CBSE 12TH 2018. Latest Updates, Notifications March 2018

CBSE 12TH 2018 latest important updates with clear and detailed information are provided here. Candidates can check all essential details of CBSE 12TH 2018 instantly here. Through this CBSE 12TH schedule, candidates can make the strategy for the Preparation of exam. Direct Official Link for each recent Updates on CBSE 12TH is Provided in this Page. Find recent news of CBSE 12TH 2018 verified on March 19, 2018.

Last modified:19-03-2018

Check CBSE 12th Exam live updates here.CBSE 12th Exam Syllabus and pattern are provided in this article.CBSE 12th Exam is conducted by Central Board of Secondary Education.Follow the article for instant updates.

CBSE Class 12th 2018 Admit Card Released:

CBSE Class 12th Exam Admit Cards 2018 have been released by the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) on its official website - Regular as well as Private candidate's Admit Cards are available online. CBSE Board Exams 2018 for Class 10th and Class 12th are slated to begin on 5th March 2018 and students can access important information like details of their Examination Centre, Roll Number and important instructions from the Admit Cards.

Download the CBSE Class 12th 2018 Admit Card - Regular Candidates | Private Candidates

CBSE Class 12th 2018 Time Table:

Central Board of Secondary Education, CBSE finally released the class 10th and 12th date sheet for 2018 board examinations. The examinations for the class 10th finish on April 4, 2018, and those of class 12 end on April 12 with Home Science paper.

Check the CBSE Class XII 2018 Time Table

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CBSE Class 12th Practical Exams In January 2018; Theory Exam Date Sheet Awaited:

Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) has begun the process of Class 12th board examinations with the release of exam schedule for practical exams. CBSE Class 12th Practical examinations will begin in January 2018 and may continue till February 2018. Schools have been asked to upload the marks of the students by February, 2018.

CBSE Class 12th board examination comprises of internal or practical exam and external or theory exam. For theory subjects candidates have to obtain 33% marks in order to qualify; however for those subjects which have theory and practical examinations, candidates have to obtain 33% marks in both the exams to qualify; this norm is applicable for senior school certificate exam.

For last academic session, the CBSE Board had released the 10th, 12th Board Examination time table on 9 January 2017. This year, the Board will finalise the exam dates only after the election dates are released for few States.

About CBSE - Exam Overview

The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) (केंद्रीय  माध्यमिक  शिक्षा  बोर्ड) is a school-level Educational Board at all India level under the Central Government. Besides CBSE there are two other all India level school boards and a number of state level boards.CBSE affiliates all Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas (JNV), all Kendriya Vidyalayas (KV), Private Schools, all the schools in the NCT of Delhi and Foreign Schools. The board conducts final examinations for All India Senior School Certificate Examination (AISSCE) for Class X.Every year CBSE conducts the final examinations for Class 10 and Class 12 in the month of March. The results are announced by the end of May. The X results mainly will decide the students to start their career decision towards medical or engineering.The major subjects students want to concentrate is Maths and Science.By Understanding the better concepts students can achieve better results.

Check the official CBSE 12th Exam updates here.

Exam Dates - CBSE 12th Class

The dates for each subject and with their subject code are tabulated below for candidate's verification.
Subjects Code Date
CBSE Board Practicals  Dates, Depending upon the subjects - Second and third week of February 2017
English Elective
English Elective – C
English Core
March 2, 2017
Physics 042 March 9, 2017
Chemistry 043 March 12, 2017
Hindi Elective 002 March 14, 2017
Mathematics 041 March 18,2017
Biology 044 March 23, 2017
Information Practices
Computer Science
March 27, 2017
Physical Education 048 March 30, 2017


The Accountancy subject mainly deals with mathematics and financial subject whereas the topics are mentioned below.

Course Structure of CBSE 12th Accountancy

The course structure of Accountancy is prescribed below for the candidate's verification.

The Accountancy subject deals with the Commerce group students. Here the detailed Syllabus is prescribed below.

Units Chapters Marks
Part A Accounting for Partnership Firms and Companies 35
  Unit 1. Accounting for Partnership Firms 25
  Unit 2. Accounting for Companies -
Part B Financial Statement Analysis -
  Unit 3. Analysis of Financial Statements 12
  Unit 4. Cash Flow Statement 8
Part C Project Work 20
Part B Computerized Accounting -
  Unit 3. Computerized Accounting 20
Part C Practical Work 20

Part A: Accounting for Partnership Firms and Companies

Unit 1: Accounting for Partnership Firms

  • Partnership: features, Partnership Deed.
  • Provisions of the Indian Partnership Act 1932 in the absence of partnership deed.
  • Fixed v/s fluctuating capital accounts.Preparation of Profit and Loss Appropriation account- a division of profit among partners, a guarantee of profits.
  • Past adjustments (relating to interest on capital, interest on drawing, salary and profit sharing ratio).
  • Goodwill: nature, factors affecting and methods of valuation - average profit, super profit, and capitalization.

Accounting for Partnership firms - Reconstitution and Dissolution

  • Change in the Profit Sharing Ratio among the existing partners - sacrificing ratio, gaining ratio, accounting for revaluation of assets and reassessment of liabilities and treatment of reserves and accumulated profits. Preparation of revaluation account and balance sheet.
  • Admission of a partner - the effect of the admission of a partner on the change in the profit sharing ratio, treatment of goodwill (as per AS 26), treatment for revaluation of assets and reassessment of liabilities, treatment of reserves and accumulated profits, adjustment of capital accounts and preparation of balance sheet.
  • Retirement and death of a partner: Effect of retirement/death of a partner on the change in profit sharing ratio, treatment of goodwill (as per AS 26), treatment for revaluation of assets and reassessment of liabilities, adjustment of accumulated profits and reserves, adjustment of capital accounts and preparation of balance sheet. Preparation of loan account of the retiring partner.
    Calculation of deceased partner's share of profit till the date of death. Preparation of deceased partner's capital account, executor's account and preparation of balance sheet.
  • Dissolution of a partnership: types of dissolution of a firm. Settlement of accounts -preparation of realization account, and other related accounts: capital accounts of partners and cash/bank a/c (excluding piecemeal distribution, sale to a company and insolvency of partners.

