Today Current Affairs 8th June 2016

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United Biscuits president Jayant Kapre has quit after leading the maker of McVities biscuits to a Rs 150 crore-plus company in six years . Kapre is joining American flavours maker International Flavors & Fragrances (IFF), a business-to-business supplier of flavours to makers of soft drinks, biscuits, confectionery and alcoholic beverages. He is taking over as managing director of the firm.  United Biscuits is yet to name a successor to Kapre who was the first employee of the British biscuit maker in the country, joining as president for India and South East Asia in 2009.  An alumnus of IIM-Ahmedabad, Kapre, 43, started his career at Hindustan Unilever in 1996, and later worked with Gillette, Accenture, Wrigley and PepsiCo before joining United Biscuits. McVities, which hit the Indian market in 2010, is now doing sales of over Rs 150 crore.  Over the past six months, the brand has moved beyond its high-margin core digestives segment to Marie biscuits and cookies aimed at the mass market.  While Parle Products and Britannia are vying for the top spot in the Rs 26,000-plus crore biscuits sector in the country followed closely by ITC, other such as United Biscuits and Mondelez have been gaining share in niche segments such as digestives and cookies.  United Biscuits was acquired by Turkish food and beverage firm Yildiz Holding two years back, making UB-Yildiz the world's third largest biscuits player after Mondelez and Kellogg. Yildiz, which owns Godiva chocolates and De Met's Candy Company, had acquired UB from private equity firms Blackstone and PAI Partners for about 2 billion pounds (about Rs 20,000 crore then).   

Poland and its NATO partners have kicked off their largest-ever joint military exercises aimed at shoring up security on the alliance's eastern flank amid the West's worst standoff with Russia since the end of the Cold War.The two-week long Anaconda manoeuvres are aimed at "checking the alliance's ability to defend its eastern flank. More than 31,000 soldiers from 24 NATO and former-Soviet "Partnership for Peace" states including Ukraine are taking part in the manoeuvres, held biannually across Poland since 2006.Some 14,000 US troops will join 12,000 Polish soldiers and around 1,000 from Britain for the exercises involving some 3,000 vehicles, 105 planes and 12 naval vessels While NATO cut all practical cooperation with Moscow following Russia's Ukraine intervention, the US-led alliance has said it will hold formal talks with the Russians before the July 8-9 summit. But just last month Moscow and Washington accused each other of mounting an aggressive military presence in northern Europe as the United States broke ground on a missile shield in NATO allies Poland and Romania. Russia has vowed to "end threats" posed by the system, despite US assurances that it is intended to ward of potential attacks by so-called "rogue states" in the Middle East. That tactic is based on deception rather than a formal declaration of war, NATO strategists say and suggest Russia used it to annex Crimea by covertly deploying unidentified troops.

The US has returned to India over 200 stolen cultural artifacts , some dating back 2,000 years, estimated at $100 million, with Prime Minister Narendra Modi describing the cultural heritage as a great binding force in bilateral relationships.  Usually relationship between the countries of the world are very often covered by the present. It is present that plays a big role, but sometimes heritage becomes important in the relations of two countries. Sometimes what cannot be done by living persons is done by idols .Both governments and law enforcement agencies of these countries now have become more alert on trafficking of cultural artifacts and are not only working to prevent it but also to send it back to the place of its origin . For some, these artifacts may be measured in monetary terms and could be in millions for them, but for the people of India, it is a part of our culture and heritage that joins us to our past, that joins us to our values .Referring to the Indus Valley civilisation, he said tourists are now flocking to India to see towns dating back 5,000 years.  Indian Ambassador to the US Arun K Singh said on Monday 12 artifacts have been returned and process has begun for the transfer of rest of the treasured artifacts. Items returned included religious statues, bronzes and terra-cotta pieces, some dating back 2,000 years, looted from some of India's most treasured religious sites.  Among the pieces returned is a statue of Saint Manikkavichavakar, a Hindu mystic and poet from the Chola period (circa 850 AD to 1250 AD) stolen from the Sivan Temple in Chennai, which is valued at $1.5 million. Also included in the collection is a bronze sculpture of the Hindu god Ganesh estimated to be 1,000-year-old.  The artifacts that speak about India's astounding history and beautiful culture are beginning their journey home, said US Attorney General Loretta E Lynch.  The majority of the pieces repatriated in the ceremony were seized during Operation Hidden Idol, an investigation that began in 2007 after Homeland Security Investigations (HSI) special agents received a tip about a shipment of seven crates destined for the US manifested as marble garden table sets. Artifacts were also found in the Honolulu Museum and Peabody Essex, who promptly partnered with HSI to surrender illicit cultural property stemming from Kapoor. HSI special agents have executed a series of search warrants targeting Kapoor's New York City gallery, along with warehouses and storage facilities linked to the dealer. 

