrayan in Kanpur Dehat district of Uttar Pradesh. Over 120 people were killed and more than 200 injured when the 14 coaches of the Indore-Patna Express derailed. The incident took place at early morning 3:00 AM when most of the passengers were sleeping. The train was travelling with more than 500 passengers. Four sleeper coaches of the train S1, S2, S3, S4 were badly damaged in the accident. The tragedy could have been caused due to a rail fracture. The Commissioner of Railway Safety, Eastern, P K Acharya was given the responsibility to probe the accident and to look into the possibility of a fracture in the tracks as a possible cause of the accident. Helpline Numbers Indore: 07411072 Ujjain: 07342560906 Ratlam: 074121072 Orai: 051621072 Jhansi: 05101072 Pokhraya: 05113270239 Railway Minister Suresh Prabhu announced 3.5 lakh rupees compensation to each of the families of the dead. Bihar CM Nitish Kumar announced ex gratia of 2 lakh rupees to the family of the deceased from Bihar and 50000 rupees to seriously injured. Madhya Pradesh CM Shivraj Singh Chouhan announced 2 lakh rupees compensation for the families of deceased and 50000 rupees for critically injured. UP CM Akhilesh Yadav announced ex-gratia of 5 lakh rupees to families of the deceased and 50000 rupees for those with serious injuries and 25000 rupees to survivors with minor injuries. This is the worst accident since 28 May 2010, when the Gyaneshwari Express derailed in West Midnapore district of West Bengal, killing at least 148 people. Derailment is the major reason of 50 percent of all accidents in the Indian Railways. This accident occured at a time when Indian Railways was in the middle of achieving zero accident mission, a yearlong drive.

The State Bank of Mauritius (SBM) Group has appointed Siby Sebastian as Chief Executive for its India operations.Siby will be responsible for developing and managing the State Bank of Mauritius Group's operations in India. India is an important destination for tertiary education for Mauriatian students and is among the main trade partners of Mauritius, he said adding visits of key state officials as well as assistance in various areas between these two countries are common Mauritius, for its part, represents the principal source of FDI inflows into India Sebastian has over 20 years of banking experience and has joined SBM Group from ICICI Bank.  The SBM Group operates four branches in Mumbai, Chennai, Hyderabad and Ramachandrapuram.

Spiritual guru Sri Sri Ravishankar was today honoured with an international peace prize for his efforts in ensuring world peace.  Home Minister Rajnath Singh gave away the "Dr Nagendra Singh International Peace Award" to the spiritual leader at a function at Vigyan Bhawan at New Delhi President Pranab Mukherjee presents Padma Vibhushan to Sri Sri Ravi Shankar during Padma Awards 2016 at Rashtrapati Bhavan. The award has been instituted in the memory of Dr Nagendra Singh, first Indian judge at International Court of Justice, Hague.   

Shaikh Abdullah Bin Zayed Al Nahyan was awarded the prestigious Mother Teresa International Award by the Mumbai-based NGO Harmony Foundation. Shaikh Abdullah, UAE Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation, was conferred with the award for his contribution in promoting peace and stability in the West Asia. He is responsible for establishing institutions that protect youth from being radicalised and indoctrination from terrorist groups and people who look forward to propagating violence against innocent people. Faraaz Ayaaz Hossain, a Bangladeshi hostage who was killed in the terrorist attack on the Dhaka’s Holey Café on 1 July 2016, was the another recipient of the award. He was posthumously awarded the Mother Teresa Memorial International Award for Social Justice for 2016. He was awarded because he refused to leave behind his friends who were from other countries. This is the first time when the award was conferred posthumously. The 2016 Mother Teresa Awards were conferred recipients on 20 November 2016 at JW Marriott, Mumbai. Mother Teresa Awards : The Mother Teresa Awards are conferred on individuals and organisations that promote peace, social justice and equality. It is also conferred on those, who aim at encouraging the cause of justice and peaceful coexistence while providing an impetus for society to imbibe these values. This international award was introduced in 2005 in the memory of late Mother Teresa. Key recipients of the award are Malala Yousufzai (Nobel laureate of Pakistan), Dalai Lama (Nobel laureate and Tibetan leader), Medecins Sans Frontieres (an international humanitarian-aid non-governmental organization (NGO) and it is also known as Doctors Without Borders), Dr Mahathir Mohammed (former Prime Minister of Malaysia), and Baroness Caroline Cox (the former Deputy Speaker of the House of Lords) among others.