Unit-2 Accounting for Companies
Accounting for Share Capital :

  • Share and share capital: nature and types.
  • Accounting for share capital: issue and allotment of equity shares, private placement of shares, Employee Stock Option Plan (ESOP). Public subscription of shares - over subscription and under subscription of shares; issued at par and at a premium, calls in advance and arrears (excluding interest), issue of shares for consideration other than cash.
  • Accounting treatment of forfeiture and re-issue of shares.
  • Disclosure of share capital in company's Balance Sheet.
Accounting for Debentures
  • Debentures: Issue of debentures at par, at a premium and at a discount. The issue of debentures for consideration other than cash; Issue of debentures with terms of redemption; debentures as collateral security-concept, interest on debentures.
  • Redemption of debentures: Lump sum, the draw of lots and purchase in the open market (excluding ex-interest and cum-interest). Creation of 
  • Debenture Redemption Reserve. 

Part B: Financial Statement Analysis

Unit 3: Analysis of Financial Statements

  • Financial statements of a company: Statement of Profit and Loss and Balance Sheet in the prescribed form with major headings and subheadings (as per Schedule III to the Companies Act, 2013).
  • Financial Statement Analysis: Objectives, importance, and limitations.
  • Tools for Financial Statement Analysis: Comparative statements, common size statements, cash flow analysis, ratio analysis.
  • Accounting Ratios: Objectives, classification, and computation.
  • Liquidity Ratios: Current ratio and Quick ratio.
  • Solvency Ratios: Debt to Equity Ratio, Total Asset to Debt Ratio, Proprietary Ratio and Interest Coverage Ratio.
  • Activity Ratios: Inventory Turnover Ratio, Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio, Trade Payables Turnover Ratio and Working Capital Turnover Ratio.
  • Profitability Ratios: Gross Profit Ratio, Operating Ratio, Operating Profit Ratio, Net Profit Ratio and Return on Investment.

Unit 4: Cash Flow Statement
Meaning, objectives, and preparation (as per AS 3 (Revised) (Indirect Method only)
Part B: Computerised Accounting

Unit 3: Computerised Accounting

  • Overview of Computerised Accounting System
  • Introduction: Application in Accounting.
  • Features of Computerised Accounting System.
  • Structure of CAS.
  • Software Packages: Generic; Specific; Tailored.

Accounting Application of Electronic Spreadsheet

  • The concept of an electronic spreadsheet.
  • Features offered by an electronic spreadsheet.
  • Application in generating accounting information - bank reconciliation statement; asset accounting; loan
  • Repayment of loan schedule, ratio analysis
  • Data representation - graphs, charts and diagrams.

Using Computerized Accounting System

  • Steps in the installation of CAS, codification, and Hierarchy of account heads, the creation of accounts.
  • Data: Entry, validation and verification.
  • Adjusting entries, preparation of balance sheet, profit and loss account with closing entries and opening entries. Need and security features of the system.

Database Management System (DBMS)

  • Concept and Features of DBMS.
  • DBMS in Business Application.
  • Generating Accounting Information. -
  • Payroll.
Download your CBSE 12th Class Accountancy Syllabus.


The biology subject deals with the science related units and the course structure is mentioned below.

Course Structure of CBSE 12th Biology

The course structure of CBSE 12th Biology is prescribed below for candidate's verification.
Unit Title Marks
VI Reproduction 14
VII Genetics and Evolution 18
VIII Biology and Human Welfare 14
IX Biotechnology and its Applications 10
X Ecology and Environment 14
  Total 70

The Biology subject is the main subject for the science group students.Here is the brief syllabus of Biology

Unit VI. Reproduction

Chapter-1: Reproduction in Organisms

Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for the continuation of species; Asexual reproduction Modes of reproduction-Asexual and sexual reproduction; Modes-Binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants.

Chapter-2: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

Flower structure; Development of male and female gametophytes; Pollination-types, agencies, and examples; Outbreeding devices; Pollen-Pistil interaction; Double fertilization; Post fertilization events-Development of endosperm and embryo, Development of seed and formation of fruit; Special modes-apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed and fruit formation.

Chapter-3: Human Reproduction
Male and female reproductive systems; Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; Gametogenesis-spermatogenesis & oogenesis; Menstrual cycle; Fertilisation embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; Pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea); Parturition (Elementary idea); Lactation (Elementary idea).

Chapter 4Reproductive Health
Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STD); Birth control – Need and Methods, Contraception and Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP); Amniocentesis; Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies - IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (Elementary idea for general awareness).

Unit VII. Genetics and Evolution
Chapter-5: Principles of Inheritance and Variation

Mendelian Inheritance; Deviations from Mendelism-Incomplete dominance, Co-dominance, Multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups, Pleiotropy; Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; Chromosome theory of inheritance; Chromosomes and genes; Sex determination - in humans, birds, honey bee; Linkage and crossing over; Sex linked inheritance - Haemophilia, Colour blindness; Mendelian disorder in humans-Thalassemia; Chromosomal disorders in humans; Down's syndrome, Turner's and Klinefelter's syndromes.

Chapter-6: Molecular Basis of Inheritance
Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central dogma; Transcription, genetic code, translation; Gene expression and regulation - Lac Operon; Genome and human genome project; DNA fingerprinting.

Chapter-7: Evolution

Origin of life; Biological evolution and evidence for biological evolution (Paleontological, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence); Darwin's contribution, Modern Synthetic theory of Evolution; Mechanism of evolution - Variation (Mutation and Recombination) and Natural Selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy - Weinberg's principle; Adaptive Radiation; Human evolution.

Unit VIII. Biology and Human Welfare
Chapter-8: Human Health and Diseases

Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis, Typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm); Basic concepts of immunology - vaccines; Cancer, HIV and AIDs; Adolescence, drug and alcohol abuse.
Chapter-9: Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
Improvement in food production: Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein, Biofortification, Apiculture and Animal husbandry.
Chapter-10: Microbes in Human Welfare
In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers. Antibiotics; production and judicious use.
Unit IX. Biotechnology and Its Applications
Chapter-11: Biotechnology - Principles and Processes

Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology).
Chapter-12: Biotechnology and its Application
Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, gene therapy; Genetically modified organisms-Bt crops; Transgenic Animals; biosafety issues, biopiracy, and patents.

Download your official CBSE 12th Class Biology syllabus 

Business Studies

The Business Studies is the important subject for the Commerce Students.Here is the course structure are mentioned below.

Course structure of CBSE 12th Business Studies

The course structure of Business Studies is specified below. The pattern is mentioned below. Units Marks
Part A Principles and Functions of Management   -
1 Nature and Significance of Management 16
2 Principles of Management
3 Business Environment
4 Planning 14
5 Organizing
6 Staffing 20
7 Directing
8 Controlling
Part B Business Finance and Marketing  
9 Financial Management 15
10 Financial Markets
11 Marketing Management 15
12 Consumer Protection
Part C Project Work 20
  Total 100

CBSE 12th Syllabus for Business Studies

Part A: Principles and Functions of Management

  • Unit I: Nature and Significance of Management

  • Management - concept, objectives, and importance
  • Management as Science, Art, and Profession
  • Levels of management
  • Management functions - planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling
    Coordination - concept, characteristics, and importance.