President Pranab Mukherjee will be presented National Order of the Republic of Ivory Coast, the highest award of the West African country where he will be on a two day visit starting June 14.  It will be the first ever high level visit from India to Ivory Coast. Mukherjee has been invited by Ivory Coast President Alassane Ouattara.  Mukherjee will have one-to-one with Ouattara followed by delegation level talks. The President would also be handed the key to the city of Abidjan, the economic capital of Ivory Coast. India and Cote d'Ivoire enjoy warm and friendly relations sharing common values of democracy, development and secularism. The bilateral relations are marked by mutual respect and understanding on various bilateral and multilateral issues. India and Cote d'Ivoire bilateral trade grew from USD 344.99 million in 2010-11 to USD 841.85 million in 2014-15. Ivory Coast : Ivory Coast is a republic with a strong executive power invested in its President. Through the production of coffee and cocoa, the country was an economic powerhouse in West Africa during the 1960s and 1970s. Ivory Coast went through an economic crisis in the 1980s, contributing to a period of political and social turmoil. Changing into the 21st-century Ivorian economy is largely market-based and still relies heavily on agriculture, with smallholder cash-crop production being dominant.

The Election Commission (EC) has urged the Union Government to amend the electoral law Representation of the People Act (RPA), 1951 to empower it to either postpone or countermand elections if evidence emerges of use of money to influence voters. In this regard, EC has asked Union Government to insert a new clause ‘58 B’ in the RPA, 1951 to allow adjournment or countermanding (declaring invalid) of election on the grounds of use of money power (bribery) in the affected polling areas. The provision would also empower the EC to re-schedule the elections in such areas. At present, Clause 58A of RPA empowers EC to cancel polls only if there is an evidence of use of muscle power or booth-capturing to influence votes to change outcome of elections. However in recent time, candidates and political parties are allegedly doling out cash and giving freebies (gifts) to woo the electorate

Union Home Ministry has decided to form new reserve battalion will be raised and it will be named after Maharana Pratap. It will be called Maharana India Reserve Battalion.  It was announced by Union Home Minister Rajnath Singh on the occasion of 475th birth anniversary of Maharana Pratap in Gogunda in Udaipur district. He also unveiled statue of Maharana Pratap in the ceremony. Maharana Pratap  : He was born in 1540 at Kumbhalgarh Fort, Rajasthan. He was the eldest son of Maharani Jaiwanta Bai and Udai Singh II, founder of Udaipur. He belonged to the Sisodia clan of Rajputs. His reign spanned for 24 years from March 1572 to January 1597.  He was known as a brave warrior, successful organizer and ingenious strategist. He had fearlessly fought the Mughals and protected his people until his death for the honour of their motherland. He died of injuries sustained in a hunting accident at Chavand, which served as his capital, on 29 January 1597, aged fifty-seven.  

