Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), India, established in 1942, is an autonomous Society with the Prime Minister of India as its President. An ensemble of 37 state-of-the-art institutes and 3 distinct units, CSIR is amongst the foremost scientific and industrial research organizations in the world. CSIR's expertise and experience are embodied in its ~4600 scientists, ~8000 scientific and technical support personnel and ~8000 research students. Having sophisticated infrastructure and scientific and technical manpower, CSIR covers practically the entire spectrum of scientific and industrial R&D of national and international importance. This ranges from aerospace to ocean exploration, micro-electronics to structural and environmental engineering, smart affordable materials to mechatronics, petrochemicals to synthetic biology, and from robotics and micro machines to drugs, pharmaceuticals and energy technology.