Unit 2: Principles of Management

  • Principles of Management - concept, nature, and significance
  • Fayol’s principles of management
  • Taylor’s Scientific Management - principles and techniques.
Unit 3: Management and Business Environment
  • Business Environment - concept and importance
  • Dimensions of Business Environment - Economic, Social, Technological, Political and Legal
  • Impact of Government policy changes on business with special reference to liberalization, privatization, and globalization in India.

Unit 4: Planning

  • Concept, importance, and limitations
  • Planning process
  • Single use and Standing Plans - Objectives, Strategy, Policy, Procedure, Method, Rule, Budget and Programme.

Unit 5: Organising

  • Concept and importance.
  • Organizing Process.
  • Structure of organization - functional and divisional.
  • Formal and informal organization.
  • Delegation: concept, elements and importance.
  • Decentralization: concept and importance.

Unit 6: Staffing

  • Concept and importance of staffing
  • Staffing as a part of Human Resource Management
  • Staffing process: Recruitment - sources; Selection - process
  • Training and Development - Concept and importance. Methods of training- on the job and off the job- Induction training, vestibule training, apprenticeship training and internship training.

Unit 7: Directing

  • Concept and importance
  • Elements of Directing: - Supervision - concept, functions of a supervisor.; - Motivation - Concept, Maslow’s hierarchy of needs; Financial and non-financial incentives.; - Leadership - concept, styles - authoritative, democratic and laissez faire.; - Communication - concept, formal and informal communication; barriers to effective; communication, how to overcome the barriers.

Unit 8: Controlling

  • Concept, nature, and importance
  • Relationship between planning and controlling
  • Steps in the process of control.

Part B: Business Finance and Marketing

Unit 9: Financial Management

  • Concept and objectives of financial management.
  • Financial decisions: investment, financing and dividend and factors affecting.
  • Financial planning - concept and importance.
  • Capital Structure - concept and factors affecting.
  • Fixed and Working Capital - concept and factors affecting their requirements.
Unit 10: Financial Markets.
  • Financial Markets: concept and types.
  • Money market and its instruments.
  • Capital market and its types (primary and secondary).
  • Stock Exchange - functions and training procedure. Depository Services and D'mat Account.

Unit 11: Marketing Management

  • Marketing - concept, and functions.
  • Marketing management philosophies.
  • Marketing Mix - concept
  • Product - concept, branding, labeling, and packaging. Price - factors determining the price.
  • Physical distribution- concept, channels of distribution: types, choice of channels.
  • Promotion -concept, and elements; advertising- concept, role, objections against advertising, personal selling - concept and qualities of a good salesman, sales promotion - concept and techniques, public relations - concept and role.

Unit 12: Consumer Protection

  • Concept and importance of consumer protection.
  • Consumer Protection Act 1986
  • Meaning of consumer and consumer protection.
  • Rights and responsibilities of consumers
  • Who can file a complaint and against whom?
  • Redressal machinery.
  • Remedies available.
  • Consumer awareness - Role of consumer organizations and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs).
 Download your official CBSE 12th Class Business Studies Syllabus.


Chemistry is an important scoring subject in the science. The course structure is mentioned below.

Course structure of CBSE 12th Chemistry

The course structure of chemistry is prescribed below

Unit Title Marks
I Solid State 23
II Solutions
III Electrochemistry
IV Chemical Kinetics
V Surface Chemistry
VI Isolation of Elements 19
VII p-Block Elements
VIII d- and f-Block Elements
IX Coordination Compounds
X Haloalkanes and Haloarenes 28
XI Alcohols, Phenols, and Ethers
XII Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
XIII Organic Compounds containing Nitrogen
XIV Biomolecules
XV Polymers
XVI Chemistry in Everyday Life
  Total 70

CBSE 12th Class Syllabus for Chemistry

Unit I: Solid State

Classification of solids based on different binding forces: molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea). Unit cell in two-dimensional and three-dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, packing efficiency, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties.Band theory of metals, conductors, semiconductors, and insulators and n & p type semiconductors.
Unit II: Solutions
Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties - relative lowering of vapour pressure, Raoult's law, elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties, abnormal molecular mass, vant Hoff factor.

Unit III: Electrochemistry

Redox reactions, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity, variations of conductivity with concentration, Kohlrausch's Law, electrolysis and law of electrolysis (elementary idea), dry cell -electrolytic cells and Galvanic cells, lead accumulator, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells, Relation between Gibbs energy change and emf of a cell, fuel cells, corrosion.

Unit IV: Chemical Kinetics
Rate of a reaction (Average and instantaneous), factors affecting rate of reaction: concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction, rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half life (only for zero and first order reactions), concept of collision theory (elementary idea, no mathematical treatment). Activation energy, Arrhenius equation.

Unit V: Surface Chemistry
Adsorption - physisorption and chemisorption, factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids, catalysis, homogeneous and heterogeneous activity and selectivity; enzyme catalysis colloidal state distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspensions; lyophilic , lyophobic multimolecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation, emulsion - types of emulsions.

Unit VI: General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements

Principles and methods of extraction - concentration, oxidation, reduction -electrolytic method and refining; occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminum, copper, zinc, and iron.

Unit VII: p - Block Elements
Group 15 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties; nitrogen preparation properties & uses ; compounds of nitrogen, preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid, oxides of nitrogen (Structure only) ; Phosphorus - allotropic forms, compounds of phosphorous: preparation and properties of phosphine, halides PCl3 , PCl5 and oxoacids (elementary idea only).
Group 16 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties,dioxygen: Preparation, Properties and uses, classification of oxides, Ozone, Sulphur -allotropic forms; compounds of sulphur: Preparation properties and uses of sulphur-dioxide, sulphuric acid: industrial process of manufacture, properties and uses; oxoacids of sulphur (Structures only).
Group 17 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens, Preparation properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds, oxoacids of halogens (structures only).
Group 18 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, uses.
Unit VIII: d and f Block Elements
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition metals, general trends in properties of the first-row transition metals - metallic character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, color, catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation, preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4.
Unit IX: Coordination Compounds
Coordination compounds - Introduction, ligands, coordination number, color, magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds. Bonding, Werner's theory, VBT, and CFT; structure and stereoisomerism, the importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative inclusion, extraction of metals and biological system).
Unit X: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes

  • Haloalkanes: Nomenclature, nature of the C-X bond, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of substitution reactions, optical rotation.
  • Haloarenes: Nature of C -X bond, substitution reactions (Directive influence of halogen in monosubstituted compounds only.
  • Uses and environmental effects of - dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, iodoform freons, DDT.