Forbes has  released the list of World’s 100 Most Powerful Women of 2016 showing women on 6 June 2016 who impacted businesses, media, philanthropy, politics and more. Four metrics: money (net worth, company revenues or GDP), media presence, spheres of influence, and impact, were analysed to prepare the list. Highlights of the List : The world’s most powerful woman in the list is German Chancellor Angela Merkel who fetched the first spot for the sixth consecutive year.The top three most powerful in the list are politicians: Germany’s Angela Merkel, U.S. presidential candidate Hillary Clinton and Federal Reserve Chair Janet Yellen. Mary Barra, CEO of General Motors, tops the list in the automotive section.Gwynne Shotwell, the President-COO of SpaceX, is the top woman in Construction & Engineering at 76th position. Christine Lagarde, Managing Director of International Monetary Fund, fetched the 6th spot. Diane von Furstenberg, Owner, Fashion Designer, Diane von Furstenberg Studio, L.P., stands at 71th position in the Fashion and Retail category. Oprah Winfrey stands at 21st position in the ranking. Newcomers joining this year’s list include seven world leaders, two philanthropists, five CEOs, two billionaires, one editor-in-chief, two company chairpersons, and three U.S. Supreme Court justices. 20 women are off the list from last year, among them Ellen Pullman, Renee James, Dilma Rousseff, Cristina Kirschner, and Elizabeth Holmes.A host of celebrities, including Ellen Degeneres, Taylor Swift, and Angelina Jolie, came off the list this year. Scottish First Minister Nicola Sturgeon, Nobel Peace Prize winner Aung Sun Suu Kyi, and Taiwanese president Tsai Ing-wen are included in this year’s list.Wellcome Trust chair Eliza Manningham-Buller  and UNESCO director-general Irina Bokova join a host of women who are dedicated to helping solve the world’s problems. Angela Merkel Hillary Clinton Janet Yellen Melinda Gates Mary Barra Christine Lagarde Sheryl Sandberg Susan Wojcicki Meg Whitman Ana Patricia Botín Indian Women in the list : Four Indians have been named in Forbes list including Arundhati Bhattacharya, Chair-Managing Director of State Bank of India (SBI), who stood at 25th position.  Chanda Kochhar, MD and CEO of ICICI Bank, was placed at 40th position. Kiran Mazumdar-Shaw, Founder-chair of Biocon Limited, was placed at 77th position. Shobhana Bhartia, Chair, HT Media, was placed at 93rd position.

Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Akhilesh Yadav has  appointed a judicial commission to probe into the recent Mathura violence hours on 7 June 2016. The Judicial commission will be headed by retired Allahabad High Court judge Justice Mirza Imtiyaz Murtaza. It has been asked to submit its report in two months. The commission was formed after the Supreme Court refused to entertain a plea seeking a CBI probe into the incident. Course of Action for the Judicial Commission : The commission has been mandated to conduct the inquiry on six points of reference. Among other aspects it will find out the reasons because of which such a big incident occurred, the lapses on the part of police and intelligence failure if any.  It will look into the plan and preparedness of district administration and its effectiveness.Meanwhile, the administrative inquiry by Aligarh commissioner has been disbanded. Matura Violence of Uttar Pradesh : Mathura Violence or can be termed as an armed conflict at Jawahar Bagh public park, led to death of at least 24 people including a Superintendent of Police (City) Mukul Dwivedi and SHO Santosh Kumar, started on 2 June 2016. Cause behind the violence : The violence started after the state police on Allahabad High Court’s order tried to evict the group, named as Swadhin Bharat Vidhik Satyagrah, from the Jawahar Bagh (a public park) which was captured by them Since April 2014. The group led by Ram Vriksh Yadav, once a follower of Jai Gurudev, was running a parallel government, with complete administration, revenue and armed forces, within the 200-acre park. Demands of Swadhin Bharat Vidhik Satyagrah : Swadhin Bharat arrived in Mathura from Sagar district of Madhya Pradesh in April 2014. Jawahar Park was a place of halt, when they were heading to Delhi to stage a protest at Jantar Mantar.They stayed in the park after seeking permission to stay in it for a couple of day, but the halt never ended and continued over the time. They had several irrational demands like It was seeking a complete overhaul of the British-inspired political system. It demanded annulling the election of the President and Prime Minister. Replacement of the current Indian currency by Indian National Army currency (Azad Hind Bank currency).Sale of 40-60 litres of fuel for a rupee  

Tintu Luka, the Rio Olympics-bound Indian track and field athlete, on 7 June 2016 won a silver medal in 800 meters in the Josef Odlozil Memorial Athletics Meet in Prague, Czech Republic.To win the medal, she covered the distance with her season's best timing of 2:00.61 (2 minutes point Six One seconds). The reigning Asian champion was second behind 2013 World Youth Championship gold winner Anita Hinriksdottir of Iceland who ran the distance in 2:00.54 (2 minutes point five four seconds). 27-year-old Luka is still a long way to go as she is placed at 30th spot among the season's top list. Former world champion and London Olympics silver medallist Caster Semenya of South Africa is leading with 1:56.64 (1 minute, 56.six Four seconds). Semenya is followed by world indoor champion Francine Niyonsaba of Burundi with 1:56.92 (1 minute, 56.92 seconds) and Renelle Lamote of France with 1:58.01 (1 minute, 58.01 second). The Kerala runner, Luka holds the national record of 1:59.17 (1 minute, 59.17 second) which she did way back in 2010 at Continental Cup, Croatia. She qualified for Rio Olympics during the World Championships in Beijing in 2015.  