Stock exchange platform BSE has opened its regional office in Shimla, marking its presence in 24 cities in the country to provide services to investors. According to the BSE, the Investor Services Centre set up in line with SEBI requirements  is part of its plans to expand its operations and meet the needs of the growing investors' community. The stock exchange platform said investors can approach the centre to enhance their awareness regarding the capital market and in particular the working of the stock exchanges. The Investor Services Centre will also play a pivotal role in enhancing and maintaining investors' faith and confidence by resolving their grievances.

Telangana government joined hands with Mumbai based IDFC Bank to enable cashless transactions and to solve the change problem. Aadhar Card based Coupon was introduced at Rythu Bazaar in Kukatpally, Hyderabad. In this way, people get the coupon from Market counter, after their shopping if they have any amount remaining that will be credited back to their account.

Haryana government has launched a Voluntary Disclosure Scheme (VDS) 2016 for declaring tampered or defective meters for all categories of consumers having sanctioned load up to five KW.  The scheme shall remain in operation from November 20 to December 31, 2016. The cases of such consumers, who voluntarily declare tampering of meter or meter being defective, shall be decided as per the provisions of the scheme.  The chief minister said the consumers would be charged on nominal consumption basis as per their sanctioned load for last one year on current normal tariff only, instead of twice the tariff along with compounding charges.  The consumer will have the option to deposit the bill amount in lump-sum or in a maximum of six equal bi-monthly installments payable along with the next 6 bills.  The meter installed at the premises shall be replaced with a new electronic meter within three days, he said, adding the cost of the meter would be charged from the consumer, in case the meter is supplied by the Nigam.  The consumers, whose meters have been seized and sent for verification to the M and T Lab and are pending for testing, will also have the option to avail this scheme. No further meter testing and investigation will be done in their case.  The scheme will also cover small domestic consumers of up to 2 KW load in urban areas whose connection has been disconnected for nonpayment.  The surcharge amount outstanding as on September 30, 2016 in the name of a consumer who opts for the scheme shall be frozen. 40 per cent of this amount will be waived off on payment of next six bills by the consumer.  Another 30 per cent of the surcharge amount will be waived off at the end of second year on full payment of bills during the year and the remaining surcharge amount will be waived off at the end of the third year. The consumers, whose cases are at present in court, will not be covered under this scheme. However, if the consumer withdraws the case, this scheme will be applicable.  

A special counter-terror unit of NSG commandos today conducted a three-hour-long mock drill at a Delhi Metro station located on the airport express line . The drill on 'intervention of rail coaches and countering of terrorist elements' was conducted by the National Security Guard commandos in the wee hours at the Dhaula Kuan station where the 'black cats' also used their modern weapons and equipment used for neutralising terrorists and rescuing commuters.  The Dhaula Kuan station is an important passenger facility on the sensitive and faster airport express line of the Delhi Metro.  They said the strike team of over 350 commandos also conducted a similar drill on the coaches and depot area around the Dwarka Sector 8 station along with a small team of CISF personnel who secure the Metro network.  The NSG teams were drawn from the elite counter-terror squad. The federal contingency force keeps doing these mock exercises to keep itself prepared for any contingency and response to a terrorist threat on the Delhi Metro network that carries over 26 lakh people everyday in the national capital area 

Prime Minister Narendra Modi will launch the Pradhanmantri Grameen Awas Yojna, an ambitious housing scheme meant for rural poor in Agra . The housing scheme is expected to provide affordable houses to all those living below the poverty line by the year 2022. The Prime Minister will also distribute allotment letters to 50 beneficiaries of the scheme which aims to provide about 3 crore new housing units countrywide. Prime Minister Modi will also address a large gathering of the BJP supporters in the afternoon, kick starting the party's electoral campaign in the region for the next year Assembly elections.