Unit XI: Alcohols, Phenols, and Ethers

  • Alcohols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties( of primary alcohols only), identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols, mechanism of dehydration, uses with special reference to methanol and ethanol.
  • Phenols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophilic substitution reactions, uses of phenols.
  • Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses.
Unit XII: Aldehydes, Ketones, and Carboxylic Acids
  • Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of nucleophilic addition, the reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes: uses.
  • Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; uses.

Unit XIII: Organic compounds containing Nitrogen

  • Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses, identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines.
  • Cyanides and Isocyanides - will be mentioned at relevant places in context.
  • Diazonium salts: Preparation, chemical reactions, and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.

Unit XIV: Biomolecules

  • Carbohydrates - Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccharides (glucose and fructose), D-L configuration oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen) importance.
  • Proteins - Elementary idea of α - amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, the structure of proteins - primary, secondary, tertiary structure and quaternary structures (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes. Hormones - Elementary idea excluding structure.
  • Vitamins - Classification and functions.
  • Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA.

Unit XV: Polymers

Classification - natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation), copolymerization, some important polymers: natural and synthetic like polythene, nylon polyesters, bakelite, rubber. Biodegradable and non-biodegradable polymers.

Unit XVI: Chemistry in Everyday life

  • Chemicals in medicines - analgesics, tranquilizers antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines. 
  • Chemicals in food - preservatives, artificial sweetening agents, elementary idea of antioxidants.
  • Cleansing agents - soaps and detergents, cleansing action.
Download your CBSE 12th Class Chemistry Syllabus.


Economics is a general subject for the Commerce Group students. Here the course structure is mentioned below.

Course structure of CBSE 12th Economics

The course structure of CBSE 12th Economics is mentioned below.
Units       Marks
Part A: Introductory Microeconomics  -
Introduction 6
Consumer Equilibrium and Demand 16
Producer Behaviour and Supply 16
Forms of Market and Price Determination 12
Part B: Introductory Macroeconomics  -
National Income and Related Aggregates 15
Money and Banking 8
Determination of Income and Employment 12
Government Budget and the Economy 8
Balance of Payments 7
Total 100

CBSE Class 12th Syllabus for Economics

Part A: Introductory Microeconomics
Unit 1: Introduction
Meaning of microeconomics and macroeconomics
What is an economy? Central problems of an economy: what, how and for whom to produce; concepts of production possibility frontier and opportunity cost.
Unit 2: Consumer Equilibrium and Demand
  • Consumer's equilibrium – meaning of utility, marginal utility, the law of diminishing marginal utility, conditions of consumer's equilibrium using marginal utility analysis.
  • Indifference curve analysis of consumer's equilibrium-the consumer's budget (budget set and budget line), preferences of the consumer (indifference curve, indifference map) and conditions of consumer's equilibrium.
  • Demand, market demand, determinants of demand, demand schedule, demand curve and its slope, movement along and shifts in the demand curve; price elasticity of demand - factors affecting price elasticity of demand; measurement of price elasticity of demand – (a) percentage-change method and (b) geometric method (linear demand curve); relationship between price elasticity of demand and total expenditure.
Unit 3: Producer Behaviour and Supply
  • Production function - Short-Run and Long-Run
  • Total Product, Average Product, and Marginal Product.
  • Returns to a Factor.
  • Cost and Revenue: Short run costs - total cost, total fixed cost, total variable cost; Average cost; Average fixed cost, average variable cost and marginal cost-meaning and their relationship.
  • Revenue - total, average and marginal revenue - meaning and their relationship.
  • Producer's equilibrium-meaning and its conditions in terms of marginal revenue-marginal cost.

Unit 4: Forms of Market and Price Determination

  • Perfect competition - Features; Determination of market equilibrium and effects of shifts in demand and supply.
  • Other Market Forms - monopoly, monopolistic competition, oligopoly - their meaning and features.
  • Simple Applications of Demand and Supply: Price ceiling, price floor.

Part B: Introductory Macroeconomics

Unit 5: National Income and related aggregates

  • Some basic concepts: consumption goods, capital goods, final goods, intermediate goods; stocks and flows; gross investment and depreciation.
  • The circular flow of income; Methods of calculating National Income – Value Added or Product method, Expenditure method, Income method.
  • Aggregates related to National Income: Gross National Product (GNP), Net National Product (NNP), Gross and Net Domestic Product (GDP and NDP) - at market price, at factor cost; National Disposable Income (gross and net), Private Income, Personal Income and Personal Disposable Income; Real and Nominal GDP.
  • GDP and Welfare.

Unit 6: Money and Banking

  • Money - its meaning and functions.
  • Supply of money - Currency held by the public and net demand deposits held by commercial banks.
  • Money creation by the commercial banking system.
  • The Central bank and its functions ( an example of the Reserve Bank of India): Bank of the issue, Govt. Bank, Banker's Bank, Controller of Credit through Bank Rate, CRR, SLR, Repo Rate and Reverse Repo Rate, Open Market Operations, Margin requirement.

Unit 7: Determination of Income and Employment

  • Aggregate demand and its components. The propensity to consume and propensity to save (average and marginal).
  • Short–run equilibrium output; investment multiplier and its mechanism. 
  • Meaning of full employment and involuntary unemployment.
  • Problems of excess demand and deficient demand; measures to correct them - change in government spending, taxes and money supply.

Unit 8: Government Budget and the Economy

  • Government budget - meaning, objectives, and components.
  • Classification of receipts - revenue receipts and capital receipts; classification of expenditure - revenue expenditure and capital expenditure.
  • Measures of government deficit - revenue deficit, fiscal deficit, primary deficit their meaning.
Unit 9: Balance of Payments
  • The balance of payments account - meaning and components; the balance of payments deficit-meaning. 
  • Foreign exchange rate - the meaning of fixed and flexible rates and managed to float.
  • Determination of exchange rate in a free market.
Download your CBSE 12th Class Economics Syllabus.

Engineering Graphics

 The Engineering Graphics mainly related to the diagram related topics and also with the practical. The course structure is mentioned below.