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) on 7 June 2016 approved 1.5 billion US dollar loan to Sri Lanka. IMF has already transferred 168 million US dollars as the first Instalment with immediate effect to support the country’s economy. The Executive Board of the IMF accepted this 36-month extended arrangement under its Extended Fund Facility (EFF) with Sri Lanka under special drawing rights. Highlights : An early disbursement of about 168.1 million US dollars will be made immediately. The remaining amount will be settled in six installments on quarterly reviews.There will be an additional 650 million US dollars support in other multilateral and bilateral loans, bringing total support to about 2.2 billion US dollars. This funding is aimed at : Meeting balance of payments needs arising from external environment and pressures.Raising revenue through new taxes Financing the additional budget spending To achieve the above laid objectives, IMF will envisage implementation of a set of reforms under following six pillars : Fiscal consolidation, Revenue mobilization,Public financial management reform, State enterprise reform,Transition to flexible inflation targeting under a flexible exchange rate regime,Reforms in the trade and investment regime Sri Lanka has an IMF quota of 578.8 million SDR. It became a member of the IMF on 29 August 1950.

The Minister of Road Transport & Highways and Shipping Shri Nitin Gadkari launched the TCI IIM Calcutta joint study report on the operational efficiency of freight transportation by road in India in New Delhi.The report is based on a study commissioned by the Transport Corporation of India (TCI), of 28 routes in the country over the period 2014-15. According to the report, the average journey time and vehicle speed have improved across all the major routes,more needs to be done to reduce stoppage delays as this not only leads to wastage of time but also raises fuel consumption cost.  Besides improving the toll collection infrastructure, the number of stops for various other purpose, such as documentation check and tax collection at state borders/check posts and on-road police intervention, should be minimized and the process of document checking and tax collection simplified to facilitate a smooth and seamless flow of goods across the country. 

The Nuclear Power Corporation of India (NPCIL) and the US firm Westinghouse have agreed to begin engineering work for six nuclear power plant reactors in India. The engineering and site design work will begin immediately and the two sides will work toward finalizing the contractual arrangements by June 2017.  The decision has been taken in this regards during the visit of PM Modi to the United States. As per the joint statement released by Mr. Modi and Mr. Obama, Once the project will complete, it would be among the largest of its kind. These nuclear reactors would bring clean energy to India and generate thousands of jobs and will also help to fullfill the promise of the US-India civil nuclear agreement and demonstrating a shared commitment to meet India's growing energy needs while reducing reliance on fossil fuels. The two leaders also noted the intention of India and the US Export-Import Bank to work together toward a competitive financing package for the project.

Eminent Indian-origin professor Lord Kumar Bhattacharyya has been awarded the prestigious Regius Professorship in Manufacturing by Queen Elizabeth II for his outstanding contribution in manufacturing.  Through his career, he has advised the UK government on manufacturing, innovation, and technology. He is an IIT-Kharagpur alumnus. Bhattacharyya has founded Warwick Manufacturing Group (WMG), at the University of Warwick in 1980 to invigorate UK manufacturing.  Warwick Manufacturing Group (WMG) has been granted the Regius Professorship for its academic research which has contributed to driving growth and improving productivity. The award falls under the Royal Prerogative, with each appointment being approved by the Queen upon Ministerial advice. Sushanta Kumar Bhattacharyya : Sushanta Kumar Bhattacharyya, Baron Bhattacharyya, Kt. CBE FREng FRS (born 6 June 1940) is an Indian British engineer, educator and government advisor. In 1980 he became Professor of Manufacturing Systems at the University of Warwick and founded the Warwick Manufacturing Group. In 2004 he was made a life peer and became a member of the House of Lords.