Union Textiles Minister Smriti Irani has distributed PAHCHAN identity cards to artisans of five clusters of Gujarat - Jamnagar, Naroda, Surendranagar, Amreli and Kalol.  The cards will give national identity to the artisans who will be covered under a national database. The artisans can avail of benefit of any government scheme through these cards. Irani also announced that 20 artisans of each of the five clusters will be imparted training by nationally-acclaimed designers. The camp for PAHCHAN was launched on October 7 nationwide to ensure a unique identity to the handicraft artisans. The cards being distributed shall provide benefits, including easy access to loan, insurance and credit guarantee funds.  The minister distributed the PAHCHAN cards at Ahmedabad Haat, Vastrapur, near Ahmedabad after inaugurating the thematic exhibition on handicrafts products.  The fair has been conceptualised with a view to providing a direct marketing platform for innovative products developed by 20 handicraft artisans from various parts of India, covering different craftsThe "unprecedented" socio economic development model followed by JRF changed the face of traditional carpet industry in India by eliminating middlemen and ensuring fare wages to the artisans  

PV Sindhu won the 700000 US dollars China Open badminton tournament on 20 November 2016. This was the first Super Series Premier title for the Indian Olympic silver medallist and two-time bronze medallist at World Championship. In the summit clash that lasted for an hour and nine minutes, Sindhu defeated Sun Yu of China 21-11, 17-21, 21-11. The final was played at Fuzhou, China. With this win, she also became the third non-Chinese woman to win the title. The previous two winners were Malaysia’s Wong Mew Choo (2007) and India’s own Saina Nehwal (2014). List of Winners  Men’s Singles: Jan O Jorgensen of Denmark won the men’s singles title. In the final clash, he defeated Chen Long 22-20 21-13. This was first World Super Series title for Jorgensen in over 28 months. Women’s Singles: PV Sindhu of India won the women’s singles title. This was a first World Super Series title for Sindhu. Men's Doubles: Marcus Fernaldi Gideon (Indonesia) and Kevin Sanjaya Sukamuljo (Indonesia) won the men’s doubles title.  Women's Doubles: Chang Ye-Na (South Korea) and Lee So-hee (South Korea) won the women’s doubles title of the super-series.  Mixed Doubles: Tontowi Ahmad (Indonesia) and Liliyana Natsir (Indonesia) won the mixed title. The China Open is badminton tournament that is annually held in China. In 2007, it became a part of the BWF Super Series tournaments in 2007.

Bollywood Parks, Dubai has opened with fanfare, fireworks, dance, music and simulator 4D shows based on hit Hindi-language movies.  Visitors were greeted by ­performers dancing to thumping Bollywood music across the park with some atop a mock-up of a suburban Mumbai railway train and others outside the ­Rajmahal theatre, which will stage live musicals.