Course Structure of Engineering Graphics

The course structure of Engineering Graphics are mentioned below

Unit Topic / Chapter Marks
I Isometric Projections of Solids 25
II Machine Drawing 45
  A. Drawing of Machine parts -
  B. Assemble Drawing and Dis-assembly drawings -
  Practical 30
  Total 70

Unit I: Isometric Projection of Solids
  • (i) Construction of isometric scale showing main divisions of 10 mm and smaller divisions of 1 mm, also showing the leading angles. Drawing helping views such as triangles, pentagon, hexagon, etc., using an isometric scale.
  • (ii) Isometric projections (drawn to isometric scale) of solids such as cube, regular prism and pyramids (triangular, square, pentagonal and hexagonal), cone, cylinder, sphere, hemisphere, frustum of right regular pyramids (triangular, square, pentagonal, hexagonal) and cone, when they are cut by a plane parallel to the base. The axis and the base side of the solid should be either perpendicular to HP / VP or parallel to HP and VP. (Indicate the direction of viewing)
  • (iii) Combination of two solids (except "frustum" of Pyramids and Cone) Keeping the base side parallel or perpendicular to HP/VP and placed centrally together, axis of both the solids should not be given parallel to HP.
(1) Question on frustum will be asked in the vertical position only. 
(2) Hidden lines are not required in isometric projection.

Unit II: Machine Drawing
A. Drawing of machine parts
(i) Drawing to full-size scale with instruments.
(Internal choice will be given between any two of the following).
Introduction of threads: Standard profiles of screw threads square, knuckle, B.S.W., Metric (external and internal). Bolts (Square, Hexagonal, Tee, and Hook); Nuts: (Square and Hexagonal), Plain washer, a combination of nut and bolt with or without a washer for assembling two parts together, Single riveted lap joint with standard dimensions.
(ii) Freehand sketches 
(Internal choice will be given between any two of the following).
Conventional representation of external and internal threads; studs (plain, square-neck, and collar), screws (round-head, cheesehead, 900 flat countersunk-head, hexagonal socket head and grub-screw). Types of rivets:- snap head, pan head-without tapered neck, flat head and 600 countersunk flat head. Types of sunk-keys (rectangular taper, Woodruff and double-head feather key with gib head on both ends).

B. Assembly drawings and Dis-Assembly drawings
(Internal choice will be given between an Assembly drawing and a Dis-Assembly drawing).
1. In all Assembly drawings, the half sectional front view will be asked. Side/End view or Top View/Plan will be drawn without section.
2. In all the Dis-assembly drawings, only two orthographic views (one of the two views may be half in section or full in section) of any two parts.
3. (a) In all sectional views, hidden lines/edges are not to be shown. (b) In all full views, hidden /edges are to be shown.
1. Bearings
  • (i) Open-Bearing
  • (ii) Bushed-Bearing
2. Rod-Joints
  • (i) Cotter-joints for circular-rods (socket and spigot joint)
  • (ii) Cotter-joints for round-rods (sleeve and cotter joint)
  • (iii) Cotter-joints for square rods (Gib and cotter-joint)
3. Tie-rod and Pipe-joint
  • (i) Turnbuckle
  • (ii) Flange pipe joint
4. Couplings
  • (i) Unprotected Flange Coupling (having socket and spigot arrangement)
  • (ii) Protected Flange Coupling

Download your CBSE 12th Class Engineering Graphics Syllabus.


The English language which plays a very important role in language papers recently.The course structure of English Core is mentioned below.

Course structure of English Core 

The Course structure of English core is given below as

Section Unit/Area of Learning Marks
A Reading Comprehension 30
B Writing Skills 30
C Literature & Long Reading Text 40
  (i) Flamingo + Value Based -
  (ii) Supplementary Reader - Vistas

Section A: Reading Unseen Passages and Note-making
  • Two unseen passages with a variety of very short answer / short answer or MCQ type questions to test comprehension, interpretation, and inference. Vocabulary such as word formation and inference of meaning will also be tested.
  • The total length of the two passages will be between 1100 and 1200 words.
The passage will include two of the following:
  • a. Factual passages, e.g., instructions, descriptions, reports.
  • b. Descriptive passages involving opinion, e.g., argumentative, persuasive or interpretative text. 
  • c. Literary passages, e.g., extract from fiction, drama, poetry, essay or biography. A poem could be of 28-35 lines. 
  • The passages can be literary, factual or discursive to test comprehension. The length of one passage should be between 600-700 words.
  • The third passage of 400-500 words for note-making and abstraction.
Section B: Writing Skills
  • Short Answer Questions, e.g., advertisement and notices, designing or drafting posters, writing formal and informal invitations and replies.
  • Long Answer Questions: Letters based on the verbal/visual input.
  • Letter types include
  • Business or official letters (for making inquiries, registering complaints, asking for and giving information, placing orders and sending replies) 
  • Letters to the editor (giving suggestions or opinion on issues of public interest.
Section C: Literature and Long Reading Text
  • Application for a job 
  • Very Long Answer Questions: Two compositions based on visual and/or verbal Input may be descriptive or argumentative in nature such as an article, a debate or a speech.
  • Flamingo and Vistas
  • Very Short Answer Questions - Based on an extract from poetry to test comprehension and appreciation.
  • Short Answer Questions - Based on prose/drama/poetry from both the texts. 
  • Long Answer Question - Based on texts to test global comprehension and extrapolation beyond the texts to bring out the key messages and values.
  • Long Answer Question - Based on texts to test global comprehension along with analysis and extrapolation. 
  • Long Answer Question - Based on the theme, plot, and incidents from the prescribed novels. 
  • Long Answer Question - Based on understanding appreciation, analysis and interpretation of the character sketch.
  • Prescribed Books
  • Flamingo: English Reader published by NCERT
  • Vistas: Supplementary Reader published by NCERT.

Course structure of English Elective

The course structure of English Elective is mentioned as

Section Unit Marks
A Reading Skills 20
B Writing Skills and Grammar 40
C Literary Texts & Long Reading 40
  Total 100

Section A: Reading Skills

Very short answer / Short answer and MCQ type questions:

Two unseen passages (including poems) with a variety of questions including 04 marks for vocabulary such as word formation and inferring meaning. The total range of the two passages including a poem or a stanza should be around 1000-1100 words to assess comprehension, analysis, inference, evaluation and literary appreciation.

  1. 550-600 words in length (for note-making and summarising)

  2. 450-500 words in length (to test comprehension)

The passage could be of any one of the following types:

  • Factual passages, e.g., illustrations, description, reports

  • Discursive passages involving opinion, e.g., argumentative, persuasive

  • Literary passages, e.g., poems, extracts from fiction, biography, autobiography, travelogue, etc. In the case of a poem, the text may be shorter than the prescribed word limit.