American multinational retail corporation, Walmart is topped the Fortune 500 list for the 4th consecutive year.Rounding out the top 10 in the 62nd annual rankings, based on total revenues for their fiscal years: ExxonMobil, Apple, Berkshire Hathaway, McKesson, UnitedHealth Group, CVS Health,General Motors, Ford Motor and AT&T. Apple, which was the most profitable company on the list, with $53 billion in profits, was among companies making big moves this year, jumping to No. 3 from No. 5 last year.  Other movers in the top 25 included (No. 18) and Walgreens (No. 19), which moved into the top 20 from No. 29 and No. 35 last year. And Microsoft (No. 25) made the top 25 for the first time, up from No. 31 last year. Facebook jumped 85 spots to No. 157, while Netflix leaped 95 spots to No. 379 (from No. 474) and Expedia moved 73 to No. 385.  More than half of Fortune 500 companies saw sales drop, including No. 1 Walmart, which had a sales decline of 0.7% in 2015. For the entire list, revenues were down 4.2% from 2015.

Amber Gurung, the legendary Nepali musician and composer of the country's national anthem, died on 7 June 2016. He was 78. He was suffering from diabetes and Parkinson's disease. He was cremated in Kathmandu with full state honours, which was attended by Deputy Prime Minister and Defence Minister Bhim Rawal. A contingent of the Nepal Army offered a final salute. Amber Gurung : Born and raised in Darjeeling, Gurung, composed more than 1000 songs including many era-defining numbers during his long career spanning four decades.Gurung composed the Nepali national anthem (in 2007) 'Sayau Thunga phoolkaa haamee', which was written by Byakul Maila.He served the musical sector for more than four decades after shifting to Nepal in 1969 at the invitation of King Mahendra. He was invited to Nepal to lead the music department at the Nepal Academy of Arts and Literature. Some of his composition along with the National Anthem of Nepal includes Nau Lakhe Tara and Rato Ra Chandra Surya.Gurung, who was also a lyricist and singer, also authored three books of lyrics and memoirs--Samaalera Raakha (1969), Akcharkaa Awajharu (2003), and an anthology of essays and memoirs, Kahaa Gae Ti Dinharu (2006). Awards felicitated on him include Hon. Colonel of Nepal Army for composing "Rato ra chandra Surya" (2011) Uttam Shanti Shahitya Puraskar (2007) Kantipur FM Lifetime Achievement Award (2006) Hits FM Lifetime Achievement Award (2001)  Madhurima Phulkumar Mahato Puraskar, Kathmandu (2000) Jagadamba Shree, Kathmandu (1998) Giri Puraskar, Darjeeling, India (1994) Golden Flute Award (CEDOS), Sikkim, India (1993) Indra Rajya Laxmi Pragya Puraskar, Kathmandu (1987) Chinalata Puraskar, Kathmandu (1983)

Shahid Rasool, a communication technology specialist, on 7 June 2016 took charge as the Director of the Commonwealth Educational Media Centre for Asia (CEMCA). Rasool will guide CEMCA in its mission to ensure effective utilisation of educational media resources for distance education.He was earlier the Director of the Educational Multimedia Research Centre, University of Kashmir. He earned his MS Degree in Communication Technology from Syracuse University and has a doctorate in mass communication and journalism from the University of Kashmir. Commonwealth Educational Media Centre for Asia (CEMCA) : CEMCA is an arm of the Vancouver-based Commonwealth of Learning (COL).Headquartered in New Delhi, CEMCA was set up in 1994 in response to calls by Asian Commonwealth countries for a greater focus on distance education.CEMCA was established as a regional centre to promote meaningful, relevant and appropriate use of Media and Technology to serve the educational and training needs of the Commonwealth Member States of Asia. CEMCA works in eight Commonwealth Countries of Asia including India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Maldives, Brunei Darussalam, Malaysia and Singapore.