Noted flautist Pandit Hari Prasad Chourasia (78) was conferred 2016 Sumitra Charat Ram Award for lifetime achievement in the field of Indian classical music. The prestigious award bestowed upon him by Lt Governor Najeeb Jung at a function held in New Delhi. Pandit Hari Prasad Chourasia  : Chaurasia had started learning vocal music at the tender age of 15 from his neighbour Pandit Rajaram. Later, he had switched over to playing the classical flute under the tutelage of Pandit Bholanath Prasanna of Varanasi.  He plays in the North Indian tradition. He joined the All India Radio (AIR), Cuttack, Odisha in 1957 and worked as a composer and performer. Awards and Honours: Sangeet Natak Academy (1984), Padma Bhushan (1992), Yash Bharati Sanman (1994), Padma Vibhushan (2000), Dinanath Mangeshkar Award (2000) etc. Sumitra Charat Ram Award  : The prestigious award has been named after Sumitra Charat Ram who had played a key role in revival of the performing arts traditions, specially kathak and Hindustani music in north India.  It is bestowed upon individuals who have excelled in field of Indian classical dance and music or other disciplines of Indian art and culture, including theatre during last 15 years. The award carries a purse, citation, shawl and a silver plaque. The past recipients include Pt Birju Maharaj (kathak), Kishori Amonkar (Hindustani vocal), Mayadhar Raut (Odissi), Pt Jasraj (Hindustani vocal) and Kumudini Lakhia (kathak). Sumitra Charat Ram was also the founder of Shiram Bharatiya Kala Kendra, one of the country’s premier institutions of performing arts.

The Income Tax department is planning to implement the first phase of ‘Project Insight’ from May 2017 to monitor high value transactions, with a view to curbing the circulation of black money. This project has been initiated for data mining, collection, collation and processing of such information for effective risk management with a view to widening and deepening tax base. ‘Project Insight’ is an integrated platform that will utilize vast amount of information easily available on social media to conduct raids online rather than traditional way of conducting random searches, known as tax raids. It will use data mining, big data and analytics to scoop out tax evaders from social media platforms like Facebook, Twitter and Instagram.  The Permanent Account Number (PAN) will be the unique identifier is used by the Income Tax department to link and analyse various transactions relating to the tax payers. This will enhance the department’s ability to monitor the flow of funds and will provide an audit trail of high value transactions and curb circulation of black money The ‘Project Insight’ will be implemented in phased manner during the period 2016-2018.  For its implementation, the IT department has signed a contract with L&T Infotech Ltd. It will also be leveraged for implementation of Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act Inter Governmental Agreement (FATCA IGA) and Common Reporting Standard (CRS). Significance of ‘Project Insight’ :  It will help in catching tax evaders in a non-intrusive manner using technology and without traditional intrusive methods like search and seizure.  The integrated platform will play a key role in widening of tax base and data mining to track tax evaders. The reporting compliance management system of project will ensure that third party reporting by entities like banks and other financial institutions is timely and accurate. It will also set up a streamlined data exchange mechanism for other government departments.

The World Day of Remembrance for Road Traffic Victims was observed globally on 20 November 2016 with the theme Vital post-crash actions: Medical Care, Investigation, Justice!. The Day is observed on every third Sunday of November by an increasing number of countries on every continent around the world. It is observed to remember millions who were killed or injured in road crashes. The Day has also become an important means to reduce road casualties.  The United Nations General Assembly on 26 October 2005 decided to observe every third Sunday of November as the World Day of Remembrance for Road Traffic Victims  through UN Resolution 60/5. A dedicated website was also launched to make the Day more widely known and to link countries through sharing common objectives. In 2008, remembrance services and other related events were held in Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Brunei Darussalam, Canada, India, Japan, Mexico, Nigeria, the Philippines, South Africa, Uganda and the United States, and almost every country in Europe.

Universal Children’s Day was observed across the globe on 20 November 2016. The day is observed with an aim to promote the ideals and objectives of the United Nation’s Charter and the welfare of the children of the world. 20 November is the day when UNGA adopted the declaration of the Rights of the Child in 1959. On 14 December 1954, the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) recommended all countries should institute a Universal Children’s Day, which will be observed as a day of the worldwide fraternity to understand children. 20 November also marks the day on which, in 1989, the UNGA adopted the Convention on the Rights of the Child.   The Convention that ratified international human rights treaty also sets out a number of righst for children. These children rights include the right to life, to education, to health, to play, the right to family life as well as to be protected from violence, and not to be discriminated, and to have their views heard.

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