Section B: Writing Skills and Grammar

Short Answer Question: Notices, advertisements, factual description of people, places and objects, drafting posters, drafting, accepting and declining invitations.

Long Answer Question: Letter of any of the following types based on a verbal or visual input:  

  • a) Official letters for making inquiries, suggesting changes - registering and responding to complaints, asking for and giving information, placing orders and sending replies.

  • b) Letters to the editor on various social, national and international issues.

  • c) Application for a job including CV (Curriculum Vitae) / Resumé.

Very Long Answer Question: Sustained writing task such as writing a speech, an article for a magazine or a report based on the verbal/visual input.


A variety of questions, as listed below may be asked, involving the application of grammar items in context (i.e., not in isolated sentences). The grammar syllabus will be sampled each year. Though only models, determiners, voice and tense forms have been dealt with in class XI, however, other grammar items such as prepositions, verb forms, connectors which have been learned earlier would also be included.

Very Short Questions and Multiple Choice Questions

  • Reordering of words and sentences

  • Composing a dialogue based on a given input

  • Error correction in sentences

  • Drafting questions/questionnaires based on given input

Section C: Literature: Prescribed Books and Long Reading Text (Novel)

  • Questions to test comprehension at different levels and of different kinds - local, global, interpretative, inferential, evaluative and extrapolation.
  • Very Short and Short Answer Questions: Two based on out of three extracts from different poems to test theme, setting and literary devices.
  • Short Answer Questions: Based on different prose/drama/poetry/pieces from the Literature Reader; to test local and global comprehension of ideas and languages used in the text.
  • Long Answer Question: Extended questions based on one of the prose texts or play in the Literature Reader to test global comprehension and for extrapolation beyond the text.
  • Long Answer Questions: To test understanding, appreciation, analysis, inference in a plot and writing a character sketch.

Note: Values based questions for 4 marks may be asked in Sections - B or C

Prescribed Books

1. Language Skills book - Class XII English Elective CBSE published by Central Board of Secondary Education, Delhi.

2. Literature Reader - Class XII English Elective CBSE published by Central Board of Secondary Education, Delhi.

3. Novel (either one)

  • i) The Invisible Man (Unabridged) by H.G. Wells
  • ii) Silas Marner (Unabridged) by George Eliot.
Download your CBSE 12th Class English Syllabus.


Geography subject mainly deals with countries and their capitals and also a deatiled study about the regions.The course structure of 
Geography is mentioned below.

Course Structure of Geography

The course structure of Geography is below

A Fundamentals of Human Geography 35
Unit 1 Human Geography -
Unit 2 People -
Unit 3 Human Activities -
Unit 4 Transport, Communication, and Trade -
Unit 5 Human settlements -
  Map Work 5
B India: People and Economy 35
Unit 6 People -
Unit 7 Human Settlements -
Unit 8 Resources and Development -
Unit 9 Transport, Communication, and International Trade -
Unit 10 Geographical Perspective on selected issues and problems -
  Map Work 5
C Practical Work 30
Unit 1 Processing of Data and Thematic Mapping 15
Unit 2 Field study or Spatial Information Technology 10
Unit 3 Practical Record Book and Viva Voce 5

A. Fundamentals of Human Geography
Unit 1: Human Geography: Nature and Scope
Unit 2: People 
Population-distribution,density and growth
Population change-spatial patterns and structure; determinants of population change;
Age-sex ratio; rural-urban composition; 
Human development - concept; selected indicators, international comparisons
Unit 3: Human Activities 
Primary activities - concept and changing trends; gathering, pastoral, mining, subsistence agriculture, modern agriculture; people engaged in agricultural and allied activities - some examples from selected countries.
Secondary activities-concept; manufacturing: types - household, small scale, large scale; agro-based and mineral based industries; people engaged in secondary activities - some examples from selected countries.
Tertiary activities-concept; trade, transport, and tourism; services; people engaged in tertiary activities - some examples from selected countries.
Quaternary activities - concept; people engaged in quaternary activities - a case study from selected countries.
Unit 4: Transport, Communication & Trade 
Land transport - roads, railways; trans-continental railways.
Water transport - inland waterways; major ocean routes.
Air transport - Intercontinental air routes.
Oil and gas pipelines.
Satellite communication and cyberspace- Importance and usage for geographical information; use of GPS.
International trade-Bases and changing patterns; ports as gateways of international trade, the role of WTO in International trade.
Ocean: National rights and international treaties.
Unit 5: Human settlements 
Settlement types - rural and urban; morphology of cities (case study); distribution of megacities; problems of human settlements in developing countries.
Map Work
Map Work on the identification of features based on 1-5 units on the outline/Physical/Political Map of World.
B. India: People and Economy
Unit 6: People 
Population: distribution, density, and growth; composition of the population - linguistic, religious; sex, rural-urban and occupational-regional variations in the growth of population.
Migration: international, national-causes and consequences.
Human development: selected indicators and regional patterns.
Population, environment, and development.
Unit 7: Human Settlements 
Rural settlements - types and distribution.
Urban settlements - types, distribution and functional classification.
Unit 8: Resources and Development 
Land resources - general land use; agricultural land use, Geographical conditions and distribution of major crops (Wheat, Rice, Tea, Coffee, Cotton, Jute, Sugarcane, and Rubber), agricultural development and problems.
Water resources - availability and utilization-irrigation, domestic, industrial and other uses; scarcity of water and conservation methods -rain water harvesting and watershed management.
Mineral and energy resources - distribution of metallic (Iron ore, Copper, Bauxite, Manganese); non-metallic (Mica, Salt) minerals; conventional (Coal, Petroleum, Natural gas and Hydroelectricity) and non-conventional energy sources (solar, the wind, biogas) and conservation.
Industries - types, factors of industrial location; distribution and changing pattern of selected industries-iron and steel, cotton textiles, sugar, petrochemicals, and knowledge based industries; the impact of liberalization, privatization, and globalization on industrial location; industrial clusters.
Planning in India - target group area planning (case study); the idea of sustainable development (case study).
Unit 9: Transport, Communication, and International Trade 
Transport and communication-roads, railways, waterways, and airways: oil and gas pipelines; Geographical information and communication networks.
International trade - changing pattern of India's foreign trade; seaports and their hinterland and airports.
Unit 10: Geographical Perspective on selected issues and problems 
Environmental pollution; urban - waste disposal.
Urbanisation, rural-urban migration; problems of slums.
Land degradation.
Map Work
Map work on locating and labeling of features based on above units on an outline map of India.
C. Practical Work
Unit 1: Processing of Data and Thematic Mapping 
Unit 2: Field study or Spatial Information Technology.