European Court of Justice has ruled that non-EU (European Union) migrants who illegally entered an EU member state should not face detention on 7 June 2016. In its direction it said, under the Europe's 2008 Return Directive, the migrants staying illegally should be returned back to the country from which they came from. It said that the ruling applies to migrants crossing borders within the Schengen passport-free zone and on leaving the zone. The ruling came into effect in the case of a Ghanaian woman migrant, Selina Affum. On 22 March 2013, she was found using false Belgian travel documents by French police at the entrance to the Channel Tunnel. At that time, she was on a bus from Ghent, Belgium to London, United Kingdom. Later, the French police placed her in police custody on grounds of illegal entry into French territory. Affum argued that her detention was illegal, in light of the EU's Return Directive. Affum’s case was referred to the European Court of Justice, the EU's highest court, by the French court of Cassation. 2008 Return Directive : Under the policy, the migrant is asked to voluntarily leave the Union within 30 days. After which, the removal should not involve excessive force or place the person’s life in danger. Its calls on authorities to take into consideration the best interests of children, family life, and the state of health of the third-country national concerned of the illegal migrants. It prevents a national of a non-EU country who has not yet been subject to the return procedure being imprisoned solely because he or she has entered the territory of a Member State illegally across an internal border of the Schengen area. This was also the case when the migrant is intercepted when leaving the Schengen area.  

Union Power Minister Piyush Goyal launched Surya Mitra mobile App at National Workshop on Rooftop Solar Power in New Delhi on 7 June 2016. The App will be very useful in the field of Renewable energy to serve customers at their doorsteps with quality installation, repair, and Observations and Measurements (O&M) services. Surya Mitra Mobile App : The Mobile App was developed by National Institute of Solar Energy (NISE) which is an autonomous institution of Ministry of New & Renewable Energy (MNRE). It is a high end technology platform that can handle thousands of calls simultaneously and can efficiently monitor all visits of Suryamitra’s. The trained Suryamitra’s who opts for entrepreneurship have joined in the Mobile App in several states.These Suryamitras are once again sensitized by NISE on soft skills Customer Relations Management, Punctuality and are now ready to deliver the services.    Uses of Surya Mitra App : This innovative mobile approach shall enhance the employment of trained youth in solar PV technology. It also improve the businesses of solar entrepreneurs because of quality servicing, maintenance and repairing professionals are now available to customers at the click of a button on their mobiles. The App can be utilized to maintain off grid Solar PV system to keep it in good condition. It would come handy with respect to O & M, Repair and maintenance of solar pumps.It will be very useful to maintain the existing solar water heater systems that are already installed in various states and to install new systems properly. Suryamitra initiative :  It is skill development program of the Union Government to create skilled manpower in installation, commissioning, and Operation & Maintenance of solar power plants and equipment.The objective is to provide employability and entrepreneurship to rural and urban youth & women.MNRE set a target of 50000 Suryamitras of skilled manpower in solar energy sector in next 3 years. It is funded completely by Union Government and is a residential program that is implemented by NISE across India. National Institute of Solar Energy (NISE) :  It is an autonomous institution of Ministry of New and Renewable (MNRE). It is the apex National R&D institution in the field Solar Energy.The institute is involved in demonstration, standardization, interactive research, training and testing of solar energy technologies and systems.  

The International Hockey Federation (FIH) has announced that men’s Hockey Junior World Cup 2016 will be played in the Indian city of Lucknow  on 7 June 2016 , Uttar Pradesh.The men’s Hockey Junior World Cup 2016 will be played between 8 December and 18 December 2016. The event will feature 16 of the world’s best junior men’s teams. The qualified teams are Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Egypt, England, Germany, India, Japan, Korea, Netherlands, South Africa, New Zealand, Pakistan and Spain. The women’s Hockey Junior World Cup will take place in Santiago, Chile between 24 November 2016 and 4 December 2016 Hockey Junior World Cup : The Hockey Junior World Cup is an international field hockey competition organised by the International Hockey Federation. The tournament was started in 1979.Since 1985, it has been held every four years.Competitors must be under the age of 21 as of 31 December in the year before the tournament is held.Germany is the most successful team, having won the tournament six times.Argentina, Australia, India and Pakistan have each won the tournament once.