Download your CBSE 12th Class Geography Syllabus 


History subject mainly deals with Historic events and movements and it is a vocational subject.The course structure of History is given below.

Course Structure of History

The course structure of History is mentioned below

Units Topic Marks
Units 1 - 4 Themes in Indian History Part - I 25
Units 5 - 9 Themes in Indian History Part - II 25
Units 10 - 15 Themes in Indian History Part - III 25
Unit 16 Map Work 5
  Project work 20
  Total 100v

Syllabus of CBSE 12th History

The syllabus of CBSE 12th History is prescribed below.

Themes in Indian History Part-I

  • 1. The Story of the First Cities: Harappan Archaeology

  • 2. Political and Economic History: How Inscriptions tell a story

  • 3. Social Histories: Using the Mahabharata

  • 4. A History of Buddhism: Sanchi Stupa

Themes in Indian History Part-II

  • 5. Agrarian Relations: The Ain-i- Akbari

  • 6. The Mughal Court: Reconstructing Histories through Chronicles

  • 7. New Architecture: Hampi

  • 8. Religious Histories: The Bhakti-Sufi tradition

  • 9. Medieval Society Through Travellers' Accounts

Themes in Indian History Part-III

  • 10. Colonialism and-Rural Society: Evidence from Official Reports

  • 11. Representations of 1857

  • 12. Colonialism and Indian Towns: Town Plans and Municipal Reports

  • 13. Mahatma Gandhi through Contemporary ‰Eyes

  • 14. Partition through Oral Sources

  • 15. The Making of the Constitution

Unit 16: Map Work

Download your CBSE 12th Class History Syllabus.

Home Science

Home Science subject deals with the is the science of a home and it includes all the things that concern the person, home, family members, and resources. It is the education for "better living" and the core of this education is the family ecosystem.

Course Structure of Home Science

The course structure of Home Science is prescribed below

Unit Chapter Marks
I Human Development: Lifespan Approach (Part II) 30
II Nutrition for Self, Family, and Community
III Money Management and Consumer Education 35
IV Apparel: Designing, Selection, and Case
V Community Development and Extension (Part II) 5
VI Career Option after Home Science Education
  Practical 30
  Total 70

Unit I: Human Development: Lifespan Approach (Part II)
A. Adolescence (12 - 18 years)
(i) Growth & Development - Domains and principles.
(ii) Meaning, characteristics, and needs.
(iii) Influences on identity formation
(a) Biological and Physical changes-early and late mature. (Role of heredity and environment)
(b) Social, culture and media.
(c) Emotional changes.
(d) Cognitive changes.
(iv) Specific issues and concerns
(a) Eating disorders-Causes, consequences, and management - Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia.
(b) Depression
(c) Substance Abuse
(d) Related to sex
(e) Handling stress and peer pressure.

B. Adulthood:
(i) Young & middle adulthood: Understanding and management of new responsibilities, carrier marriage, and family.
(ii) Late Adulthood/Old age:
(a) Health and Wellness: physical, social, emotional, financial, recreational needs
(b) Care for elderly (at home and outside - old age home)
(c) Anger management

Unit II: Nutrition for Self, Family and Community

(a) Meal Planning: Meaning and importance, principles and factors affecting meal planning; Nutritional needs, food preferences and modifications of diets in different age groups: infants, children, adolescents, adults, elderly and in special conditions: pregnancy and lactation (including traditional foods given in these conditions)

  • (i) Use of basic food groups (ICMR) and serving size in meal planning
  • (ii) Factors influencing selection of food: culture, family food practices, media, peer group, availability of foods, purchasing power, individual preference & health.
  • (b) Food safety and quality:
  • (i) Safe food handling (personal, storage, kitchen, cooking and serving).
  • (ii) Safety guards against food adulteration, definition and meaning of food adulteration as given by FSSAI (Food Safety and Standard Authority of India).
  • (iii) Common adulterants present in cereals, pulses, milk and milk products, fats and oils, sugar, jaggery, honey, spices and condiments.
  • (iv) Effects of some of the adulterants present in the foods: kesari dal, metanil yellow, argemone seeds.
  • (v) Food standards (FPO, Agmark, ISI).
  • (c) Therapeutic modification of normal diet with respect to consistency, frequency, foodstuffs, nutrients and methods of cooking.
  • (d) Modification of diet according to common ailments: diarrhoea, fever, jaundice, hypertension, diabetes and constipation. Physiological changes, clinical symptoms, requirements and dietary requirements in each condition.

Unit III: Money Management and Consumer Education
(a) Family Income:

  • (i) Various sources of family income:
  • money income
  • real income, (direct and indirect)
  • psychic income
  • (ii) Supplementing family income-need and ways; need and procedure for maintaining household accounts (daily, weekly and monthly).

(b) Savings and Investment:

  • (i) Meaning and importance of savings.
  • (ii) The basis for selection of investment methods: risk, security, profit, tax saving.
  • (iii) Ways/methods of investment -
  • Bank schemes (saving, fixed, recurring);
  • Post Office schemes (savings, recurring deposit, monthly income scheme, National saving certificate, Senior citizen scheme); 
  • Insurance schemes (whole life, mediclaim);
  • Public Provident Fund (PPF), Provident Fund (PF). 
  • (iv) Consumer Protection and Education: Meaning, problems faced by the consumer, Consumer Protection Amendment Act (2011); Consumer aids: labels, standardization marks, (ECO Mark, Hallmark, Woolmark, Silk mark), advertising, leaflets, and Consumer redressal forum, Internet. 

Unit IV: Apparel: Designing, Selection, and Care

  • (i) Application of elements of art and principles of design in designing apparel.
  • (ii) Selection and purchase of fabrics- purpose, cost, season, quality, durability, ease of maintenance and comfort.
  • (iii) Selection of apparel- factors influencing the selection of apparel- age, size, climate, occupation, figure, occasion, fashion, drape cost and workmanship.
  • (iv) Care and maintenance of clothes: Cleansing agents: soaps and detergents (basic differences and their utility); General principles of stain removal, stain removal of tea, coffee, lipstick, ball pen, Grease, Curry and Blood.
  • (v) Storage of clothes.

Unit V: Community Development and Extension (Part II)

  • (i) Water safety: Safe drinking water-importance of potable water for good health, and its qualities, simple methods of making water safe for drinking; boiling, filtering (traditional and modern technology), use of alum, chlorine.
  • (ii) Salient features of income generating schemes
  • DWCRA (Development of Women and Children in Rural Area)
  • MGNREGA (Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, 2005)

Unit VI: Career Options after Home Science Education
Career options for self and wage employment of various fields of Home Science.

Download your CBSE 12th class Home Science Syllabus


Mathematics subject deals with the problems and important topics which are common to all the groups. The course structure of Mathematics is prescribed below.

Course Structure of Mathematics 

The course structure of Mathematics is prescribed below.

Unit Topic Marks
I. Relations and Functions 10
II. Algebra 13
III. Calculus 44
IV. Vectors and 3D Geometry 17
V. Linear Programming 6
VI. Probability 10
  Total 100

Syllabus of CBSE 12th Class Mathematics

Unit I: Relations and Functions
1. Relations and Functions
Types of relations: reflexive, symmetric, transitive and equivalence relations. One to one and onto functions, composite functions, the inverse of a function. Binary operations.
2. Inverse Trigonometric Functions
Definition, range, domain, principal value branch. Graphs of inverse trigonometric functions. Elementary properties of inverse trigonometric functions.
Unit II: Algebra
1. Matrices
The concept, notation, order, equality, types of matrices, zero and identity matrix, the transpose of a matrix, symmetric and skew-symmetric matrices. Operation on matrices: Addition and multiplication and multiplication with a scalar. Simple properties of addition, multiplication, and scalar multiplication. Non Commutativity of multiplication of matrices and existence of non-zero matrices whose product is the zero matrix (restrict to square matrices of order 2).The concept of elementary row and column operations. Invertible matrices and proof of the uniqueness of inverse, if it exists; (Here all matrices will have real entries).
2. Determinants
The determinant of a square matrix (up to 3 x 3 matrices), properties of determinants, minors, cofactors and applications of determinants in finding the area of a triangle. Adjoint and inverse of a square matrix. Consistency, inconsistency, and a number of solutions of a system of linear equations by examples, solving system of linear equations in two or three variables (having a unique solution) using the inverse of a matrix.
Unit III: Calculus
1. Continuity and Differentiability
Continuity and differentiability, a derivative of composite functions, chain rule, derivatives of inverse trigonometric functions, derivative of implicit functions. The concept of exponential and logarithmic functions.
Derivatives of logarithmic and exponential functions. Logarithmic differentiation, derivative of functions expressed in parametric forms. Second order derivatives. Rolle's and Lagrange's Mean Value Theorems (without proof) and their geometric interpretation.
2. Applications of Derivatives
Applications of derivatives: the rate of change of bodies, increasing/decreasing functions, tangents, and normals, use of derivatives in approximation, maxima, and minima (first derivative test motivated geometrically and second derivative test given as a provable tool). Simple problems (that illustrate basic principles and understanding of the subject as well as real-life situations).
3. Integrals
Integration as an inverse process of differentiation.Integration of a variety of functions by substitution, by partial fractions and by parts, Evaluation of simple integrals of the following types and problems based on them.
4. Applications of the Integrals

Applications in finding the area under simple curves, especially lines, circles/parabolas/ellipses (in standard form only), Area between any of the two above said curves (the region should be clearly identifiable).
5. Differential Equations
Definition, order, and degree, general and particular solutions of a differential equation.Formation of the differential equation whose general solution is given.A solution of differential equations by the method of separation of variables solutions of homogeneous differential equations of first order and first degree. Solutions of the linear differential equation of the type:
dy/dx + py = q, where p and q are functions of x or constants.
dx/dy + px = q, where p and q are functions of y or constants.
Unit IV: Vectors and Three-Dimensional Geometry
1. Vectors
Vectors and scalars, magnitude and direction of a vector.Direction cosines and direction ratios of a vector. Types of vectors (equal, unit, zero, parallel and collinear vectors), position vector of a point, negative of a vector, components of a vector, the addition of vectors, multiplication of a vector by a scalar, position vector of a point dividing a line segment in a given ratio. Definition, Geometrical Interpretation, properties, and application of the scalar (dot) product of vectors, vector (cross) product of vectors, a scalar triple product of vectors.
2. Three-Dimensional Geometry
Direction cosines and direction ratios of a line joining two points.Cartesian equation and vector equation of a line, coplanar and skew lines, the shortest distance between two lines.Cartesian and vector equation of a plane.The angle between (i) two lines, (ii) two planes, (iii) a line and a plane.The distance of a point from a plane.
Unit V: Linear Programming
1. Linear Programming
Introduction, related terminology such as constraints, objective function, optimization, different types of linear programming (L.P.) problems, mathematical formulation of L.P. problems, graphical method of solution for problems in two variables, feasible and infeasible regions (bounded and unbounded), feasible and infeasible solutions, optimal feasible solutions (up to three non-trivial constraints).
Unit VI: Probability
1. Probability
Conditional probability, multiplication theorem on probability. independent events, total probability, Bayes theorem, Random variable and its probability distribution, mean and variance of a random variable. Repeated independent (Bernoulli) trials and Binomial distribution.

Download your CBSE 12th Class Mathematics Syllabus

Syllabus of CBSE 12th class for Physics

The syllabus of CBSE 12th Class for physics are mentioned below
Section A : Very Short Answers
Section B: Short Answers
Section C: Very Big Questions
Section D: Large Answers

Download your CBSE 12th Class Physics Syllabus.

Syllabus of CBSE 12th Class for Political Science

The syllabus of CBSE 12th Class for Political Science are mentioned below
Section A : Very Short Answer
Section B : Short Answer
Section C: Long Answers
Section D : Map-Based Questions 

Download your CBSE 12th Class Political Science Syllabus.

Syllabus of CBSE 12th Class for Psychology 

The syllabus of CBSE 12th class for Psychology are mentioned below
Section A : Learning Outcomes and Testing Techniques
Section B : Very Short Answer 
Section C : Short Answer
Section D : Long Answer

Download your CBSE 12th Class Psychology Syllabus.

Syllabus of CBSE 12th Class for Sociology 

The syllabus of CBSE 12th class for Sociology are mentioned below
Section A : Learning Outcomes and Testing Techniques
Section B : Very Short Answer 
Section C : Short Answer
Section D : Long Answer

Download your CBSE 12th class for Sociology

Syllabus of CBSE 12th Class for Language Subjects

The syllabus of CBSE 12th Class for Language Subjects namely Assamese, Bengali, Bodo, Gujarati, Kannada, Marathi, Malayalam, Manipuri , Odia,Punjabi,Tamil etc are mentioned below.
Section A : Learning Outcomes and Testing Techniques
Section B : Very Short Answer 
Section C : Short Answer
Section D : Long Answer

Download your CBSE 12th class for Language /Volume II Subjects.

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