India has managed to win crucial support from Switzerland for Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) membership. In this regard, Swiss President Johann Schneider-Ammann has announced his country’s support for India’s membership to the elite NSG. India was able to gain support of Switzerland after Prime Minister Narendra Modi held comprehensive talks with Swiss counterparts during his official state visit. This major diplomatic push for India’s NSG membership comes at the time when the group at its plenary meetings to be held on 9th June 2016 in Vienna and 24th June 2016 in Seoul is going to take India’s application for discussion. Switzerland is a key member of the elite NSG and its support for India’s bid for membership is seen as crucial in the backdrop of China’s stiff opposition.  China is opposing India’s bid to membership to NSG on the need for consensus as it is not a signatory to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). The NSG works under the principle of unanimity and even one country’s vote against India may scuttle its bid. So far, US, Japan and many other member countries of NSG have strongly supported India’s inclusion in the elite group based on its non-proliferation track record. Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG)  : NSG is a multinational body concerned with reducing nuclear proliferation by controlling the export and re-transfer of materials that may be used for development of nuclear weapons. It was set up in 1974 as a reaction to India’s first successful nuclear tests (code name Smiling Buddha conducted on 18 May 1974) to stop so called misuse of nuclear material meant for peaceful purposes. Currently, NSG has 48 members.

The World Oceans Day was observed globally on 8 June 2016 with the theme Healthy oceans, healthy planet. The main focus of this year's theme is on curbing the plastic pollution. Plastic pollution is a serious threat because it degrades very slowly, polluting waterways for a very long time. In addition, plastic pollution impacts the health of aquatic animals because animals including zooplankton mistake the microbeads for food. Scientists also fear health impacts for humans. The United Nations celebrated World Oceans Day 2016 by recognizing the winners of the Annual World Oceans Day Oceanic Photo Competition at an event at the United Nations Headquarters.  World Oceans Day celebrated :  To remind everyone of the major role the oceans have in everyday life. They are the lungs of our planet, providing most of the oxygen we breathe.To inform the public of the impact of human actions on the ocean.To develop a worldwide movement of citizens for the ocean.To mobilize and unite the world’s population on a project for the sustainable management of the world's oceans. They are a major source of food and medicines and a critical part of the biosphere.To celebrate together the beauty, the wealth and the promise of the ocean. In 2008, the United Nations General Assembly through its resolution 63/111decided that, as from 2009, 8 June would be designated by the United Nations as the World Oceans Day. Many countries began celebrating World Oceans Day following the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, which was held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992.  

Viktor Korchnoi, regarded as one the greatest chess players, passed away on 6 June 2016 in Wohlen, Switzerland.  He was 85. Korchnoi played in three matches that produced the World Champion, but in each case lost to Anatoly Karpov. It made Korchnoi the strongest player never to have won the title. Viktor Korchnoi : Viktor Korchnoi was a professional chess grandmaster and author. He was born in Leningrad, and learned chess from his father at the age of six. He is considered one of the strongest players never to have become World Chess Champion. He defected to the Netherlands in 1976 and later resided in Switzerland for many years. He was a candidate for the World Championship on ten occasions.He was also a four-time USSR chess champion, a five-time member of Soviet teams that won the European championship, and a six-time member of Soviet teams that won the Chess Olympiad.In September 2006, he won the World Senior Chess Championship.

Scientists of the University of Sheffield identified the process of removal of DNA molecules from the iconic double-helical structure. Scientists were trying to unlock the mystery for over 20 years. The research was published on 6 June 2016 in a Journal, Nature Structural & Molecular Biology. The new research has unlocked a crucial part of the mystery as to how the human DNA can replicate and repair itself. It is essential for all life forms. Jon Sayers, the Professor of Functional Genomics at the University of Sheffield is the lead author of the study. Main findings of the research : The Branched DNA was identified in many episodes of the X-Files as Agent Scully suspects aliens inserted it in the blood. This branched DNA is formed every day in human bodies. It happens every time our cells divide.These branches are essential intermediates formed during the process of copying human DNA.The research team had captured snapshots of the molecular events in incredible detail and which were never seen before. They show how Flap EndoNuclease enzymes (FENs) trim branched DNA molecules after cells have divided.They found the FEN threads the free end of the branch through a hole in the enzyme before sliding along to the trunk. It acts like a pair of molecular secateurs, trimming the branch and restoring the iconic double-helix. The team used the Diamond Light Source called the UK's synchrotron which works like a giant microscope for their discovery.It harnesses the power of electrons to produce bright X-ray light which can used by the scientists to study to a vast range  from fossils and jet engines to viruses and vaccines. DNA replication is essential for all life forms, so it is important to understand its performance at the level of molecule. It can provide the indepth information of the most basic cellular processes which are common to all life.